List of Northern Cordilleran volcanoes

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Map of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province and location of nearby fault zones. The volcanoes fall into the region between the two faults.
Minor and major volcanoes of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province, including the Queen Charlotte, Denali and Tintina fault zones

The geography of northwestern British Columbia and Yukon, Canada is dominated by volcanoes of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province formed due to continental rifting of the North American Plate. It is the most active volcanic region in Canada.[1] Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Tseax Cone for its catastrophic eruption estimated to have occurred in the 18th century which was responsible for the death of at least 2,000 Nisga'a people from poisonous volcanic gases,[2] the Mount Edziza volcanic complex for at least 20 eruptions throughout the past 10,000 years, and The Volcano (also known as Lava Fork volcano) for the most recent eruption in Canada during 1904.[3] The majority of volcanoes in the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province lie in Canada while a very small portion of the volcanic province lies in the U.S. state of Alaska.

Volcanoes of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province are a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. The largest and most persistent volcanoes are the Mount Edziza volcanic complex and the Level Mountain Range in northwestern British Columbia which have had volcanic activity for millions of years. In the past 7.5 million years, the Mount Edziza volcanic complex has had five phases of volcanic activity while the Level Mountain Range north of Edziza has had three phases of volcanic activity in the past 14.9 million years.[4] The 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi) Mount Edziza volcanic complex has been made into a provincial park since 1972 to protect its volcanic landscape. The 102 Northern Cordilleran volcanoes in the list below are grouped into their political regions in north-south order.

Scope[edit]

There is no single standard definition for a volcano. It can be defined from individual vents, volcanic edificies or volcanic fields. Interior of ancient volcanoes may have been eroded, creating a new subsurface magma chamber as a separate volcano. Many contemporary volcanoes rise as young parasitic cones from flank vents or at a central crater. Some volcanoes are grouped into one volcano name, for instance, the Mount Edziza volcanic complex, although individual vents are named by local people. The status of a volcano, either active, dormant or extinct, cannot be defined precisely. An indication of a volcano is determined by either its historical records, potassium-argon dating, radiocarbon dating, or geothermal activities.

The primary source of the list below is taken from the Geological Survey of Canada website, compiled by the Earth Sciences Sector of Natural Resources Canada, in which Northern Cordilleran volcanoes in the past 66.4 million years are listed.[5] The Geological Survey of Canada use a catalogue of volcanoes grouped by volcano fields, lava fields and mountain ranges.[5] The Geological Survey of Canada list is the most complete list of volcanoes in the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province, but work of understanding the frequency and eruption characteristics at volcanoes in Canada is a slow process.[6] This is because most of Canada's dormant and potentially active volcanoes are located in isolated jagged regions, very few scientists study Canadian volcanoes and the provision of money in the Canadian government is limited.[6] Because of these issues, scientists that study Canada's volcanoes have a basic understanding of Canada's volcanic heritage and how it might impact people in the future.[6] Therefore, instead of using the dates of recorded eruptions, the Geological Survey of Canada mostly uses geological epochs for estimating when a volcano last erupted. Geological epoches include the Cenozoic (66.4 million years ago to present)[7] and its subdivisions Miocene (23.7 to 5.3 million years ago),[8] Pliocene (5.3 to 1.6 million years ago),[9] Quaternary (1.6 million years ago to present),[10] Pleistocene (1.6 to 0.01 million years ago)[11] and Holocene (0.01 million years ago to present).[12]

Political groups[edit]

Alaska[edit]

The northernmost portion of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province extends just across the Alaska-Yukon border into the Southeast Fairbanks Census Area of eastcentral Alaska. Here, a single cinder cone, dated at 177,000 years old occurs within the metamorphic and granitic composed upland of the Yukon-Tanana Terrane.[4][13] Prindle Volcano is approximately 31 km (19 mi) west of the Alaska-Yukon border.[4]

Volcanoes
Name Type Last eruption Location
Prindle Volcano Cinder cone Pleistocene 63°43′N 141°37′W / 63.72°N 141.62°W / 63.72; -141.62
Source: Geological Survey of Canada.[1]

Yukon[edit]

Jagged landscape of mountains with a small lake in the near middle.
Alligator Lake (right-middle) and the Alligator Lake volcanic field

The central portion of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province extends through Yukon where very few Northern Cordilleran volcanoes exist. Near the junction of the Yukon and Pelly rivers in central Yukon lies the Fort Selkirk Volcanic Field.[14] It is the northernmost Holocene age volcanic field in Canada, consisting of a sequence of valley-filling basalt and basanite lava flows.[14] Further south near the capital city of Whitehorse, a group of volcanoes and lava flows were constructed near Alligator Lake possibly in the past 10,000 years.[15]

