List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates

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The Norwegian Nobel Institute (its headquarters are shown above) assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in selecting recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and in organising the annual award in Oslo.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."[1] It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[2] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Parliament of Norway.[3] The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4] In 1901, Passy and Dunant shared a Prize of 150,782 Swedish kronor, which was equal to 7,731,004 kronor in 2008. In 2013, the Prize was awarded to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.[5] The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm.[6] Unlike the other prizes, the Peace Prize is occasionally awarded to an organisation (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, a three-time recipient) rather than an individual.

The prize is considered the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes with several of the selections having been criticised.[7][8] Despite having been nominated five times, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi never won the Prize. Following his assassination in 1948, the committee considered awarding it to him posthumously but decided against it and instead withheld the Prize that year with the explanation that "there was no suitable living candidate."[9] In 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, who died after his nomination but several months before the announcement, became the only laureate to be recognised posthumously; following this, the statutes were changed to make a future posthumous prize nearly impossible.[10] In 1973, Le Duc Tho declined the Prize, because "he was not in a position to accept the Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason."[11] Linus Pauling, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate in 1962, is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes; he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954.[11]

Laureates[edit]

As of 2013, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 101 individuals and 22 organizations. Fifteen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, more than any other Nobel Prize.[12] Only two recipients have won multiple Prizes: the International Committee of the Red Cross has won three times (1917, 1944, and 1963) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981).[11] There have been 19 years since its creation in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1901 Jean Henri Dunant.jpg Henry Dunant Switzerland For his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross[10][13]
Frederic Passy.jpg Frédéric Passy France "[For] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress"[10][13]
1902 Ducommun.jpg Élie Ducommun Switzerland "[For his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[10][14]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg Charles Albert Gobat "[For his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][14]
1903 Cremer.jpg William Randal Cremer United Kingdom "[For his role as the] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][15]
1904 Logo of Institut de Droit International.svg Institute of International Law Belgium "[F]or its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law"[10][16]
1905 Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg Bertha von Suttner Austria-Hungary For authoring Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[10][17]
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg Theodore Roosevelt United States "[F]or his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[10][18]
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Italy "[For his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[10][19]
Louis Renault jurist.gif Louis Renault France "[For his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"[10][19]
1908 KParnoldson.jpg Klas Pontus Arnoldson Sweden "[For his work as] founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League"[10][20]
Fredrik Bajer nobel.jpg Fredrik Bajer Denmark "[For being] the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau"[10][20]
1909 Beernaert.gif Auguste Beernaert Belgium "[For being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][21]
PaulBalluet.gif Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant France "[For] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[10][21]
1910 IPB logo svg.svg Permanent International Peace Bureau Switzerland "[For acting] as a link between the peace societies of the various countries"[22][23]
1911 TMCasser.jpg Tobias Asser Netherlands "[For being a] member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law"[10][24]
Alfred Hermann Fried nobel.jpg Alfred Fried Austria-Hungary "[For his work as] founder of the German Peace Society"[10][24]
1912 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg Elihu Root[A] United States "[F]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[10][25]
1913 HenriLaFontaine.jpg Henri La Fontaine Belgium "[For his work as] head of the International Peace Bureau"[10][26]
1914 Not awarded due to World War I.
1915
1916
1917 Emblem of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland "[For undertaking] the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides [of World War I], including their right to establish contacts with their families"[10][27]
1918 Not awarded due to World War I.
1919 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg Woodrow Wilson United States "[F]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[10][28]
1920 Léon Bourgeois.jpg Léon Bourgeois France "[For his participation] in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907" and for his work towards "what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'"[10][29]
1921 Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg Hjalmar Branting Sweden "[F]or his work in the League of Nations"[10][30]
Christian Lous Lange.jpg Christian Lange Norway "[For his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][30]
1922 Fridtjof Nansen LOC 03377u-3.jpg Fridtjof Nansen Norway "[For] his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine" and "his work for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace"[31][32]
1923 Not awarded
1924
1925 Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg Austen Chamberlain[A] United Kingdom For work on the Locarno Treaties[10][33]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Charles G. Dawes[A] United States "[F]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[10][33]
