List of New Testament Latin manuscripts

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Latin manuscripts of the New Testament are handwritten copies of translations from the Greek originals. Translations of the New Testament are called versions. They are important in textual criticism, because sometimes versions provide evidence (called a witness) to an earlier "reading" of the Greek, i.e. to the text that may have been lost (or preserved only very poorly) in the subsequent Greek tradition. It is also hypothesised that, in some cases (for example, in the case of the Codex Bezae), early Latin manuscripts may have influenced some early Greek manuscripts. Thus, (accidentally or deliberately) some Latin readings may have "crossed back over" into the Greek. One possible example of this is the well known Comma Johanneum.

Latin manuscripts are divided into "Old Latin" and Vulgate. Old Latin manuscripts (also called Vetus Latina or Itala) are so called not because they are written in Old Latin (i.e. Latin prior to 75 BC), but because they are the oldest versions of the New Testament in Latin. From the linguistic point of view, Old Latin New Testament manuscripts may at times use non-standard grammar and vocabulary.

Unlike the Vulgate, the Vetus Latina tradition reflects numerous distinct, similar, and not entirely independent translations of various New Testament texts, extending back to the time of the original Greek autographs.[1]

In 382 AD Jerome began a revision of the existing Vetus Latina into contemporary Latin, corrected against manuscripts in the original Greek and Hebrew. Jerome's version is known as the Vulgate, because it was in the "vulgar" (or "popular") Latin of everyday speech.[2]

Clarification[edit]

Identification[edit]

The list of Old Latin manuscripts below is based on citations in Novum Testamentum Graece (NA27) and The Greek New Testament (UBS4). Each manuscript is identified first by its siglum (the first column, s., in the table), as given by the critical apparatus of the editions mentioned. These sigla are related to content, so are not unique. For example, the letter t refers to Codex Bernensis in the gospels, but Liber Comicus elsewhere. So sigla need disambiguation. In the table below, this is done by providing a full name. Additionally, the standard unique serial number for each manuscript is provided. Taken together sigla, name and number provide unambiguous identification, and some further information regarding the content, history and relationship of manuscripts.

Sigla, names and numbers exist to serve different scholastic purposes. Sigla, in the context of reference to an original document, provide unique and concise identification of witnesses to the text of that original, suited to minimizing the space taken by citation in a critical apparatus. Names, on the other hand, normally refer to specific handwritten volumes (often including other text), either as originally bound or in their current form. Names are typically Latin, and can refer to the place of composition (Codex Sangallensis, "Book from St. Gall") or rediscovery (Stonyhurst Gospel), the current location (Liber Ardmachanus, "Book of Armagh"), a famous owner (Codex Bezae, "Theodore Beza's Book"), a volume's function (Liber Comicus, "The Lectionary"), or can even refer to physical characteristics of a volume (Codex Gigas, "The Huge Book" or Codex Aureus, "The Gold Book"). The Book of Mulling is also known as Liber Moliensis after the name of the scribe, as tradition has it.

Beuron numbers[edit]

The Beuron Ancient Latin Institute (Vetus Latina Institut) has introduced a new numerical system for Old Latin manuscripts, of which there are about 90 altogether. These Beuron numbers are designed to provide unambiguous identification of witnesses in academic usage, yet they are not used very widely in general literature, as they may cause confusion with the Greek minuscule manuscripts.

Beuron Institute allocated numbers up to 100 to all existing Old Latin manuscripts, depending on what parts of NT they include, and how old their text is. The lowest numbers are allocated to the gospels, and to the most complete manuscripts. For example, Codex Bezae (d) is a witness for the Gospels (Gosp), the Book of Acts and the General epistles (Gen), and is allocated number 5.

  • Manuscripts 1-49 are witnesses to one or more Gospels.
  • Manuscripts 50-74 are witnesses to Acts, General epistles or the Book of Revelation (Rev).
  • Manuscripts 75-89 are witnesses to Pauline epistles (Paul).
  • Manuscripts 91-96 are glosses in Spanish Bibles.

