List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Newfoundland and Labrador

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of National Historic Sites of Canada (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. There are 45 National Historic Sites designated in Newfoundland and Labrador, of which 9 are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon Beaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png).[1][2] The first National Historic Sites to be designated in the province were Fort Amherst, Fort Townshend and Signal Hill in 1951.[3]

The Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial, a National Historic Site commemorating Dominion of Newfoundland forces killed during World War I, is located in France.

This list uses names designated by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, which may differ from other names for these sites.

National Historic Sites[edit]

Site[1] Date(s) Designated Location Description Image
Basilica of St. John the Baptist[4] 1855 (completed) 1983 St. John's
47°34′2″N 52°42′36″W / 47.56722°N 52.71000°W / 47.56722; -52.71000 (Basilica of St. John the Baptist)
Stone cathedral, constructed in the Lombard Romanesque Revival style, which has played an important role in the province's religious, political and social history Front of Basilica
Battle Harbour Historic District[5] 1770s (established) 1996 Battle Harbour
52°16′0″N 55°35′13″W / 52.26667°N 55.58694°W / 52.26667; -55.58694 (Battle Harbour Historic District)
A noted example of a traditional outport fishing community; the buildings, structures and open spaces evoke the fishing outports of the 19th and early 20th-century Battle Harbour Historic District in the fog
Boyd's Cove Beothuk[6] 3000 BCE (c.) (human occupation) 1995 Boyd's Cove
49°27′26″N 54°38′12″W / 49.45722°N 54.63667°W / 49.45722; -54.63667 (Boyd's Cove Beothuk)
A major archaeological site which has substantially increased the knowledge of the early history and demise of the Beothuk people A grassy area with markers showing locations of archeologically important areas
Cable Building[7] 1913 (completed) 2008 Bay Roberts
47°35′47″N 53°15′16″W / 47.59639°N 53.25444°W / 47.59639; -53.25444 (Cable Building)
Newfoundland was a major telecommunications hub at the beginning of the 20th century as it offered the shortest link between North America and Europe; the building was the main relay for the transatlantic network of the Western Union Telegraph Company Cable Building
Cape Pine Lighthouse[8] 1851 (completed) 1974 Cape Pine
46°37′2″N 53°31′56″W / 46.61722°N 53.53222°W / 46.61722; -53.53222 (Cape Pine Lighthouse)
First of a series of prefabricated iron lighthouses erected in Newfoundland in the 19th century, for transport to and erection at rugged sites; the first landfall light built on the dangerous south coast of the Avalon Peninsula to guide shipping through the Cabot Strait Cape Pine Lighthouse
Cape Race Lighthouse[9] 1907 (completed) 1975 Cape Race
46°39′31″N 53°4′25″W / 46.65861°N 53.07361°W / 46.65861; -53.07361 (Cape Race Lighthouse)
At the time of this lighthouse's construction, it was the most important light on the dangerous southern shore of the Avalon Peninsula and it housed one of the most powerful lighting apparatuses in the world Cape Race lighthouse
Cape Spear LighthouseBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[10] 1835 (completed) 1962 Cape Spear
47°31′20″N 52°37′36″W / 47.52222°N 52.62667°W / 47.52222; -52.62667 (Cape Spear Lighthouse)
The oldest surviving lighthouse in Newfoundland, constructed on the easternmost point in North America; built in 1835 by the Colony of Newfoundland to signal the approach to St. John's harbour Cape Spear lighthouse
Castle HillBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[11] 1692 (established) 1968 Placentia
47°15′3.88″N 53°58′17.31″W / 47.2510778°N 53.9714750°W / 47.2510778; -53.9714750 (Castle Hill)
The remains of French and British fortifications overlooking the town; the defences played an important role in both local defence and the larger military interests of France and Britain in Atlantic Canada Placentia from Castle Hill
Christ Church / Quidi Vidi Church[12] 1842 (completed) 1966 St. John's
47°34′50″N 52°41′56″W / 47.58056°N 52.69889°W / 47.58056; -52.69889 (Christ Church / Quidi Vidi Church)
A modest, wood church, located on a steep hill overlooking the harbour of the former village of Quidi Vidi; representative of the rapidly disappearing architecture of 19th-century outports Worn exterior of Christ Church / Quidi Vidi Church
Colony of Avalon[13] 1621 (established) 1953 Ferryland
47°1′22″N 52°52′49″W / 47.02278°N 52.88028°W / 47.02278; -52.88028 (Colony of Avalon)
Site of the first English settlement in Canada Ruins of a mansion in Ferryland
Crow's Nest Officers' Club[14][15] 1942 (established) 2011 St. John's
47°34′4″N 52°42′12″W / 47.56778°N 52.70333°W / 47.56778; -52.70333 (Crow's Nest Officers' Club)