1926 Aristide Briand 2.jpg Aristide Briand France For work on the Locarno Treaties[10][34]
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg Gustav Stresemann Germany
1927 Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpg Ferdinand Buisson France "[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[10][35]
Ludwig Quidde nobel.jpg Ludwig Quidde Germany
1928 Not awarded
1929 FrankKellogg.jpg Frank B. Kellogg[A] United States "[F]or the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy"[10][36]
1930 Nathan Söderblom nobel.jpg Nathan Söderblom Sweden "[F]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[10][37]
1931 Jane Addams profile.jpg Jane Addams United States "[F]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[10][38]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpg Nicholas Murray Butler "[For his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[10][38]
1932 Not awarded
1933 Norman Angell 01.jpg Norman Angell[A] United Kingdom For authoring The Great Illusion and for being a "supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist [and] educator for peace in general"[39]
1934 Arthurhenderson.jpg Arthur Henderson United Kingdom "[F]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[10][40][41]
1935 Carl von Ossietzky.jpg Carl von Ossietzky[B] Germany "[For his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"[10][42]
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas.jpg Carlos Saavedra Lamas Argentina "[F]or his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia"[10][43]
1937 Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood - Project Gutenberg eText 15306.jpg Robert Cecil United Kingdom For his work with the League of Nations[10][44]
1938 Flag of the League of Nations (1939–1941).svg Nansen International Office for Refugees League of Nations For its work in aiding refugees[45]
1939 Not awarded due to World War II.
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944 Emblem of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland "[F]or the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity"[46]
1945 Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg Cordell Hull United States "[For] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[47]
1946 EmilyGreeneBalch.jpg Emily Greene Balch United States "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[48]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg John Raleigh Mott "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[48]
1947 Quaker star-T.svg Friends Service Council United Kingdom "compassion for others and the desire to help them"[49]
American Friends Service Committee United States
1948 Not awarded because "there was no suitable living candidate." (A tribute to the recently assassinated Gandhi, since the prize cannot be awarded posthumously.)[9]
1949 John Boyd Orr nobel.jpg The Lord Boyd-Orr United Kingdom "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agricultural Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[50]
1950 Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg Ralph Bunche United States "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[51]
1951 Léon Jouhaux nobel.jpg Léon Jouhaux France "President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations"[52]
1952 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpg Albert Schweitzer France "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[53]
1953 General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG George Catlett Marshall United States "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan'"[54]
1954 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[55]
1955 Not awarded
1956
1957 Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg Lester Bowles Pearson Canada "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[56] "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[10]
1958 Georges Pire 1958.jpg Georges Pire Belgium "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[57]
1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpg Philip J. Noel-Baker United Kingdom "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[58]
1960 Albert Lutuli nobel.jpg Albert Lutuli South Africa "President of the African National Congress,"[59] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[10]
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld cropped.JPG Dag Hammarskjöld[C] Sweden "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[60] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[10]
1962 Pauling.jpg Linus Carl Pauling United States "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing"[61]
1963 Emblem of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland For their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence.[62]
Emblem of the IFRC.svg League of Red Cross Societies
1964 Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg Martin Luther King, Jr. United States Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence."[63]
1965 United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) United Nations "An international aid organization." [64]
1966 Not awarded
1967
1968 René Cassin nobel.jpg René Cassin France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[65]
1969 Flag of ILO.svg International Labour Organization United Nations [66]
1970 Norman Borlaug (cropped).jpg Norman E. Borlaug United States "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[67] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[10]
1971 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt West Germany "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[68]
1972 Not awarded
1973 Henry Kissinger.jpg Henry Kissinger United States "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces"[10][69]
LeDucTho1973.jpg Le Duc Tho[D] North Vietnam
1974 Seán MacBride 1984.jpg Seán MacBride Ireland "President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[70] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[10]
Satō Eisaku.jpg Eisaku Satō Japan "Prime Minister of Japan,"[70] "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation"[10]
1975 RIAN archive 25981 Academician Sakharov.jpg Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov[E] Soviet Union "[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations"[71]
1976 Betty Williams.jpg Betty Williams United Kingdom/Ireland "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[72]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpg Mairead Corrigan
1977 Amnesty International United Kingdom "[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience"[10][73]
