List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

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Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members and an executive secretary elected by the Karolinska Institute.[2][3] While commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel specifically stated that the prize be awarded for "physiology or medicine" in his will. Because of this, the prize can be awarded in a broader range of fields.[3] The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, of Germany. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[4] In 1901, von Behring received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2008. In 2013, the prize was awarded to James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof;[5] they were recognised "after discovering how cells precisely transport material".[6] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[7]

Laureates have won the Nobel Prize in a wide range of fields that relate to physiology or medicine. As of 2009, 8 Prizes have been awarded for contributions in the field of signal transduction by G proteins and second messengers, 13 have been awarded for contributions in the field of neurobiology and 13 have been awarded for contributions in Intermediary Metabolism.[3] Gerhard Domagk (1939), a German, was not allowed by his government to accept the prize. He later received a medal and diploma, but not the money.[8] Eleven women have won the prize: Gerty Cori (1947), Rosalyn Yalow (1977), Barbara McClintock (1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986), Gertrude B. Elion (1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck (2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn (2009), Carol W. Greider (2009), and May-Britt Moser[9] As of 2013, the prize has been awarded to 204 individuals. There have been nine years in which the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942).

Laureates[edit]

1901–1950[edit]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1901 EmilVonBehring.jpg Emil Adolf von Behring Germany "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[10]
1902 Ronald Ross.jpg Sir Ronald Ross United Kingdom "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[11]
1903 Niels ryberg.jpg Niels Ryberg Finsen Denmark
(Faroe Islands)
"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[12]
1904 Ivan Pavlov nobel.jpg Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Russia "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[13]
1905 RobertKoch cropped.jpg Robert Koch Germany "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"[14]
1906 Camillo Golgi nobel.jpg Camillo Golgi Italy "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[15]
Cajal-Restored.jpg Santiago Ramón y Cajal Spain
1907 Charles Laveran nobel.jpg Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran France "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"[16]
1908 Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity"[17]
Paul Ehrlich 4.jpg Paul Ehrlich Germany
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher nobel.jpg Emil Theodor Kocher Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[18]
1910 Kossel, Albrecht (1853-1927).jpg Albrecht Kossel Germany "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[19]
1911 Allvar Gullstrand.jpg Allvar Gullstrand Sweden "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"[20]
1912 Alexis Carrel 02.jpg Alexis Carrel France "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[21]
1913 Charles Robert Richet nobel.jpg Charles Richet France "[for] his work on anaphylaxis"[22]
1914 Robert Barany.jpg Robert Bárány Austria "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[23]
1915 Not awarded
1916
1917
1918
1919 Jules Bordet nobel.jpg Jules Bordet Belgium "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[24]
1920 August Krogh Bain 32006.jpg Schack August Steenberg Krogh Denmark "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"[25]
1921 Not awarded
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill.jpg Archibald Vivian Hill United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"[26]
Otto Fritz Meyerhof.jpg Otto Fritz Meyerhof Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[26]
1923 Fredrick banting.jpg Frederick Grant Banting Canada "for the discovery of insulin"[27]
J.J.R. Macleod ca. 1928.png John James Rickard Macleod Canada
1924 Willem Einthoven.jpg Willem Einthoven The Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[28]
1925 Not awarded
1926 J Fibiger.jpg Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Denmark "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[29]
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg.jpg Julius Wagner-Jauregg Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[30]
1928 Jules Nicole.jpg Charles Jules Henri Nicolle France "for his work on typhus"[31]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman.jpg Christiaan Eijkman The Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[32]
Frederick Gowland Hopkins nobel.jpg Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[32]
1930 Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg Karl Landsteiner Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[33]
1931 Otto Warburg.jpg Otto Heinrich Warburg Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[34]
1932 Prof. Charles Scott Sherrington.jpg Sir Charles Scott Sherrington United Kingdom "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[35]
Edgar Douglas Adrian nobel.jpg Edgar Douglas Adrian United Kingdom
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg Thomas Hunt Morgan United States "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"[36]
1934 George Whipple nobel.jpg George Hoyt Whipple United States "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[37]
George Minot nobel.jpg George Richards Minot United States
William P Murphy.jpg William Parry Murphy United States
1935 Hans Spemann nobel.jpg Hans Spemann Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[38]
1936 Henry Dale nobel.jpg Sir Henry Hallett Dale United Kingdom "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[39]
Otto Loewi nobel.jpg Otto Loewi Austria
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi cropped.jpg Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[40]
1938 Corneille Heymans nobel.jpg Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[41]
1939 Gerhard Domagk nobel.jpg Gerhard Domagk Germany "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[42]
1940 Not awarded
1941
1942
1943 Henrik Dam nobel.jpg Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[43]
Edward A Doisy.jpg Edward Adelbert Doisy United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[43]
1944 Joseph Erlanger nobel.jpg Joseph Erlanger United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[44]
Herbert Spencer Gasser nobel.jpg Herbert Spencer Gasser United States
1945 Alexander Fleming 1945.jpg Sir Alexander Fleming United Kingdom "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[45]
Ernst Boris Chain 1945.jpg Sir Ernst Boris Chain United Kingdom
Howard Walter Florey 1945.jpg Howard Walter Florey Australia
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller.jpg Hermann Joseph Muller United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[46]
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori.jpg Carl Ferdinand Cori United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[47]
Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz United States
Bernado Houssay.JPG Bernardo Alberto Houssay Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[47]
1948 Paul Hermann Müller nobel.jpg Paul Hermann Müller Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[48]
1949 Walter Hess.jpg Walter Rudolf Hess Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[49]
Moniz.jpg António Caetano Egas Moniz Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses"[49]
1950 Philip Showalter Hench.jpg Philip Showalter Hench United States "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[50]
Edward Calvin Kendall nobel.jpg Edward Calvin Kendall United States
Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpg Tadeusz Reichstein Switzerland
Poland