Opened as a seagoing officer’s club during the Second World War, the club served men from Allied navies and allowed the men from each vessel to decorate a section of wall as a memento to their ship; the club, along with its military memorabilia and artwork, remains a memorial to the naval war efforts The stairs leading up to the Crow’s Nest Officer’s Club
Fleur de Lys Soapstone Quarries[16] 400 CE (c.) 1982 Fleur de Lys
47°1′22″N 52°52′49″W / 47.02278°N 52.88028°W / 47.02278; -52.88028 (Fleur de Lys Soapstone Quarries)
Soapstone was an important raw material for many aboriginal societies in Newfoundland, primarily used here for bowls and oil lamps; this archaeological site preserves considerable evidence about resource extraction techniques in Dorset culture
Former Bank of British North America[17] 1850 (completed) 1990 St. John's
47°33′56.76″N 52°42′24.17″W / 47.5657667°N 52.7067139°W / 47.5657667; -52.7067139 (Former Bank of British North America)
A three-and-a-half-storey brick building with mansard roof and Italianate features which housed many of Newfoundland’s major banks from 1849 to 1985; closely associated with the evolution of banking in Newfoundland Exterior view of front facade of the Former Bank of British North America building
Former Carbonear Railway Station (Newfoundland Railway)[18] 1918 (completed) 1988 Carbonear
47°44′15″N 53°13′47″W / 47.73750°N 53.22972°W / 47.73750; -53.22972 (Former Carbonear Railway Station (Newfoundland Railway))
A one-storey, wood-frame building with a hip roof and overhanging eaves; representative of the stations on the Newfoundland Railway CarbonearNL RailwayStation.jpg
Former Newfoundland Railway Headquarters[19] 1903 1988 St. John's
47°33′16.21″N 52°42′49.13″W / 47.5545028°N 52.7136472°W / 47.5545028; -52.7136472 (Former Newfoundland Railway Headquarters)
A two-and-a-half-storey stone building with both Second Empire and Château design elements; commemorates the important role played by the Newfoundland Railway in the social, economic and political history of the province Newfoundland Railway Station, St. John's
Fort Amherst[20] 1777 (established) 1951 St. John's
47°33′49″N 52°40′50″W / 47.56361°N 52.68056°W / 47.56361; -52.68056 (Fort Amherst)
The site of British fortification built to guard the mouth of St. John’s harbour, of which there are no visible remains; named after William Amherst who recaptured St. John’s from the French in 1762 View from Signal Hill
Fort Townshend[21] 1773 (established) 1951 St. John's
47°33′58″N 52°42′44″W / 47.56611°N 52.71222°W / 47.56611; -52.71222 (Fort Townshend)
An archaeological site at the former location of a British fort that served as the headquarters of the Newfoundland garrison from 1779 until 1871; the site is now occupied by The Rooms Plaque commemorating the site of Fort Townshend
Fort William[22] 1697 (established) 1952 St. John's
47°34′15″N 52°42′2″W / 47.57083°N 52.70056°W / 47.57083; -52.70056 (Fort William)
The site of a fort which served as the original headquarters of the British garrison in Newfoundland, and which was attacked three times by the French; the fort represented the first official military presence in St. John’s, although it was supplanted by Fort Townshend in the 1770s, and demolished in 1881
Government House[23] 1831 (completed) 1982 St. John's
47°33′49″N 52°40′50″W / 47.56361°N 52.68056°W / 47.56361; -52.68056 (Government House)
A Palladian-style mansion originally built for Thomas Cochrane, the first civil governor of the Newfoundland Colony; its construction marked the transition of the colony from a naval to civilian government, and the house has served as the official residence of Newfoundland’s governors and lieutenant governors ever since Government House, St. John's, Newfoundland
Harbour Grace Court House[24] 1830 (completed) 1966 Harbour Grace
47°41′44″N 53°12′45″W / 47.69556°N 53.21250°W / 47.69556; -53.21250 (Harbour Grace Court House)
A two-storey stone building characterized by a split staircase on the front facade; the oldest surviving public building in the province HarbourGraceNL CourtHouse.jpg
Hawthorne CottageBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[25] 1830 (completed) 1978 Brigus
47°32′6.54″N 53°12′35.53″W / 47.5351500°N 53.2098694°W / 47.5351500; -53.2098694 (Hawthorne Cottage)
A Picturesque cottage with a wrap-around verandah and a home of Arctic-explorer Robert Bartlett Two Muskoka chairs and a Canada flag overlooking Hawthorne Cottage
Hebron Mission[26] 1829 (established) 1976 Hebron
58°11′58″N 62°37′33″W / 58.19944°N 62.62583°W / 58.19944; -62.62583 (Hebron Mission)
A complex of linked buildings, including a church, mission house, and store, all in a Germanic-influenced architectural style; a Moravian centre of religious instruction to the local Inuit, which also served commercial and medical purposes The mission at Hebron, Labrador.