Volcanoes
Name Type Last eruption Location
Volcano Mountain Cinder cone Holocene 62°56′N 137°22′W / 62.93°N 137.37°W / 62.93; -137.37
Fort Selkirk Vent Cinder cone Pleistocene 62°46′N 137°25′W / 62.77°N 137.42°W / 62.77; -137.42
Ne Ch'e Ddhawa Cinder cone Pleistocene 62°28′N 137°14′W / 62.47°N 137.24°W / 62.47; -137.24
Ibex Mountain Cinder cone Pleistocene 60°32′N 135°31′W / 60.53°N 135.52°W / 60.53; -135.52
Watson Lake Cone Cinder cone Pleistocene 60°00′N 129°00′W / 60.00°N 129.00°W / 60.00; -129.00
Erupted products
Name Type Age Location
Clinton Creek Lava flow Pliocene 64°24′N 140°38′W / 64.40°N 140.63°W / 64.40; -140.63
Forty Mile Unknown Miocene 64°23′N 140°30′W / 64.38°N 140.5°W / 64.38; -140.5
Moose Creek Unknown Cenozoic 64°10′N 140°55′W / 64.16°N 140.91°W / 64.16; -140.91
Sixty Mile Unknown Miocene 64°03′N 140°44′W / 64.05°N 140.74°W / 64.05; -140.74
Rosebud Creek Lava flow Pliocene 63°15′N 138°14′W / 63.25°N 138.24°W / 63.25; -138.24
Yukon River Lava flow Pleistocene 62°50′N 137°42′W / 62.83°N 137.7°W / 62.83; -137.7
Holbrook Creek Lava flow Pleistocene 62°48′N 137°59′W / 62.80°N 137.98°W / 62.80; -137.98
Mushroom Lava flow Pliocene 62°48′N 137°27′W / 62.80°N 137.45°W / 62.80; -137.45
Pelly Formation Lava flow Pleistocene 62°48′N 137°30′W / 62.80°N 137.5°W / 62.80; -137.5
Wolverine Formation Lava flow Pleistocene 62°42′N 137°24′W / 62.70°N 137.4°W / 62.70; -137.4
Minto Lava flow Holocene 62°36′N 137°12′W / 62.60°N 137.2°W / 62.60; -137.2
Miles Canyon Basalts Lava flow Miocene 60°24′N 135°00′W / 60.40°N 135.00°W / 60.40; -135.00
Source: Geological Survey of Canada.[1]

British Columbia[edit]

Over half of the Northern Cordilleran volcanoes are located in northwestern British Columbia. This portion is where the most recent eruptions in Canada and of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province have occurred, including the catastrophic 18th century eruption of Tseax Cone and the 1904 eruption of The Volcano.[3][16]

The Northern Cordilleran volcanoes of British Columbia comprises shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes, subglacial volcanoes, lava domes and a large number of small cinder cones and associated lava plains.[4] The Northern Cordilleran volcanoes of northwestern British Columbia are disposed along short, northerly trending segments which are unmistakably involved with north-trending rift structures including synvolcanic grabens and grabens with one major fault line along only one of the boundaries (half-grabens) similar to those associated with the East African Rift, which extends from the Afar Triple Junction southward across eastern Africa.[4]