1951–2000[edit]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1951 Max Theiler nobel.jpg Max Theiler South Africa "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[51]
1952 Selman Waksman NYWTScrop.jpg Selman Abraham Waksman United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[52]
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs.jpg Sir Hans Adolf Krebs United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[53]
Portrait of Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986), Biochemist (2551001689).jpg Fritz Albert Lipmann United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[53]
1954 John Franklin Enders nobel.jpg John Franklin Enders United States "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[54]
Frederick Chapman Robbins nobel.jpg Frederick Chapman Robbins United States
Thomas Huckle Weller.jpg Thomas Huckle Weller United States
1955 Hugo Theorell nobel.jpg Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[55]
1956 André Frédéric Cournand nobel.jpg André Frédéric Cournand United States "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"[56]
Werner Forssmann nobel.jpg Werner Forssmann Federal Republic of Germany
Dickinson W. Richards nobel.jpg Dickinson W. Richards United States
1957 Daniel Bovet nobel.jpg Daniel Bovet Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[57]
1958 George Wells Beadle.jpg George Wells Beadle United States "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[58]
Edward Lawrie Tatum nobel.jpg Edward Lawrie Tatum United States
Joshua Lederberg crop.jpg Joshua Lederberg United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[58]
1959 Arthur Kornberg.jpg Arthur Kornberg United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[59]
Severo Ochoa nobel.jpg Severo Ochoa Spain
United States
1960 Frank Macfarlane Burnet nobel.jpg Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Australia "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[60]
Peter Brian Medawar.jpg Sir Peter Brian Medawar Brazil
United Kingdom
1961 Georg von Békésy nobel.jpg Georg von Békésy United States "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[61]
1962 Francis Crick crop.jpg Francis Harry Compton Crick United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[62]
JamesWatson.png James Dewey Watson United States
Maurice Wilkins nobel.jpg Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins New Zealand
United Kingdom
1963 Eccles lab.jpg Sir John Carew Eccles Australia "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[63]
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin nobel.jpg Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin United Kingdom
Andrew Fielding Huxley nobel.jpg Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley United Kingdom
1964 Konrad Bloch.JPG Konrad Bloch United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[64]
Feodor Lynen with pipette.jpg Feodor Lynen Federal Republic of Germany
1965 François Jacob nobel.jpg François Jacob France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[65]
André Lwoff nobel.jpg André Lwoff France
Jacques Monod nobel.jpg Jacques Monod France
1966 Peyton Rous nobel.jpg Peyton Rous United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"[66]
Charles Brenton Huggins nobel.jpg Charles Brenton Huggins United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[66]
1967 Ragnar Granit2.jpg Ragnar Granit Finland/Sweden "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[67]
Haldan Keffer Hartline nobel.jpg Haldan Keffer Hartline United States
George Wald nobel.jpg George Wald United States
1968 Robert W. Holley nobel.jpg Robert W. Holley United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[68]
Har Gobind Khorana nobel.jpg Har Gobind Khorana India
Marshall Nirenberg 2003.jpg Marshall W. Nirenberg United States
1969 Max Delbruck.jpg Max Delbrück United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[69]
Alfred Hershey.jpg Alfred D. Hershey United States
Salvador E. Luria ca.1969.jpg Salvador E. Luria Italy
United States
1970 Axelrod01.jpg Julius Axelrod United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[70]
Ulf von Euler.jpg Ulf von Euler Sweden
Sir Bernard Katz United Kingdom
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"[71]
1972 Gerald M. Edelman United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[72]
Rodney R. Porter United Kingdom
1973 Karl Ritter von Frisch.jpg Karl von Frisch Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[73]
Konrad Lorenz.JPG Konrad Lorenz Austria
Nikolaas Tinbergen 1978.jpg Nikolaas Tinbergen United Kingdom
1974 Albert Claude Belgium "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[74]
