List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C.

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The District of Columbia, capital of the United States, is home to 74 National Historic Landmarks. The National Historic Landmark program is operated under the auspices of the National Park Service, and recognizes structures, districts, objects, and similar resources according to a list of criteria of national significance.[1] The city's landmarks reflect its status as the national capital, including grand government buildings, homes of politicians, military facilities, and museums. The list also includes sites relating to support for the disabled, the Civil Rights Movement, pioneering urban infrastructure, and other historic themes.

Current NHLs[edit]

[2] Landmark name[3] Image Date designated[3] Quadrant[4][5] Description[6]
1 Cleveland Abbe House Cleveland-abbe-house.JPG May 15, 1975 NW38°54′05″N 77°02′46″W / 38.901444°N 77.046167°W / 38.901444; -77.046167 (Cleveland Abbe House) Cleveland Abbe, a prominent meteorologist who became known as the father of the National Weather Service, lived in this house from 1877 to 1909. Previous occupants in the early decades of the 19th century included James Monroe and the British legation. Built ca. 1802 to 1805, this is a fine example of the Federal style of residential architecture.
2 Administration Building, Carnegie Institution of Washington Administration Building - Carnegie Institution of Washington.JPG June 23, 1965 NW 38°54′39″N 77°02′07″W / 38.910838°N 77.035167°W / 38.910838; -77.035167 (Carnegie Institution)
3 American Federation of Labor Building American Federation of Labor Building.JPG May 30, 1974 NW 38°54′12″N 77°01′28″W / 38.903333°N 77.024444°W / 38.903333; -77.024444 (American Federation of Labor Building)
4 American Peace Society American Peace Society House - Lafayette Square.JPG May 30, 1974 NW38°53′58″N 77°02′19″W / 38.899444°N 77.038611°W / 38.899444; -77.038611 (American Federation of Labor Building) Headquarters of the American Peace Society from 1911 to 1948, in LaFayette Square Historic District
5 Anderson House Exterior photograph of the Anderson House. June 19, 1996 NW 38°54′39″N 77°02′53″W / 38.91075°N 77.047944°W / 38.91075; -77.047944 (Anderson House)
6 Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Frederick Douglas Memorial Hall, Founders Library, Howard University Photograph of Founders Library at Howard University against a clear, sunny sky. January 3, 2001 NW 38°55′23″N 77°01′15″W / 38.923109°N 77.020726°W / 38.923109; -77.020726 (Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Frederick Douglas Memorial Hall, Founders Library) Three Howard University buildings: Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Frederick Douglass Memorial Hall, and Founders Library
7 Arts and Industries Building, Smithsonian Institution Photograph of an entrance to the Smithsonian Institution's Arts and Industries Building. November 11, 1971 SW 38°53′13″N 77°01′29″W / 38.886944°N 77.024722°W / 38.886944; -77.024722 (Arts and Industries Building, Smithsonian Institution)
8 Ashburton House St. John's Church DC 2nd building.JPG November 7, 1973 NW38°54′01″N 77°02′09″W / 38.900278°N 77.035833°W / 38.900278; -77.035833 (Ashburton House) House on Lafayette Square that was site of 10 months of U.S.-British negotiations leading to the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. This settled U.S.-Canada border disputes and ended the Aroostook War.
9 Newton D. Baker House Newton D. Baker House.JPG December 8, 1976 NW38°54′25″N 77°03′37″W / 38.906944°N 77.060278°W / 38.906944; -77.060278 (Newton D. Baker House)
10 Blair House Photograph of Blair House on a sunny autumn day. October 26, 1973 NW38°53′56″N 77°02′19″W / 38.898889°N 77.038611°W / 38.898889; -77.038611 (Blair House)
11 William E. Borah Apartment, Windsor Lodge William Borah Apartments.JPG December 8, 1976 NW38°55′03″N 77°02′57″W / 38.9175°N 77.049167°W / 38.9175; -77.049167 (William E. Borah Apartment, Windsor Lodge) The home of William E. Borah, a United States Senator from Idaho and a noted isolationist.