1978 Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat Egypt "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[74]
Menachem Begin 2.jpg Menachem Begin Israel
1979 MotherTeresa 090.jpg Mother Teresa India "Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[75]
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Argentina "Human rights leader;"[76] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[10]
1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[77]
1982 ARB-Alva-Myrdal.jpg Alva Myrdal Sweden "[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[78][79]
Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg Alfonso García Robles Mexico
1983 Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpg Lech Wałęsa Poland "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[80]
1984 Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg Desmond Tutu South Africa "Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"[81]
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War United States For "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."[82]
1986 Elie Wiesel.jpg Elie Wiesel United States "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[83]
1987 OscarArias.jpg Óscar Arias Costa Rica "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[84]
1988 Emblem of the United Nations.svg United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces United Nations "[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations"[85][86]
1989 Dalai Lama at WhiteHouse (cropped).jpg Tenzin Gyatso,
14th Dalai Lama
Tibet "In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."[87][88]
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1987.jpg Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev Soviet Union President of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"[89]
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi.jpg Aung San Suu Kyi[F] Burma "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"[90]
1992 Rigoberta Menchu Tum.JPG Rigoberta Menchú Guatemala "for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"[91]
1993 Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg Nelson Mandela South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[92]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg Frederik Willem de Klerk
1994 ArafatEconomicForum.jpg Yasser Arafat Palestine "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[93]
Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpg Yitzhak Rabin Israel
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpg Shimon Peres
1995 Josef Rotblat ID badge.png Joseph Rotblat United Kingdom "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[94]
Peace sign.svg Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Canada
1996 Carlosbelo.jpg Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo East Timor "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[95]
EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpg José Ramos-Horta
1997 Icbl english.pdf International Campaign to Ban Landmines Switzerland "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"[96]
JodyWilliamsMay2010.jpg Jody Williams United States
1998 John Hume 2008.jpg John Hume Ireland "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[97]
David Trimble at Lisburn Seed Group benefit, Hillsborough Castle, Christmas 2007 crop.jpg David Trimble United Kingdom
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières Switzerland "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"[98]
2000 Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png Kim Dae-jung South Korea "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[99]
2001 Emblem of the United Nations.svg United Nations United Nations "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[100]
Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry Wad Kofi Annan Ghana
2002 Jimmy Carter.jpg Jimmy Carter United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[101]
2003 Ebadi.jpg Shirin Ebadi Iran "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."[102]
2004 Wangari Maathai in Nairobi.jpg Wangari Muta Maathai Kenya "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[103]
2005 Flag of IAEA.svg International Atomic Energy Agency United Nations "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"[104]
Mohamed ElBaradei.jpg Mohamed ElBaradei Egypt
2006 Grameen Yunus Dec 04.jpg Muhammad Yunus Bangladesh "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"[105]
Grameen Bank
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change United Nations "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[106]
Al Gore.jpg Al Gore United States
2008 Martti Ahtisaari.jpg Martti Ahtisaari Finland "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[107]
2009 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama United States "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[108]
2010 Liu Xiaobo.png Liu Xiaobo[G] China "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"[109]
2011 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Liberia "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[110]
Leymah-gbowee-at-emu-press-conference.jpg Leymah Gbowee
Tawakkul Karman (2011).jpg Tawakkul Karman Yemen
2012 Flag of Europe.svg European Union (EU) Europe "for [having] over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."[111]
2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons International "for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons."[5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

A Elihu Root, Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes, Frank B. Kellogg, and Norman Angell were all awarded their respective Prizes one year late because the Committee decided that none of the nominations in the year in which they are listed as being awarded the Prize met the criteria in Nobel's will; per its rules the Committee delayed the awarding of the Prizes until the next year, although they were awarded as the previous year's Prize.[25][33][36][39]
B Carl von Ossietzky's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of Germany.[112]
C Dag Hammarskjöld's Prize was awarded posthumously.
D Le Duc Tho declined to accept the Prize.[69]
E Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of the Soviet Union.[113]
F Aung San Suu Kyi's Prize was awarded in absentia because she was being held prisoner by the government of Burma. Following her release from house arrest and election to the Pyithu Hluttaw, Suu Kyi accepted her award in person on 16 June 2012.[114]
G Liu Xiaobo's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was imprisoned in China.[115]

References[edit]

General
Specific
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