Volcanoes
Name Type Last eruption Location
Volcanic Creek Cone Cinder cone Holocene 59°45′N 133°27′W / 59.75°N 133.45°W / 59.75; -133.45
Cracker Creek Cone Cinder cone Quaternary 59°42′N 133°17′W / 59.70°N 133.29°W / 59.70; -133.29
Ruby Mountain Cinder cone Historic 59°41′N 123°20′W / 59.68°N 123.33°W / 59.68; -123.33
Iverson Creek Volcano Outcrop Pleistocene 59°30′N 130°17′W / 59.50°N 130.28°W / 59.50; -130.28
Toozaza Peak Tuya Pleistocene 59°30′N 130°18′W / 59.50°N 130.3°W / 59.50; -130.3
Klinkit Lake Peak Tuya Pleistocene 59°29′N 131°00′W / 59.49°N 131.00°W / 59.49; -131.00
Klinkit Creek Peak Tuya Pleistocene 59°28′N 131°17′W / 59.47°N 131.28°W / 59.47; -131.28
Gabrielse Cone Cinder cone Holocene 59°26′N 130°28′W / 59.44°N 130.46°W / 59.44; -130.46
Mount Sanford Outcrop Cenozoic 59°25′N 132°45′W / 59.42°N 132.75°W / 59.42; -132.75
Cottonwood Peak Outcrop Pleistocene 59°24′N 130°15′W / 59.40°N 130.25°W / 59.40; -130.25
Ash Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 59°16′N 130°30′W / 59.27°N 130.5°W / 59.27; -130.5
Chakatah Creek Peak Subglacial mound Pleistocene 59°15′N 131°02′W / 59.25°N 131.03°W / 59.25; -131.03
Caribou Tuya Subglacial mound Pleistocene 59°14′N 130°34′W / 59.24°N 130.56°W / 59.24; -130.56
South Tuya Subglacial mound Pleistocene 59°13′N 130°30′W / 59.21°N 130.5°W / 59.21; -130.5
Mathews Tuya Subglacial mound Pleistocene 59°12′N 130°26′W / 59.20°N 130.43°W / 59.20; -130.43
Tuya Butte Tuya Pleistocene 59°08′N 130°33′W / 59.13°N 130.55°W / 59.13; -130.55
Isspah Butte Tuya Pleistocene 59°04′N 131°19′W / 59.07°N 131.32°W / 59.07; -131.32
Mount Josephine Subglacial mound Pleistocene 59°36′N 130°42′W / 59.6°N 130.7°W / 59.6; -130.7
Chikoida Mountain Outcrop Cenozoic 59°12′N 133°24′W / 59.2°N 133.4°W / 59.2; -133.4
Meehaz Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 59°00′N 131°26′W / 59.00°N 131.44°W / 59.00; -131.44
Kawdy Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 58°53′N 131°14′W / 58.88°N 131.23°W / 58.88; -131.23
Nuthinaw Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 58°47′N 131°04′W / 58.79°N 131.06°W / 58.79; -131.06
Tutsingale Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 58°47′N 130°52′W / 58.78°N 130.87°W / 58.78; -130.87
Dark Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 58°38′N 129°21′W / 58.64°N 129.35°W / 58.64; -129.35
Heart Peaks Shield volcano Pleistocene 58°36′N 131°58′W / 58.60°N 131.97°W / 58.60; -131.97
Swinton Creek Volcano Outcrop Pleistocene 58°34′N 129°50′W / 58.57°N 129.84°W / 58.57; -129.84
Little Eagle Cone Subglacial mound Pleistocene 58°31′N 129°43′W / 58.52°N 129.71°W / 58.52; -129.71
Meszah Peak Outcrop Pleistocene 58°29′N 131°26′W / 58.48°N 131.43°W / 58.48; -131.43
Dome Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 58°27′N 129°35′W / 58.45°N 129.59°W / 58.45; -129.59
Level Mountain Range Shield volcano Pleistocene 58°25′N 131°21′W / 58.42°N 131.35°W / 58.42; -131.35
Enid Creek Cone Subglacial mound Pleistocene 58°23′N 129°31′W / 58.38°N 129.52°W / 58.38; -129.52
Kana Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°54′N 130°37′W / 57.90°N 130.62°W / 57.90; -130.62
Sidas Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°52′N 130°38′W / 57.87°N 130.63°W / 57.87; -130.63
Castle Rock Volcanic plug Pleistocene 57°50′N 131°09′W / 57.84°N 131.15°W / 57.84; -131.15
Eve Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°49′N 130°40′W / 57.82°N 130.67°W / 57.82; -130.67
Triplex Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°48′N 130°37′W / 57.80°N 130.62°W / 57.80; -130.62
Twin Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°48′N 130°32′W / 57.80°N 130.53°W / 57.80; -130.53
Sleet Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°47′N 130°33′W / 57.78°N 130.55°W / 57.78; -130.55
Williams Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°47′N 130°36′W / 57.78°N 130.6°W / 57.78; -130.6
Klastline Cone Cinder cone Pleistocene 57°47′N 130°30′W / 57.78°N 130.5°W / 57.78; -130.5