12 Blanche K. Bruce House Blanche K. Bruce House.JPG May 15, 1975 NW38°54′21″N 77°01′29″W / 38.905833°N 77.024722°W / 38.905833; -77.024722 (Blanche K. Bruce House) A home of Blanche K. Bruce, who was an African American Senator from Mississippi.
13 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Carnegie Endowment for International Peace - former headquarters.JPG May 30, 1974 NW38°53′56″N 77°02′19″W / 38.898889°N 77.038611°W / 38.898889; -77.038611 (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace)
14 Mary Ann Shadd Cary House Mary Ann Shadd Cary House.JPG December 8, 1976 NW38°55′10″N 77°02′08″W / 38.919444°N 77.035556°W / 38.919444; -77.035556 (Mary Ann Shadd Cary House) A home of writer and abolitionist Mary Ann Shadd Cary
15 City Hall / D.C. Courthouse D.C. Court of Appeals.JPG December 19, 1960 NW38°53′43″N 77°01′04″W / 38.895278°N 77.017778°W / 38.895278; -77.017778 (District of Columbia City Hall) Also known as the Old Courthouse, it was renovated and rededicated on June 17, 2009 as the District of Columbia Court of Appeals
16 Congressional Cemetery Congressional Cemetery - Washington, D.C..jpg June 14, 2011 Anacostia38°52′52″N 76°58′38″W / 38.881111°N 76.977222°W / 38.881111; -76.977222 (Congressional Cemetery) Burial place of early city residents and many members of Congress who died in office.
17 Constitution Hall DAR Constitution Hall.JPG September 16, 1985 NW38°53′38″N 77°02′24″W / 38.894°N 77.04°W / 38.894; -77.04 (Constitution Hall)
18 Corcoran Gallery and Corcoran School Of Art Corcoran Gallery and School of Art.JPG April 27, 1992 NW38°53′45″N 77°02′24″W / 38.89578°N 77.039899°W / 38.89578; -77.039899 (Corcoran Gallery and School Of Art)
19 Elliott Coues House Elliott Coues House.JPG May 15, 1975 NW38°54′25″N 77°02′24″W / 38.906944°N 77.04°W / 38.906944; -77.04 (Elliott Coues House) Elliott Coues, a leading 19th century ornithologist, led great expansions of the knowledge of North American bird life, helped found the American Ornithologists' Union in 1883, edited approximately 15 volumes of journals, memoirs, and diaries by famous Western explorers and fur traders. He lived in this house from 1887 until his death in 1899.
20 Decatur House Decatur House DC.JPG December 19, 1960 NW38°53′59″N 77°02′20″W / 38.899706°N 77.038897°W / 38.899706; -77.038897 (Decatur House) Federal Style house designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe for naval hero Stephen Decatur across Lafayette Square from the White House. During 1827-1833 was home to successive Secretaries of State Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren, and Judah P. Benjamin.
21 Franklin School Franklin School.JPG June 19, 1996 NW38°54′08″N 77°01′47″W / 38.902222°N 77.029722°W / 38.902222; -77.029722 (Franklin School) A nineteenth-century school, site of Alexander Graham Bell's experiments with the photophone.
22 Gallaudet College Historic District Chapel Hall. December 21, 1965 NE38°54′26″N 76°59′35″W / 38.907222°N 76.993056°W / 38.907222; -76.993056 (Gallaudet College) The world's first college for the education of the deaf and hard of hearing.
23 General Federation of Women's Clubs Headquarters General Federation of Women's Clubs headquarters.JPG December 4, 1991 NW38°54′25″N 77°02′25″W / 38.906944°N 77.040278°W / 38.906944; -77.040278 (General Federation of Women's Clubs Headquarters)
24 General Post Office Hotel Monaco.JPG November 11, 1971 NW38°53′48″N 77°01′22″W / 38.896667°N 77.022778°W / 38.896667; -77.022778 (General Post Office) This post office is a fine example of restrained Neoclassical design. Built in phases between 1839 and 1866, the building features beautiful scaling and fine details.
