List of Ottoman Grand Viziers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Grand Vizier of
the Ottoman Empire
Former political post
Sadrazamlik-nisanlari.svg
Seal of the Grand Vizier
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha chair.jpg
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
First officeholder Alaeddin Pasha
Last officeholder Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Style His Highness
Official residence Bab-ı Ali
Appointer The Sultan
Office began 1328
Office ended 1 November 1922

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state; the viziers in conference were called "kubbealtı viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under the dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman Viziers who was titled "Grand Vizier" was Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "Grand Vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the Sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more frequently used title of vezir-i âzam was gradually replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been termed sadr-ı âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-ı ekrem, serdar-ı azam and zât-ı âsafî ('vizieral person') and başnazır,[1] literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.

In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the Grand Vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a Prime Minister in other European states.[2] Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908–1920) further brought the office of the Grand Vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the Grand Vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament.

List of Grand Viziers[edit]


Coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Grand Viziers Flag of the Ottoman Empire

Grand Viziers

Name Took office Left office Background notes
1. Alaeddin Pasha 1320 1331 Turk[3]
2. Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha 1331 1348 Turk[4]
3. Hacı Pasha 1348 1349 Turk[4]
4. Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha 1349 1364 Turk[4]
5. Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder) 1364 22 January 1387 Turk, from Cendere (or Çandar), a village near Ankara; see Çandarlı family. The first vizier to hold the title "grand vizier" and also the first with a military background.
6. Çandarlı Ali Pasha 1387 1406 Turk[5] (Çandarlı family)
7. "Osmancıklı" Imamzade Halil Pasha 1406 1413 Turk,[5] from Osmancık
8. "Amasyalı" Beyazid Pasha 1413 1421 Turk,[5] from Amasya, of Albanian origin[6][7]
9. Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Elder 1421 1429 Turk[5] (Çandarlı family)
10. Amasyalı Hazır Dânişmendoğlu Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha 1429 1439 Turk,[5] from Osmancık or Amasya
11. Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger 1439 1 June 1453 Turk[8] (Çandarlı family). First grand vizier who was executed.
12. Zaganos Pasha 1453 1456 Devşirme. Albanian, Greek or Serb.
13. Mahmud Pasha Angelović (1st time) 1456 1468 Devşirme. Greek[8] or Serb[8]
14. Rum Mehmed Pasha 1468 1469 Greek[8]
15. İshak Pasha (1st time) 1469 1472 Croat[8] or Greek[8][9]
16. Mahmud Pasha Angelović (2nd time) 1472 1474 Devşirme. Greek[8] or Serb[8]
17. Gedik Ahmed Pasha 1474 1477 Albanian[10] or Greek[10] or Serb.[11]
18. Karamanlı Mehmed Pasha 1477 1481 Turk,[10] from Karaman
19. İshak Pasha (2nd time) 1481 1482 Croat<[10] or Greek.[9][10]
20. Koca Davud Pasha 1482 1497 Albanian[10]
21. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (Ahmed Hercegović) (1st time) 1497 1498 Devşirme. From Herzegovina[10] (Kosača family)
22. Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger 1498 1499 Turk[12] (Çandarlı family)
23. Mesih Pasha 1499 1501 Devşirme. Greek (Member of the Palaiologos family, according to von Hammer)[12]
24. Hadim Ali Pasha (1st time) 1501 1503 Devşirme,[12] from Albania[13] (Hadim = Manservant)
25. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (Ahmed Hercegović) (2nd time) 1503 1506 Devşirme. From Herzegovina[10] (Kosača family)
26. Hadim Ali Pasha (2nd time) 1506 1511 Devşirme,[12] from Albania[13] (Hadim = Manservant)
27. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (Ahmed Hercegović) (3rd time) 1511 1511 Devşirme. From Herzegovina[10] (Kosača family)
28. Koca Mustafa Pasha 1511 1512 Greek (Rum), and not a devşirme.[14][15] Possibly "Western" (Frenk)[15][citation needed]
29. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (Ahmed Hercegović) (4th time) 1512 28 November 1514 Devşirme. From Herzegovina[10] (Kosača family)
30. Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha 18 December 1514 8 September 1515 Albanian.[16] (Dukagjin family)
31. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (Ahmed Hercegović) (5th time) 8 September 1515 26 April 1516 Devşirme. From Herzegovina[10] (Kosača family)
32. Hadım Sinan Pasha 26 April 1516 22 January 1517 Devşirme,[17] from the noble Boronivic family (Hadim = Manservant)
33. Yunus Pasha 22 January 1517 13 September 1517 Devşirme,[17] Greek, Pomak, Serb, or Croat origin.[18]
34. Piri Mehmed Pasha 25 January 1518 27 June 1523 Turk,[17] from Aksaray
35. Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, also called Frenk Ibrahim Pasha 27 June 1523 14 March 1536 Greek from Parga (The nickname Frenk refers to his European manners and tastes)
36. Ayas Mehmed Pasha 14 March 1536 13 July 1539 Devşirme. Albanian[19] from Vlora or Delvina
37. Çelebi Lütfi Pasha 13 July 1539 April 1541 Devşirme. Albanian,[20] from Avlonya (Vlorë) (Çelebi = a refined gentleman with good manners)