Tsekone Ridge Subglacial mound Pleistocene 57°46′N 130°41′W / 57.77°N 130.69°W / 57.77; -130.69
Storm Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°46′N 130°38′W / 57.77°N 130.63°W / 57.77; -130.63
Moraine Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°46′N 130°37′W / 57.77°N 130.62°W / 57.77; -130.62
Glacier Dome Lava dome Pleistocene 57°46′N 130°35′W / 57.77°N 130.58°W / 57.77; -130.58
The Pyramid Lava dome Pleistocene 57°46′N 130°34′W / 57.77°N 130.57°W / 57.77; -130.57
Pillow Ridge Subglacial mound Pleistocene 57°46′N 130°38′W / 57.76°N 130.64°W / 57.76; -130.64
Sphinx Dome Lava dome Pleistocene 57°45′N 130°35′W / 57.75°N 130.58°W / 57.75; -130.58
Cinder Cliff Cinder cone Holocene 57°45′N 130°34′W / 57.75°N 130.57°W / 57.75; -130.57
Triangle Dome Lava dome Pleistocene 57°43′N 130°39′W / 57.72°N 130.65°W / 57.72; -130.65
Mount Edziza Stratovolcano Pleistocene 57°43′N 130°38′W / 57.72°N 130.63°W / 57.72; -130.63
Nanook Dome Lava dome Pleistocene 57°43′N 130°36′W / 57.72°N 130.6°W / 57.72; -130.6
Ice Peak Stratovolcano Holocene 57°42′N 130°38′W / 57.70°N 130.63°W / 57.70; -130.63
Icefall Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°42′N 130°36′W / 57.70°N 130.6°W / 57.70; -130.6
Tennena Cone Subglacial mound Holocene 57°41′N 130°40′W / 57.68°N 130.67°W / 57.68; -130.67
Ridge Cone Cinder cone Pleistocene 57°41′N 130°37′W / 57.68°N 130.62°W / 57.68; -130.62
The Neck Volcanic plug Pleistocene 57°40′N 130°35′W / 57.66°N 130.59°W / 57.66; -130.59
Cocoa Crater Cinder cone Holocene 57°39′N 130°42′W / 57.65°N 130.7°W / 57.65; -130.7
Pharaoh Dome Lava dome Pleistocene 57°39′N 130°36′W / 57.65°N 130.6°W / 57.65; -130.6
Coffee Crater Cinder cone Holocene 57°38′N 130°40′W / 57.63°N 130.67°W / 57.63; -130.67
The Saucer Cinder cone Holocene 57°38′N 130°38′W / 57.63°N 130.63°W / 57.63; -130.63
Kena Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°36′N 130°41′W / 57.60°N 130.68°W / 57.60; -130.68
Sezill Volcano Lava dome Miocene 57°35′N 130°37′W / 57.59°N 130.62°W / 57.59; -130.62
Camp Hill Cinder cone Holocene 57°35′N 130°47′W / 57.58°N 130.78°W / 57.58; -130.78
Walkout Creek Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°35′N 130°45′W / 57.58°N 130.75°W / 57.58; -130.75
IGC Centre Lava dome Miocene 57°34′N 130°37′W / 57.56°N 130.62°W / 57.56; -130.62
Cartoona Ridge Lava dome Miocene 57°34′N 130°34′W / 57.56°N 130.57°W / 57.56; -130.57
Tadeda Centre Lava dome Miocene 57°32′N 130°37′W / 57.54°N 130.61°W / 57.54; -130.61
Cache Hill Cinder cone Holocene 57°32′N 130°40′W / 57.53°N 130.67°W / 57.53; -130.67
Armadillo Peak Stratovolcano Miocene 57°32′N 130°33′W / 57.53°N 130.55°W / 57.53; -130.55
Mess Lake Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°28′N 130°45′W / 57.47°N 130.75°W / 57.47; -130.75
Little Iskut Outcrop Pliocene 57°28′N 130°33′W / 57.47°N 130.55°W / 57.47; -130.55
The Ash Pit Volcanic crater Holocene 57°27′N 130°47′W / 57.45°N 130.78°W / 57.45; -130.78
Spectrum Range Shield volcano Holocene 57°26′N 130°41′W / 57.43°N 130.68°W / 57.43; -130.68
Outcast Hill Cinder cone Pleistocene 57°24′N 130°46′W / 57.40°N 130.77°W / 57.40; -130.77
Maitland Volcano Shield volcano Pliocene 57°24′N 129°42′W / 57.40°N 129.7°W / 57.40; -129.7
Exile Hill Cinder cone Pliocene 57°23′N 130°49′W / 57.38°N 130.82°W / 57.38; -130.82
Spectrum Dome Lava dome Pliocene 57°23′N 130°41′W / 57.38°N 130.68°W / 57.38; -130.68
Yeda Peak Lava dome Pliocene 57°23′N 130°41′W / 57.38°N 130.68°W / 57.38; -130.68
Tadekho Hill Subglacial mound Pleistocene 57°21′N 130°47′W / 57.35°N 130.78°W / 57.35; -130.78
Nahta Cone Cinder cone Holocene 57°19′N 130°49′W / 57.32°N 130.82°W / 57.32; -130.82
Wetalth Ridge Subglacial mound Pleistocene 57°19′N 130°47′W / 57.32°N 130.78°W / 57.32; -130.78
Source Hill Cinder cone Pleistocene 57°17′N 130°49′W / 57.28°N 130.82°W / 57.28; -130.82
Thaw Hill Cinder cone Pleistocene 57°17′N 130°49′W / 57.28°N 130.82°W / 57.28; -130.82
Little Bear Mountain Tuya Pleistocene 56°48′N 131°18′W / 56.80°N 131.3°W / 56.80; -131.3