Christian de Duve Belgium
George E. Palade Romania
1975 DavidBaltimore2008.JPG David Baltimore United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[75]
Renato Dulbecco crop.jpg Renato Dulbecco Italy
United States
Howard Martin Temin United States
1976 Baruch Samuel Blumberg by Tom Trower (NASA).jpg Baruch S. Blumberg United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[76]
D. Carleton Gajdusek United States
1977 Roger Guillemin United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[77]
Schally portrait.jpg Andrew V. Schally United States
Rosalyn Yalow.jpg Rosalyn Yalow United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[77]
1978 Werner Arber 2008.jpg Werner Arber Switzerland "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[78]
Daniel Nathans United States
Hamilton Smith.jpg Hamilton O. Smith United States
1979 Allan M. Cormack South Africa "for the development of computer assisted tomography"[79]
Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield United Kingdom
1980 Baruj Benacerraf Venezuela "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[80]
Jean Dausset 1968.jpg Jean Dausset France
George D. Snell United States
1981 Roger W. Sperry United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[81]
David H. Hubel Canada "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[81]
Torsten Wiesel-7Nov2006.jpg Torsten N. Wiesel Sweden
1982 Sune Bergström.jpg Sune K. Bergström Sweden "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[82]
Bengt I. Samuelsson Sweden
John Robert Vane.jpg Sir John R. Vane United Kingdom
1983 Barbara McClintock United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[83]
1984 Niels Kaj Jerne 1950 crop.jpg Niels K. Jerne Denmark "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[84]
Georges J.F. Köhler Federal Republic of Germany
Milstein lnp.jpg César Milstein Argentina
United Kingdom
1985 Mike Brown 2003.jpg Michael S. Brown United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[85]
Joe Goldstein.JPG Joseph L. Goldstein United States
1986 Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpg Stanley Cohen United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[86]
Rita Levi Montalcini.jpg Rita Levi-Montalcini Italy
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Japan "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[87]
1988 James Black (pharmacologist).jpg Sir James W. Black United Kingdom "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[88]
Gertrude Elion.jpg Gertrude B. Elion United States
George H. Hitchings 1988.jpg George H. Hitchings United States
1989 Nci-vol-8172-300 j michael bishop.jpg J. Michael Bishop United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[89]
HEVarmus.jpg Harold E. Varmus United States
1990 Joseph E. Murray United States "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[90]
E. Donnall Thomas United States
1991 Erwin neher 2007 lindau.jpg Erwin Neher Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[91]
Sakmann.jpg Bert Sakmann Federal Republic of Germany
1992 Edmond H. Fischer Switzerland
United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[92]
Edwin G. Krebs.jpg Edwin G. Krebs United States
1993 Roberts, Richard John (1943).jpg Sir Richard J. Roberts United Kingdom "for their discoveries of split genes"[93]
Phillip A Sharp NIH.jpg Phillip A. Sharp United States
1994 Alfred G. Gilman United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[94]
Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998).jpg Martin Rodbell United States
1995 EdwardBLewis.jpg Edward B. Lewis United States "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[95]
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard mg 4383.jpg Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Federal Republic of Germany
Eric F. Wieschaus.jpg Eric F. Wieschaus United States
1996 Peter C. Doherty Australia "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[96]
Rolf Zinkernagel Erudite Conclave medical college trivandrum.jpg Rolf M. Zinkernagel Switzerland
1997 Prusiner 1.JPG Stanley B. Prusiner United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[97]
1998 Drfurchgott.jpg Robert F. Furchgott United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[98]
Loius Ignarro.jpg Louis J. Ignarro United States
Ferid Murad.jpg Ferid Murad United States
1999 Gunter Blobel 2008 1.JPG Günter Blobel Germany/United States "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[99]
2000 Arvid Carlsson 2011a.jpg Arvid Carlsson Sweden "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[100]
Paul Greengard.jpg Paul Greengard United States
Eric Richard Kandel.jpg Eric R. Kandel United States