Hopedale MissionBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[27] 1782 (established) 1970 Hopedale
55°27′30.83″N 60°12′45.21″W / 55.4585639°N 60.2125583°W / 55.4585639; -60.2125583 (Hopedale Mission)
A complex of large, wooden buildings constructed by the Moravian Church; commemorates the interaction between Labrador Inuit and missionaries, and representative of Moravian Mission architecture in Labrador Hopedale Moravian Church, NL, exterior.JPG
Indian Point[disambiguation needed][28] 1978 Red Indian Lake
48°47′44″N 56°34′38″W / 48.79556°N 56.57722°W / 48.79556; -56.57722 (Indian Point)
Well documented Beothuk site
L'Anse Amour[29] 6100 BCE (c.) 1978 L'Anse Amour
51°28′49″N 56°51′59″W / 51.48028°N 56.86639°W / 51.48028; -56.86639 (L'Anse Amour)
One of the largest and longest used Aboriginal habitation sites in Labrador; earliest known funeral monument in the New World Burial mound of the Maritime Archaic Tradition
L'Anse aux MeadowsBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[30] 1000 CE (c.) 1968 St. Anthony
51°35′43″N 55°31′59.47″W / 51.59528°N 55.5331861°W / 51.59528; -55.5331861 (L'Anse aux Meadows)
The first known settlement established by Vikings in North America, containing the earliest evidence of Europeans in Canada; a World Heritage Site L'Anse aux Meadows
Mallard Cottage[31] 1820 (c.) (completed) 1983 St. John's
47°34′54″N 52°40′42″W / 47.58167°N 52.67833°W / 47.58167; -52.67833 (Mallard Cottage)
A wood-frame house with hip roof and central chimney, typical of the vernacular housing built by Irish immigrants in the first half of the 9th century Exterior of Mallard Cottage
Murray Premises[32] 1849 (completed) 1976 St. John's
47°34′07.67″N 52°42′29.52″W / 47.5687972°N 52.7082000°W / 47.5687972; -52.7082000 (Murray Premises)
A complex of three former warehouses; commemorative of the offices and warehouses which once lined St. John's harbour and of the city's long tradition of sea-based trade Courtyard of Murray Premises
Okak[33] 5550 BCE (c.) (first human occupation) 1978 Okak
51°35′43″N 55°31′59.47″W / 51.59528°N 55.5331861°W / 51.59528; -55.5331861 (Okak)
Sixty archaeological sites, dating from 5550 BCE onwards, representative of habitation from Maritime Archaic to Labrador Inuit; location of the second oldest Moravian mission in Labrador, founded in 1776 and abandoned in 1919
Port au ChoixBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[34] 1970 Port au Choix
50°42′14.54″N 57°23′24.01″W / 50.7040389°N 57.3900028°W / 50.7040389; -57.3900028 (Port au Choix)
Two exceptional rare and rich pre-contact archaeological sites, one a Maritime Archaic cemetery and the other a Paleo-Eskimo habitation site Port au Choix
Port Union Historic District[35] 1916 (established) 1999 Trinity Bay North
48°29′51″N 53°4′56″W / 48.49750°N 53.08222°W / 48.49750; -53.08222 (Port Union Historic District)
The only town in Canada founded by a union; built by the Fishermen's Protective Union along an empty stretch of shoreline, the town was noted for its commercial success in the face of fierce competition from commercial merchants PortUnionNL RetailStore01.jpg
Red BayBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[36] 1550 (whaling port established) (c.) 1979 Red Bay
51°43′31.34″N 56°25′59.39″W / 51.7253722°N 56.4331639°W / 51.7253722; -56.4331639 (Red Bay)
A World Heritage Site and the site of one of the largest whaling ports used between 1550 and 1620 by Basque whaling expeditions from France and Spain; well-preserved evidence of the 16th-century whaling activities remain on the site, both on land and submerged in the harbour Basque whaling station on Saddle Island. The location of the sunken vessel San Juan (1565) is near the Bernier's wreck that grounded in 1966
Rennie's Mill Road Historic District[37] 1846 (established) 1987 St. John's
47°34′16″N 52°42′34″W / 47.57111°N 52.70944°W / 47.57111; -52.70944 (Rennie's Mill Road Historic District)
Originally a suburb of large, wooden houses mainly from the late 19th to the early 20th centuries; a remarkably homogeneous grouping of upper middle class residences, associated with prominent Newfoundlanders of the period Front facade of a row of Victorian townhomes
Ryan PremisesBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[38] 1857 (established) 1987 Bonavista
48°38′52.31″N 53°6′45.7″W / 48.6478639°N 53.112694°W / 48.6478639; -53.112694 (Ryan Premises)