Other issues[edit]

NA27 and UBS4 interact with the Vulgate witness only at the level of critical editions, not at the level of manuscripts themselves. The manuscripts that provide evidence of Jerome's version are identified in the apparatus of Biblia Sacra Vulgata (the Stuttgart edition of the Vulgate).

In practice, citation of manuscript evidence implies any of several methodologies. The ideal, but most costly, method is physical inspection of the manuscript itself; alternatively, published photographs or facsimile editions may be inspected. This method involves paleographical analysis—interpretation of handwriting, incomplete letters and even reconstruction of lacunae. More typically, editions of manuscripts are consulted, which have done this paleographical work already. The lists below note the names of the editors of standard editions of the manuscripts listed. As a last resort, sometimes a critical edition of NT, that cites readings of a manuscript in its apparatus, may be offered as authority for the text of the manuscript at these points.

It must also be observed that certain Latin NT manuscripts may present a mixture of Vulgate and Old Latin texts. For example, Codex Sangermanensis (g1 ) is Old Latin in Matthew, but Vulgate in the rest of the Gospels. Also, the text of John in Codex Veronensis is believed to be part Old Latin and part Vulgate. Hence, some codices are cited as manuscript witnesses both to the Vetus Latina and to the Vulgate.

Old Latin[edit]

The table below employs the following conventions.