25 Georgetown Historic District Photograph of the M Street and Wisconsin Avenue intersection in Georgetown. May 28, 1967 NW38°54′34″N 77°03′54″W / 38.909444°N 77.065°W / 38.909444; -77.065 (Georgetown Historic District)[7]
26 Samuel Gompers House Samuel-gompers-house.JPG May 30, 1974 NW38°55′02″N 77°00′46″W / 38.917222°N 77.012778°W / 38.917222; -77.012778 (Samuel Gompers House) Samuel Gompers was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 until his death in 1924. Gompers helped found the AFL, and vigorously pursued its three goals of higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions for American workers. He lived in this three-story brick rowhouse from 1902 to 1917.
27 Charlotte Forten Grimke House Charlotte Forten Grimke house.JPG May 11, 1976 NW38°54′45″N 77°02′13″W / 38.9125°N 77.036944°W / 38.9125; -77.036944 (Charlotte Forten Grimke House) A home of Charlotte Forten Grimke, a prominent Abolitionist and educator.
28 Healy Hall, Georgetown University Photograph of Healy Hall during a sunset, its central tower rising against a pink sky. December 23, 1987 NW38°54′26″N 77°04′23″W / 38.907242°N 77.072981°W / 38.907242; -77.072981 (Healy Hall, Georgetown University)[7] This large-scale High Victorian Gothic structure is the most prominent building on the Georgetown University campus and a picturesque landmark for all Georgetown. Built from 1877 through 1879, its construction marked the evolution of the school toward true university status.
29 General Oliver Otis Howard House General Oliver Otis Howard House - Howard University.jpg May 30, 1974 NW38°55′23″N 77°01′20″W / 38.923056°N 77.022222°W / 38.923056; -77.022222 (General Oliver Otis Howard House) Located on Howard University campus, a home of Union general and Howard founder Oliver O. Howard.
30 Charles Evans Hughes House Charles Evans Hughes House.JPG November 28, 1972 NW38°54′45″N 77°02′58″W / 38.9125°N 77.049444°W / 38.9125; -77.049444 (Charles Evans Hughes House) Charles Evans Hughes was a leader in the progressive movement, and 1916 presidential candidate. He held office as Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States, as well as multiple executive positions under several Presidents. He lived in this house from 1930 until his death in 1948.
31 Hiram W. Johnson House Mountjoy Bayly House.jpg December 8, 1976 NE38°53′29″N 77°00′18″W / 38.891389°N 77.005°W / 38.891389; -77.005 (Hiram W. Johnson House)
32 Lafayette Building Lafeyette Building Washington DC.JPG September 1, 2005 NW38°54′07″N 77°02′05″W / 38.901988°N 77.034588°W / 38.901988; -77.034588 (Lafayette Building) Home of Reconstruction Finance Corporation which helped finance the buildup for World War II.
33 Lafayette Square Historic District Andrew Jackson sculpture.JPG August 29, 1970 NW[7]38°53′59″N 77°02′12″W / 38.899694°N 77.036528°W / 38.899694; -77.036528 (Lafayette Square Historic District) District including LaFayette Square Park, surrounding but excluding the White House.
34 Library Of Congress Photograph of the elaborately detailed Great Hall of the Library of Congress, with grand stairways and a finely worked ceiling. December 21, 1965 SE38°53′20″N 77°00′16″W / 38.888841°N 77.004531°W / 38.888841; -77.004531 (Library Of Congress)
35 Andrew Mellon Building Andrew Mellon Building - Dupont Circle.JPG May 11, 1976 NW38°54′33″N 77°02′30″W / 38.909167°N 77.041667°W / 38.909167; -77.041667 (Andrew Mellon Building) A residence of Andrew W. Mellon.