A cultural landscape comprising residential and commercial structures typical of a 19th-century Newfoundland mercantile outport, still located in their original setting by the sea Ryan Premises viewed from the water
St. John the Baptist Anglican Cathedral[39] 1850 (completed) 1979 St. John's
47°33′55″N 52°42′30″W / 47.56528°N 52.70833°W / 47.56528; -52.70833 (St. John the Baptist Anglican Cathedral)
A magnificent stone cathedral designed by George Gilbert Scott for Canada’s oldest Anglican parish; a nationally significant example of Gothic Revival architecture, and one that conforms to the tenets of the Cambridge Camden Society Cathedral of St. John the Baptist
St. John's Court House[40] 1904 (completed) 1981 St. John's
47°33′53″N 52°42′26″W / 47.56472°N 52.70722°W / 47.56472; -52.70722 (St. John's Court House)
A granite and sandstone Romanesque Revival-style courthouse; the most elaborate courthouse in the province and representative of the judicial system in Newfoundland Exterior view of the St. John's Court House
St. John's Ecclesiastical District[41] 2008 St. John's
47°34′4″N 52°42′41″W / 47.56778°N 52.71139°W / 47.56778; -52.71139 (St. John's Ecclesiastical District)
Buildings and landscape features associated with the Roman Catholic, Anglican, United (formerly Methodist) and Presbyterian denominations; representative of the involvement of Christian institutions in the history and political life of St. John's and the province St. Bonaventure's College in the St. John's Ecclesiastical District
St. John's WWII Coastal Defences (Atlantic Bulwark)[42] 1939 (established) 1993 St. John's
47°33′49″N 52°40′47″W / 47.56361°N 52.67972°W / 47.56361; -52.67972 (St. John's WWII Coastal Defences)
St. John's served as the main North American base for trans-Atlantic escorts during the Second World War; Canadian and American gun batteries and Canadian air force squadrons protected St. John's harbour The HMSC Corner Brook submarine travelling past the remains of the coastal defences
St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church[43] 1881 (completed), 1914 (spire) 1990 St. John's
47°33′13″N 52°43′1″W / 47.55361°N 52.71694°W / 47.55361; -52.71694 (St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church)
A noted example of Gothic Revival architecture in Canada; the design reflects the strong links between Ireland and Newfoundland, as well as the influence of Victorian design on colonial churches St. Patrick's Church
St. Thomas Rectory / Commissariat House and Garden[44] 1821 (completed) 1968 St. John's
47°34′21″N 52°42′9″W / 47.57250°N 52.70250°W / 47.57250; -52.70250 (St. Thomas Rectory / Commissariat House and Garden)
A wooden building constructed by the Corps of Royal Engineers for the British military garrison; after 1870, it served as the rectory for the Old Garrison Church View of the wooden exterior of the former commissariat house
Signal HillBeaver 1 (PSF)(retouched)(transparent).png[45] 1660 (military role established) 1951 St. John's
47°34′10.06″N 52°40′56.19″W / 47.5694611°N 52.6822750°W / 47.5694611; -52.6822750 (Signal Hill)
A landmark promontory that frames the entrance to St. John’s Harbour, identifiable by the profile of Cabot Tower; site played important roles in Canada’s defence and communications histories View of Cabot Tower atop Signal Hill
Tilting[46] 1730 (established) 2003 Tilting
49°42′13″N 54°3′38.27″W / 49.70361°N 54.0606306°W / 49.70361; -54.0606306 (Tilting)
An outport fishing community on Fogo Island; illustrative of the adaptation of Irish settlement patterns to Newfoundland, and a rare surviving example of mid-18th century landscape components Sheep in Tilting
Walled Landscape of Grates Cove[47] 1790 (established) 1995 Grates Cove
48°10′0″N 52°56′22″W / 48.16667°N 52.93944°W / 48.16667; -52.93944 (Walled Landscape of Grates Cove)
A 60.7-hectare (150-acre) grassy landscape located on a windswept headland; small fertile gardens, demarcated by stone walls, represent a rare surviving example of a communal system of land and community organization unique to Newfoundland Walled Landscape of Grates Cove
Water Street Historic District[48] 1847 (commencement of reconstruction after the Great Fire) 1987 St. John's
47°33′43.9″N 52°42′34.14″W / 47.562194°N 52.7094833°W / 47.562194; -52.7094833 (Water Street Historic District)
Twenty 19th-century mercantile buildings on Water Street near the harbour; representative of the business establishments associated with the Newfoundland fisheries and the Atlantic trade Water Street
Winterholme[49] 1907 (completed) 1991 St. John's