  • Dates are estimated to the nearest 50 year increment.
  • Content is given to the nearest book (sometimes chapter); verses and lacunae are not listed.
  • Editions are those consulted by UBS4; in many cases, better editions are also available.
  • Locations are given in anglicised form, unless linked to sources in other languages.
  • Manuscripts will sometimes be referred to as "it" followed by the siglum.
s. Name # AD Content Editor Custodian City, State Country
a Codex Vercellensis 3 350 Gospels Jülicher Vercelli City Library Vercelli Italy
a2 Codex Curiensis 16 450 Luke 11; 13 Jülicher Bishop of Chur's Archive Chur Switzerland
ar Codex Ardmachanus 61 850 New Testament Gwynn Trinity College, Dublin Dublin Ireland
aur Codex Aureus 15 650 Gospels Jülicher National Library of Sweden Stockholm Sweden
b Codex Veronensis 4 450 Gospels Jülicher Verona City Library Verona Italy
b Codex Budapestiensis 89 800 Paul Széchényi National Library Budapest Hungary
β Codex Carinthianus 26 650 Luke 1–2 Jülicher St. Paul's Abbey in the Lavanttal Saint Paul,
Carinthia
Austria
c Codex Colbertinus 6 1200 Gospels Jülicher National Library of France Paris France
d Codex Bezae 5 450 Gosp; Acts; 3J Jülicher Cambridge University Library Cambridge U.K.
d Codex Claromontanus 75 500 Paul Tischendorf National Library of France Paris France
dem Codex Demidovianus 59 1250 Acts; Paul; Gen; Rev Matthaei lost, last seen in Moscow Russia
div Codex Divionensis 1250 Paul; Gen; Rev Wordsworth lost, last seen in Dijon France
e Codex Palatinus 2 450 Gospels Jülicher British Library London U.K.
e Codex Laudianus 50 550 Acts Tischendorf Bodleian Library Oxford U.K.
e Codex Sangermanensis 76 850 Paul Tischendorf Russian National Library Saint Petersburg Russia
f Codex Brixianus 10 550 Gospels Jülicher Quirini Public Library Brescia Italy
f Codex Augiensis 78 850 Paul Scrivener Trinity College, Cambridge Cambridge U.K.
ff Codex Corbiensis 66 850 James Wordsworth Russian National Library Saint Petersburg Russia
ff1 Codex Corbeiensis I 9 750 Matthew Jülicher Russian National Library Saint Petersburg Russia
ff2 Codex Corbeiensis II 8 450 Gospels Jülicher National Library of France Paris France
g Codex Boernerianus 77 850 Paul Matthaei Saxon State Library Dresden Germany
g1 Codex Sangermanensis I 7 800 Matthew Sabatier National Library of France Paris France
g2 Codex Sangermanensis II 29 950 Epistle to the Galatians Sabatier National Library of France Paris France
gat Codex Gatianum 30 750 Acts 6-8 Milan Italy
gig Codex Gigas 51 1250 Acts; Rev Wordsworth National Library of Sweden Stockholm Sweden
g2 Codex Mediolanensis 52 1000 Acts 6-8 Milan Italy
gue Codex Guelferbytanus 79 550 Romans Tischendorf Duke Augustus Library Wolfenbüttel Germany
h Codex Claromontanus V 12 450 Mt; Rev Jülicher Vatican Library Vatican City-State Vatican City
h Codex Floriacensis 55 450 1P; 2P; 1J Buchanan National Library of France Paris France
haf Codex Hafnianus 550 Revelation Wordsworth
i Vindobonensis Lat. 1235 17 450 Mark; Luke 10ff Jülicher National Library of Naples Naples Italy
j Codex Sarzanensis 22 550 John Jülicher Church of Saints Ruffino & Venanzio Sarezzano Italy
k Codex Bobiensis 1 400 Matthew; Mark Jülicher Turin National University Library Turin Italy
l Codex Rehdigeranus 11 750 Gospels Jülicher Berlin State Library Berlin Germany
l Codex Legionensis 67 650 Js; 1P; 1J; 2J; 3J Fischer Lyon Cathedral Archive Lyon France
λ Fragmentum Rosenthal 44 800 Luke 16–17 Houghton Library,
Harvard University
Cambridge,
Massachusetts
United States
μ Fragmentum Monacense 34 450 Matthew 9–10 Bavarian State Library Munich Germany
μ Book of Mulling 35 650 Gospels Trinity College, Dublin Dublin Ireland
μ 82 850 Hebrews Bavarian State Library Munich Germany
m Codex Speculum New Testament Jülicher;
Wordsworth
mon Codex Monza 86 950 Paul Frede Monza Cathedral Library Monza Italy
δ Codex Sangallensis 48 27 850 four Gospels 16 Jülicher Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
n Codex Sangallensis 1394 16 450 Matthew; Mark Jülicher Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
o Codex Sangallensis 1394 16 650 Mark 16 Jülicher Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
p Codex Sangallensis 1395 20 450 John 11 Jülicher Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
Codex Sangallensis 60 47 ca. 800 John 1:29-3:26 Jülicher Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
Codex Sangallensis 51 48 750 John Jülicher Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
p Codex Perpinianensis 54 1150 New Testament Wordsworth National Library of France Paris France
p 80 650 Paul University Library Heidelberg Heidelberg Germany
ph Codex Philadelphiensis 63 1150 Acts Sanders Philadelphia U.S.
π Fragmenta Stuttgartensia 18 650 Mt 13; Lk 14;
Jn 3;6;7;9;11;20
Jülicher State Library of Württemberg
de:Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek
de:Hofbibliothek Donaueschingen
Stuttgart
Darmstadt
Donaueschingen
Germany
q Codex Monacensis 13 600 Gospels Jülicher Bavarian State Library Munich Germany
q Codex Monacensis 64 650 Gen Bruyne Munich Germany
r Codex Schlettstadtensis 57 700 Acts Morin Humanist Library of Sélestat Sélestat France
r Frisingensia Fragmenta 64 600 Gen Bavarian State Library Munich Germany
r1 Codex Usserianus Primus 14 650 Gospels Jülicher Trinity College, Dublin Dublin Ireland
r2 Codex Usserianus II 28 800 Gospels Jülicher Dublin Ireland
r3 Codex Monacensis 64 650 Paul Bruyne Munich Germany
ρ Codex Ambrosianus 24 700 John 13 Jülicher Ambrose Library Milan Italy
ρ 88 950 Paul Basel University Library Basel Switzerland
s Codex Ambrosianus 21 600 Luke; Gen Jülicher Ambrose Library Milan Italy
s Codex Bobiensis 53 550 Acts; Gen White National Library of Naples Naples Italy
sin Fragmentum Sinaiticum 74 950 Rev 20–21 Saint Catherine's Monastery Sinai Peninsula Egypt
t Codex Bernensis 19 500 Mark 1–3 Jülicher Bern University Library Bern Switzerland
t Liber Comicus 56 850 Acts; Gen; Rev Morin National Library of France Paris France
v Vindobonensis Lat. 502 25 650 Gospels Jülicher Vienna Austria
v Codex Parisiensis 81 800 Paul Souter National Library of France Paris France
w 32 550 Gen Duke Augustus Library Wolfenbüttel Germany
w 58 1400 Acts Clementinum Prague Czech Rep.
w Codex Waldeccensis 83 850 Paul Schultze
x Codex Bodleianus 850 Paul Wordsworth Bodleian Library Oxford U.K.
z Codex Harleianus 65 750 Gen Buchanan British Library London U.K.