36 Memorial Continental Hall Memorial Continental Hall.JPG November 28, 1972 NW38°53′37″N 77°02′25″W / 38.893611°N 77.040278°W / 38.893611; -77.040278 (Memorial Continental Hall)
37 Meridian Hill Park Photograph of the Italian-renaissance stairstep fountain at Meridian Hill Park, bordered by vegetation. April 19, 1994 NW38°55′16″N 77°02′08″W / 38.921236°N 77.035611°W / 38.921236; -77.035611 (Meridian Hill Park)
38 National Training School For Women And Girls National-training-school-for-women-and-girls.JPG July 17, 1991 NE38°53′46″N 76°55′48″W / 38.896092°N 76.930031°W / 38.896092; -76.930031 (National Training School For Women And Girls)
39 National War College Photograph of the National War College at Fort Lesley J. McNair. November 28, 1972 SW[8]38°51′48″N 77°01′01″W / 38.863333°N 77.016944°W / 38.863333; -77.016944 (National War College)
40 Octagon House Photograph of the Octagon House on a sunny winter day, with more modern buildings behind. December 19, 1960 NW38°53′46″N 77°02′30″W / 38.896089°N 77.041675°W / 38.896089; -77.041675 (Octagon House) Plantation owner's home lent to President Madison after the Burning of Washington in 1814.
41 Old Naval Observatory Photograph from http://www.usno.navy.mil/B1Spring03.jpg January 12, 1965 NW38°53′42″N 77°03′07″W / 38.895°N 77.051944°W / 38.895; -77.051944 (Old Naval Observatory) The original US Naval Observatory, current home of the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; closed to the public.
42 Old Patent Office Old Patent Office Building (Donald W. Reynolds Center) January 12, 1965 NW38°53′52″N 77°01′23″W / 38.89778°N 77.022936°W / 38.89778; -77.022936 (Old Patent Office) Current home of the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
43 Pension Building Pension Building (National Building Museum) February 4, 1985 NW38°53′51″N 77°01′05″W / 38.8975°N 77.018056°W / 38.8975; -77.018056 (Pension Building)
44 Frances Perkins House Frances Perkins House.JPG July 17, 1992 NW38°54′55″N 77°03′07″W / 38.915278°N 77.051944°W / 38.915278; -77.051944 (Frances Perkins House) A home of Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor and the first woman to serve in the United States Cabinet.
45 PHILADELPHIA (Gundelo) The remains of the Philadelphia gunboat on display January 20, 1961 NW38°53′28″N 77°01′46″W / 38.891222°N 77.029472°W / 38.891222; -77.029472 (Philadelphia (gundelo)) Philadelphia, the only remaining American gunboat from the Revolutionary War, sank in a battle on Lake Champlain in 1776. It was salvaged in remarkably good condition in 1935 and now resides at the National Museum of American History.
46 Red Cross (American National) Headquarters Exterior photograph of the American Red Cross Headquarters, a large, white, columned structure with red crosses on the portico peak and above the main door. June 23, 1965 NW38°53′41″N 77°02′26″W / 38.894722°N 77.040556°W / 38.894722; -77.040556 (Red Cross (American National) Headquarters)
47 Renwick Gallery Photograph of the Renwick Gallery, an old brick building with colorful contemporary banners flanking the main entry and announcing "American Craft". November 11, 1971 NW38°53′56″N 77°02′22″W / 38.898867°N 77.039447°W / 38.898867; -77.039447 (Renwick Gallery)
48 Zalmon Richards House Zalmon Richards House.JPG December 21, 1965 NW38°54′42″N 77°01′49″W / 38.911667°N 77.030278°W / 38.911667; -77.030278 (Zalmon Richards House) A home of National Education Association founder Zalmon Richards.
49 St. Elizabeth's Hospital Photograph of the grand main building at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, with pillars and cupola, across a grassy lawn. December 14, 1990 SE38°50′57″N 76°59′23″W / 38.8492°N 76.9896°W / 38.8492; -76.9896 (St. Elizabeth's Hospital)
50 St. John's Church St. John's Episcopal Church.JPG December 19, 1960 NW38°54′01″N 77°02′07″W / 38.900278°N 77.035278°W / 38.900278; -77.035278 (St. John's Church)
51 St. Luke's Episcopal Church St. Luke's Episcopal Church Washington DC.JPG May 11, 1976 NW38°54′37″N 77°02′05″W / 38.910278°N 77.034722°W / 38.910278; -77.034722 (St. Luke's Episcopal Church) The first African-American Episcopal church in Washington, DC.