47°34′20″N 52°42′39″W / 47.57222°N 52.71083°W / 47.57222; -52.71083 (Winterholme)
A home originally built for local businessman Marmaduke Winter; a noted example of a conservative approach to the Queen Anne Revival style in Canadian domestic architecture Front facade and circular driveway of large detached house

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Newfoundland and Labrador". Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  2. ^ Newfoundland and Labrador, National Historic Sites of Canada - administered by Parks Canada
  3. ^ "1951". Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Basilica of St. John the Baptist. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  5. ^ Battle Harbour Historic District. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  6. ^ Boyd's Cove Beothuk. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  7. ^ Cable Building. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  8. ^ Cape Pine Lighthouse. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  9. ^ Cape Race Lighthouse. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  10. ^ Cape Spear Lighthouse. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  11. ^ Castle Hill. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  12. ^ Christ Church / Quidi Vidi Church. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  13. ^ Colony of Avalon. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  14. ^ Crow's Nest Officers' Club. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  15. ^ Crow's Nest Officers' Club. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  16. ^ Fleur de Lys Soapstone Quarries. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  17. ^ Former Bank of British North America. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  18. ^ Former Carbonear Railway Station (Newfoundland Railway). Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  19. ^ Former Newfoundland Railway Headquarters. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  20. ^ Fort Amherst. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  21. ^ Fort Townshend. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  22. ^ Fort William. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  23. ^ Government House. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  24. ^ Harbour Grace Court House. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  25. ^ Hawthorne Cottage. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  26. ^ Hebron Mission. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  27. ^ Hopedale Mission. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  28. ^ Indian Point. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  29. ^ L'Anse Amour. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  30. ^ L'Anse aux Meadows. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  31. ^ Mallard Cottage. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  32. ^ Murray Premises. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  33. ^ Okak. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  34. ^ Port au Choix. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  35. ^ Port Union Historic District. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  36. ^ Red Bay. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  37. ^ Rennie's Mill Road Historic District. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  38. ^ Ryan Premises. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  39. ^ St. John the Baptist Anglican Cathedral. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  40. ^ St. John's Court House. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  41. ^ St. John's Ecclesiastical District. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  42. ^ St. John's WWII Coastal Defences. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  43. ^ St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  44. ^ St. Thomas Rectory / Commissariat House and Garden. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  45. ^ Signal Hill. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  46. ^ Tilting. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  47. ^ Walled Landscape of Grates Cove. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  48. ^ Water Street Historic District. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  49. ^ Winterholme. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 6 August 2012.