Editions[edit]

by editor

For precision, publication data is given in the language of the title page of the edition. To make this information comprehensible to the English language reader, links are provided to English language article titles, where necessary and possible.

When a single editor is responsible for more than one edition, these are listed in alphabetical order of the sigla of the relevant manuscripts. In such cases, if the manuscript is not readily identifiable from the title, its name (siglum and number) are appended after the citation.

  • Buchanan, Edgar S. The Epistles and Apocalypse from the Codex Harleianus. Sacred Latin Texts 1. London, 1912.
  • Buchanan, Edgar S. The Four Gospels from the Codex Corbeiensis, together with fragments of the Catholic Epistles, of the Acts and of the Apocalypse from the Fleury Palimpsest. Old Latin Biblical Texts 5. Oxford, 1907. [Codex Floriacensis (h 55)]
  • Bruyne, Donatien de. Les Fragments de Freising— épitres de S. Paul et épttres catholiques. Collectanea Biblica Latina 5. Rome, 1921. (French)
  • Fischer, Bonifatius. Ein neuer Zeuge zum westlichen Text der Apostelgeschichte. Pages 33–63 in J. Neville Birdsall and R.W. Thomson (eds). Biblical and Patristic Studies in Memory of Robert Pierce Casey. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1963. (German)
  • Frede, HJ. Alttateinische Paulus-Handschriften. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1964. (German)
  • Gwynn, John. Liber Ardmachanus: The Book of Armagh. Dublin, 1913.
  • Jülicher, Adolf, Walter Matzkow and Kurt Aland (eds). Itala: Das Neue Testament in altlateinischer Überliefung. 4 volumes [Matthew–John]. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter and Company, 1938–1972. (German)
  • Matthaei, C. F., Novum Testamentum, XII, tomis distinctum Graece et Latine. Textum denuo recensuit, varias lectiones nunquam antea vulgatas ex centum codicibus MSS.... 12 volumes. Rigae, 1782-1788. (Latin)
  • Matthaei, C. F., Novum Testamentum, XIII. Epistolarum Pauli Codex Graecus cum versione Latino veteri vulgo Antehieronymiana olim Buernerianus nunc Bibliothecae Electoralis Dresdeiisis ... Lipsiae, 1791. (Latin)
  • Morin, Germain. Etudes, textes, découvertes. Contributions à la literature et a l'histoire des douxe premiers siècles. Anécdota Maredsolana, 2e Série 1. Paris: Abbaye de Maredsous, 1913. (French) [Codex Schlettstadtensis (r 57)]
  • Morin, Germain. Liber Comicus sive Lectionarius missae quo Toletana Ecclesia ante annos mille et ducentos utebatur. Anécdota Maredsolana 1. Marodsoli, 1893. (French)
  • Sanders, HA. 'The Text of Acts in Ms. 146 of the University of Michigan'. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 77 (1937): –.
  • de:Schultze, Victor. Codex Waldeccensis. München, 1904.
  • Scrivener, FHA. An Exact Transcript of the Codex Augiensis. Cambridge and London, 1859.
  • Souter, Alexander. Miscellanea Ehrle 1. Studi e Testi 137. Roma, 1924.
  • Tischendorf, Constantin von. Codex Claromontanus. Lipsiae, 1852.
  • Tischendorf, Constantin von. Codex Laudianus, sive Actus apostolorum Graeces et Latine. Monumenta sacra inedita, nova collectio 9. Lipsiae, 1870.
  • Tischendorf, Constantin von. Anecdota Sacra et Profana. Editio repetita, emendata, aucta. Lipsiae, 1861. [Codex Guelferbytanus (gue 79)]
  • White, Henry Julian. Portions of the Acts of the Apostles, of the Epistles of St. James, and of the First Epistle of St. Peter from the Bobbio Palimpsest. Old Latin Biblical Texts 4. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1897.
  • Wordsworth, John; Henry Julian White and others. Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Iesu Christi Latine Secundum Editionem Sancti Hieronymi. 3 volumes. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1889–1954.