52 SEQUOIA (Yacht) Photograph of the USS Sequoia under way. December 23, 1987 SE38°52′32″N 77°01′20″W / 38.875667°N 77.022361°W / 38.875667; -77.022361 (Seqouia (yacht)) The former Presidential yacht, moored at the Washington Marina
53 Sewall-Belmont House Sewall-Belmont House.JPG May 30, 1974 NE38°53′31″N 77°00′13″W / 38.891944°N 77.003611°W / 38.891944; -77.003611 (Sewall-Belmont House) Headquarters of the National Women's Party and home to a museum of the Suffrage movement.
54 Smithsonian Institution Building Smithsonian Building NR.jpg January 12, 1965 SW38°53′19″N 77°01′35″W / 38.888589°N 77.026392°W / 38.888589; -77.026392 (Smithsonian Institution Building)
55 John Philip Sousa Junior High School John-phillip-sousa-high-school.JPG August 7, 2001 SE38°53′01″N 76°57′09″W / 38.8837°N 76.9524°W / 38.8837; -76.9524 (John Philip Sousa Junior High School) In 1950, eleven black students were denied admission to the newly constructed all-white Sousa school. This action was eventually overturned in the landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision in Bolling v. Sharpe, which made segregated public schools illegal in the District of Columbia. This defeat of the principle of "separate but equal" was a significant landmark in the modern Civil Rights Movement.
56 State, War, And Navy Building Old Executive Office Building 1981.jpg November 11, 1971 NW38°53′51″N 77°02′21″W / 38.897567°N 77.039147°W / 38.897567; -77.039147 (State, War, And Navy Building)
57 Supreme Court Building USSupremeCourtWestFacade.JPG May 4, 1987 NE38°53′27″N 77°00′16″W / 38.890833°N 77.004444°W / 38.890833; -77.004444 (Supreme Court Building)
58 Mary Church Terrell House 1979 HABS photo May 15, 1975 NW38°54′56″N 77°01′00″W / 38.915556°N 77.016667°W / 38.915556; -77.016667 (Mary Church Terrell House) A home of Mary Church Terrell, abolitionist and first African-American woman to serve on a school board.
59 Tudor Place Tudor Place Georgetown.JPG December 19, 1960 NW38°54′39″N 77°03′48″W / 38.910808°N 77.063339°W / 38.910808; -77.063339 (Tudor Place) A home, designed by Capitol designer Dr. William Thornton, and containing a collection of artifacts of George Washington and Martha Washington.
60 Twelfth Street YMCA Building 12th Street YMCA Building.JPG October 12, 1994 NW38°54′53″N 77°02′25″W / 38.914722°N 77.040278°W / 38.914722; -77.040278 (Twelfth Street YMCA Building) NHRP 83003523. The earliest "Y" built by and expressly for African Americans.
61 Oscar W. Underwood House Oscar W. Underwood House.JPG December 19, 1960 NW38°53′53″N 77°02′43″W / 38.898056°N 77.045278°W / 38.898056; -77.045278 (Underwood (Oscar W.) House) A home of Oscar W. Underwood, United States Senator from Alabama.
62 United Mine Workers of America Building UMWA Former HQ 2008.JPG April 5, 2005 NW38°54′08″N 77°02′13″W / 38.902222°N 77.036944°W / 38.902222; -77.036944 (United Mine Workers of America Building)
63 United States Capitol United States Capitol - west front.jpg December 19, 1960 NW, NE, SE, SW 38°53′23″N 77°00′32″W / 38.889722°N 77.008889°W / 38.889722; -77.008889 (United States Capitol)[7]
64 United States Department of the Treasury Treasury Department rear view.JPG November 11, 1971 NW38°53′51″N 77°02′03″W / 38.8975°N 77.0343°W / 38.8975; -77.0343 (United States Department of the Treasury)
65 United States Marine Corps Barrack and Commandant's House Photograph of the U.S. Marine Corps Commandant's House across the Barracks' parade ground. May 11, 1976 SE38°52′49″N 76°59′38″W / 38.88039°N 76.99386°W / 38.88039; -76.99386 (United States Marine Corps Barrack and Commandant's House)
66 United States Soldier's Home Photograph of the Lincoln Cottage at the United States Soldier's Home. November 7, 1973 NW38°56′30″N 77°00′42″W / 38.941667°N 77.011667°W / 38.941667; -77.011667 (United States Soldier's Home)
67 Volta Bureau Volta Bureau Washington DC.JPG November 28, 1972 NW38°54′34″N 77°04′09″W / 38.909444°N 77.069167°W / 38.909444; -77.069167 (Volta Bureau) Founded in 1887 by Alexander Graham Bell "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the Deaf"; merged with the American Association for the Promotion and Teaching of Speech to the Deaf in 1908, and operates today as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.