2001–current[edit]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
2001 Leland H. Hartwell United States "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[101]
Tim hunt.jpg Sir Tim Hunt United Kingdom
Paul Nurse 2007.jpg Sir Paul M. Nurse United Kingdom
2002 Sydney Brenner South Africa "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[102]
H. Robert Horvitz United States
Sulston, John Edward (1942).jpg Sir John E. Sulston United Kingdom
2003 PaulLauterbur.jpg Paul Lauterbur United States "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[103]
Peter Mansfield Leipzig.jpg Sir Peter Mansfield United Kingdom
2004 Richard Axel.jpg Richard Axel United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[104]
LindaBuck cropped 1.jpg Linda B. Buck United States
2005 Marshall 2008.JPG Barry J. Marshall Australia "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[105]
Robin Warren.jpg J. Robin Warren Australia
2006 Andrew Fire, Stanford University.jpg Andrew Z. Fire United States "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[106]
Craig C. Mello United States
2007 Mario Capecchi UTHSCSA.JPG Mario R. Capecchi United States "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[107]
Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg Sir Martin J. Evans United Kingdom
Oliver-smithies.jpg Oliver Smithies United States
2008 Harald zur Hausen-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-6.jpg Harald zur Hausen Germany "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"[108]
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-1.jpg Françoise Barré-Sinoussi France "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"[108]
LucMontagnier1995 065.jpg Luc Montagnier France
2009 Elizabeth Blackburn 2009-01.JPG Elizabeth H. Blackburn United States
Australia
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"[109]
Carol Greider 2009-01.JPG Carol W. Greider United States
JSzostak.jpg Jack W. Szostak United States
2010 Sir Robert G. Edwards United Kingdom "for the development of in vitro fertilization"[110]
2011
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7512.jpg Bruce A. Beutler United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"[111]
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7584.jpg Jules A. Hoffmann France
Ralph M. Steinman United States
Canada
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[111]
(awarded posthumously)[112][113]
2012 John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG Sir John B. Gurdon United Kingdom "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[114]
Shinya Yamanaka Shinya Yamanaka Japan
2013 James E. Rothman United States "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[5]
Randy Schekman 8 February 2012.jpg Randy W. Schekman United States
Thomas C. Südhof United States
2014 John O'Keefe (neuroscientist) 2014b.jpg John O'Keefe United States
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"
May-Britt Moser Norway
Edvard I. Moser Norway

Notes[edit]

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physiology and medicine for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

References[edit]

General

Specific

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