Hoodoo Mountain Stratovolcano Holocene 56°47′N 131°17′W / 56.78°N 131.28°W / 56.78; -131.28
Tom MacKay Creek Cone Subglacial mound Pleistocene 56°43′N 130°34′W / 56.71°N 130.56°W / 56.71; -130.56
Iskut Canyon Cone Cinder cone Holocene 56°43′N 130°36′W / 56.71°N 130.6°W / 56.71; -130.6
Snippaker Creek Cone Cinder cone Holocene 56°38′N 130°52′W / 56.63°N 130.87°W / 56.63; -130.87
Cinder Mountain Subglacial mound Pleistocene 56°34′N 130°37′W / 56.57°N 130.61°W / 56.57; -130.61
Cone Glacier Volcano Cinder cone Holocene 56°34′N 130°40′W / 56.56°N 130.66°W / 56.56; -130.66
King Creek Cone Subglacial mound Pleistocene 56°29′N 130°40′W / 56.49°N 130.66°W / 56.49; -130.66
The Volcano Cinder cone Historic 56°25′N 130°51′W / 56.42°N 130.85°W / 56.42; -130.85
Seconed Canyon Cone Cinder cone Holocene 56°25′N 130°43′W / 56.41°N 130.72°W / 56.41; -130.72
The Thumb Volcanic plug Pleistocene 56°10′N 126°42′W / 56.16°N 126.7°W / 56.16; -126.7
Tseax Cone Cinder cone Historic 55°07′N 128°54′W / 55.12°N 128.9°W / 55.12; -128.9
Crow Lagoon Cinder cone Pleistocene 54°42′N 130°14′W / 54.7°N 130.23°W / 54.7; -130.23
Erupted products
Name Type Age Location
Anderson Bay Lava flow Miocene 59°18′N 133°45′W / 59.3°N 133.75°W / 59.3; -133.75
Desolation Lava Field Lava field Holocene 57°49′N 130°37′W / 57.82°N 130.62°W / 57.82; -130.62
Snowshoe Lava Field Lava field Holocene 57°39′N 130°40′W / 57.65°N 130.67°W / 57.65; -130.67
Sheep Track Pumice Pumice deposit Holocene 57°38′N 130°40′W / 57.64°N 130.67°W / 57.64; -130.67
Mess Lake Lava Field Lava field Holocene 57°28′N 130°45′W / 57.47°N 130.75°W / 57.47; -130.75
A large open mountain covered with ice and snow rising over the surrounding landscape.
Northwestern flank of Mount Edziza
Landscape of a flat plain with two groups of mountains.
Satellite image of the Level Mountain Range (middle) and Heart Peaks (upper-left corner)
Landscape of a mountain range.
The Level Mountain Range with extensive elevated plateau in the foreground
Rock exposed near glacial ice.
Hoodoo Glacier and lava flows on the flanks of Hoodoo Mountain
Open area of lava beds right by a road.
Nass valley lava beds formed by eruptions of the Tseax Cone
A valley filled with rugged rock in a mountainous area.
Recently extruded basaltic lava at the Blue River
Source: Geological Survey of Canada.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Stikine volcanic belt". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  2. ^ "Tseax Cone". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  3. ^ a b "Lava Forks Provincial Park". BC Parks. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Wood, Charles A.; Kienle, Jürgen (2001). Volcanoes of North America: United States and Canada. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 109, 114, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125. ISBN 978-0-521-43811-7. OCLC 27910629. 
  5. ^ a b "Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes". Geological Survey of Canada. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  6. ^ a b c "Volcanoes". Natural Resources Canada. 2007-09-05. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  7. ^ "Chikoida Mountain". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  8. ^ "Armadillo Peak". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  9. ^ "Maitland Volcano". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  10. ^ "Cracker Creek cone". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  11. ^ "Kawdy Mountain". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  12. ^ "Hoodoo Mountain". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  13. ^ "Map of Canadian volcanoes". Volcanoes of Canada. Geological Survey of Canada. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  14. ^ a b "Fort Selkirk". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  15. ^ "Alligator Lake". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  16. ^ "Tseax River Cone". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 

External links[edit]