68 Washington Aqueduct Union Arch Bridge MD 2008.jpg November 7, 1973 NW38°56′15″N 77°06′51″W / 38.9375°N 77.114167°W / 38.9375; -77.114167 (Washington Aqueduct) Extends into Montgomery County, Maryland.
69 Washington Navy Yard Aerial photograph of the Washington Navy Yard with a destroyer at dock, the Anacostia River in the foreground and Capitol Hill in the background. May 11, 1976 SE38°52′24″N 76°59′49″W / 38.873333°N 76.996944°W / 38.873333; -76.996944 (Washington Navy Yard)
70 White House White House DC.JPG December 19, 1960 NW38°53′52″N 77°02′12″W / 38.89767°N 77.03655°W / 38.89767; -77.03655 (White House) Residence of the President of the United States
71 David White House David White House.JPG January 7, 1976 NW38°55′32″N 77°02′04″W / 38.925556°N 77.034444°W / 38.925556; -77.034444 (David White House) Geologist David White of the United States Geological Survey lived in this house from 1910 to 1925. His researches into the distribution of petroleum resources became essential to the oil industry.
72 Woodrow Wilson House Woodrow Wilson House.JPG July 19, 1964 NW38°54′51″N 77°03′05″W / 38.9141°N 77.05141°W / 38.9141; -77.05141 (Woodrow Wilson House) A home of Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States.
73 Carter G. Woodson House Carter Woodson House. May 11, 1976 NW38°54′36″N 77°01′27″W / 38.91°N 77.024167°W / 38.91; -77.024167 (Carter G. Woodson House) A home of Carter G. Woodson, the "Father of Black History".
74 Robert Simpson Woodward House 1513 16th Street, NW.JPG January 7, 1976 NW38°54′32″N 77°02′11″W / 38.908889°N 77.036389°W / 38.908889; -77.036389 (Robert Simpson Woodward House) From 1904 to 1914, this was the home of Robert Simpson Woodward, the first President of the Carnegie Institution during the same period. Woodward had made his name as a leading geologist and mathematician.

Moved NHLs[edit]

There are no delisted NHLs in Washington, D.C. Ships that are designated NHLs have previously been located in Washington, but have been moved elsewhere, and the Army Medical Museum and Library collection has been relocated to Maryland.

Landmark name Image Date designated Date moved Quadrant Description
1 Army Medical Museum and Library Army Medical Museum and Library.jpg January 12, 1965 1988 NW 38°58′37″N 77°01′57″W / 38.976842°N 77.032453°W / 38.976842; -77.032453 (Army Medical Museum and Library) The listed building was demolished in 1969; the museum collection and library are now part of the National Museum of Health and Medicine, and are based in Silver Spring, Maryland. The landmark designation is under evaluation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ National Park Service. "National Historic Landmarks Program: Questions and Answers". Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  2. ^ Numbers represent an ordering by significant words. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate the National Monuments, National Historic Sites, National Historic Landmark Districts and other higher designations from other NHL buildings, structures, sites or objects.
  3. ^ a b National Park Service (June 2011). "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-04. .
  4. ^ National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database". Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  5. ^ National Park Service. "National Register Information System". Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  6. ^ National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database".  Retrieved on various dates.
  7. ^ a b c d National Park Service (1989). Washington DC: A Traveler's Guide to the District of Columbia and Nearby Attractions. Washington, D.C.: Division of Publications, National Park Service. ISBN 0-912627-36-0. 
  8. ^ National War College. "Contact Information". NDU Internet. National Defense University. Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 

External links[edit]