Jerome's version[edit]

Vulgate of Mark 1:1ff in an illuminated manuscript held at Autun
Main article: Vulgate
s. Name AD Content Custodian City, State Country
A Codex Amiatinus 716 NT Laurentian Library Florence Italy
C Codex Cavensis 850 GospPaul; Rev Archivio della Badia della Santissima Trinità Cava de' Tirreni Italy
D Codex Durmachensis 650 Gospels Trinity College, Dublin Dublin Ireland
F Codex Fuldensis 541—46 NT de:Hochschul- und Landesbibliothek Fulda Fulda Germany
G Codex Sangermanensis 850 NT BnF Paris France
I 800 Biblioteca Vallicelliana (Italian) Rome Italy
K 850 Paul de:Badische Landesbibliothek Karlsruhe Germany
L Lectionarium Luxoviense 700 General
M Codex Mediolanensis 550 Gospels
N 450 Gospels Bibliothèque Municipale
National Library of France
Autun
Paris
France
P 600 Gospels
R Codex Reginensis 750 Paul Vatican Library Vatican City-State Vatican City
R 600 General Biblioteca Capitolare Verona Italy
S Codex Sangallensis 1395 450 Gospels Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
S Codex Sangallensis 2 750 Acts; Rev Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
S Codex Sangallensis 70 750 Paul Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
S Codex Sangallensis 907 750 General Abbey of St. Gall St. Gallen Switzerland
T Codex Toletanus 950 Old TestamentNT National Library of Spain Madrid Spain
Z Codex Harleianus 550 Gospels British Museum London U.K.
Θ Codex Theodulphianus 950 Old TestamentNT Bibliothèque nationale de France Paris France
Λ Codex Legionensis ActsRev Basilica of San Isidoro León Spain
Codex Complutensis I 927 Old TestamentNT Bibl. Univ. Centr. 31 Madrid Spain
11A Cod. M. p. th. f. 67 Gospels University of Würzburg Würzburg Germany

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "There is no such thing as a uniform version of the New Testament in Latin prior to Jerome's Vulgate". Elliott (1997:202).
  2. ^ Metzger, UBS4.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fischer, Bonifatius. (German) 'Varianten zu Matthäus'. In Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 13. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1988.
  • Fischer, Bonifatius. (German) 'Varianten zu Markus'. In Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 15. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1989.
  • Fischer, Bonifatius. (German) 'Varianten zu Lukas'. In Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 17. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1990.
  • Fischer, Bonifatius. (German) 'Varianten zu Johannes'. In Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 18. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1991.
  • Gryson, Roger. (German) (French) Altlateinische Handschriften/Manuscrits Vieux Latins 1-275 Vetus Latina 1/2A. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1999.
  • Gryson, Roger. (German) (French) Altlateinische Handschriften/Manuscrits Vieux Latins 300-485 Vetus Latina 1/2B. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 2004.
  • Sabatier, Pierre. (Latin) Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinae Versiones antiquae seu Vetus Italica. Remis, 1743.

External links[edit]

published in print
published on web