38. Hadim Süleyman Pasha April 1541 28 November 1544 Devşirme.[20] Hungarian eunuch.[21] (Hadim = Manservant)
39. Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (1st time) 28 November 1544 6 October 1553 Devşirme. Croat[20] from Skradin (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
40. Kara Ahmed Pasha 6 October 1553 29 September 1555 Albanian[22]
41. Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (2nd time) 29 September 1555 10 July 1561 Devşirme. Croat[20] from Skradin (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
42. Semiz Ali Pasha 10 July 1561 28 June 1565 From Bosnia[22]
43. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (Мехмед-паша Соколовић) 28 June 1565 12 October 1579 Devşirme. Serb from Bosnia [23][24][25] (Sokolović family)
44. Şemsi Pasha[citation needed] 12 October 1579 28 April 1580 Turk[citation needed]
45.Vekîl-i Saltanat Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha 28 April 1580 7 August 1580 From Bosnia. (Lala = a tutor to a Sultan)
46. Koca Sinan Pasha (1st time) 7 August 1580 6 December 1582 Albanian[26]
47. Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1st time) 24 December 1582 25 July 1584 Hungarian[26] from Nagykanizsa
48. Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha 28 July 1584 29 October 1585 Turk[27] or Circassian[27] Mameluks
49. Hadim Mesih Pasha 1 November 1585 14 April 1586 Devşirme[27] unknown origin (Hadim = Manservant)
50. Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (2nd time) 14 April 1586 2 April 1589 Hungarian[26] from Nagykanizsa
49. Koca Sinan Pasha (2nd time) 14 April 1589 1 August 1591 Albanian[28]
50. Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1st time) 1 August 1591 4 April 1592 Albanian[28]
51. Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (3rd time) 4 April 1592 28 January 1593 Hungarian[26] from Nagykanizsa
52. Koca Sinan Pasha (3rd time) 28 January 1593 16 February 1595 Albanian[29]
53. Serdar Ferhad Pasha (2nd time) 16 February 1595 7 July 1595 Albanian[29]
54. Koca Sinan Pasha (4th time) 7 July 1595 19 November 1595 Albanian[29]
55. Tekeli Lala Mehmed Pasha 19 November 1595 28 November 1595 Turk,[30] from Manisa (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan)
56. Koca Sinan Pasha (5th time) 1 December 1595 3 April 1596 Albanian[30]
57. Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1st time) 4 April 1596 27 October 1596 From Bosnia[31] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
58. (Cağaloğlu/Cağalazâde) Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha 27 October 1596 5 December 1596 Italian.[32] From the noble Genoese family of Cicala.
59. Damat Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time) 5 December 1596 3 November 1597 Bosniak[32][citation needed] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
60. Hadim Hasan Pasha 3 November 1597 9 April 1598 Devşirme[32] unknown origin
61. Cerrah Mehmed Pasha 9 April 1598 6 January 1599 Devşirme (?)[33] (Cerrah = Surgeon)
62. Damat Ibrahim Pasha (3rd time) 6 January 1599 10 July 1601 Bosniak[33][citation needed] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
63. Yemişçi Hasan Pasha 22 July 1601 4 October 1603 Albanian[33] (Yemişçi = Fruit-vendor; in reference to his previous profession)
63. Yavuz Ali Pasha 16 October 1603 26 July 1604 Bosniak.[34] "The Malkoçoğlu Family, properly known as Malković."
64. Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha 5 August 1604 21 June 1606 Serb [34] (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan). Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's nephew.
66. Dervish Mehmed Pasha 21 June 1606 9 December 1606 Bosniak[34]
67. Kuyucu Murad Pasha 11 December 1606 5 August 1611 Bosniak[35] (Kuyucu = The well-digger; name given since he had the habit of burying his enemies in wells)
68. Gümülcineli Damat Nasuh Pasha 5 August 1611 17 October 1614 Albanian,[35] from Gümülcine. (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty). One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan.
69. Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 17 October 1614 17 November 1616 Turk,[35] from Istanbul (Öküz = Oxen; literally Mehmed Pasha the Oxen; name given since he was heavily built)
70. Damat Halil Pasha (1st time) 17 November 1616 18 January 1619 Armenian,[36] from Zeytun (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
71. Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 18 January 1619 23 December 1619 Turk,[36] from Istanbul
72. Güzelce Ali Pasha 23 December 1619 9 March 1621 (?)[36] (Güzelce = Handsome)
73. Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha 9 March 1621 17 September 1621 Albanian,[37] from Ohri
74. Dilaver Pasha 17 September 1621 20 May 1622 Bosniak[37]
75. Kara Davud Pasha 20 May 1622 13 June 1622 Bosniak[37]
76. Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1st time) 13 June 1622 8 July 1622 Albanian[37] ("Mere!" = "Take it!" in Albanian; purportedly the only grand vizier who did not speak Turkish, named after the oft-repeated order he gave on the subject of opponents' heads)
77. Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha 8 July 1622 21 September 1622 Turk,[38] from former Lefke, today Orhaneli
78. Hadim Mehmed Pasha (Hadım -'Eunuch'- Mehmed Pasha) 21 September 1622 5 February 1623 Georgian[38] (Gürcü = Georgian)
79. Mere Hüseyin Pasha (2nd time) 5 February 1623 30 August 1623 Albanian[38]
80. Kemankeş Kara Ali Pasha 30 August 1623 3 April 1624 Turk[38] (Kemankeş = Archer)
81. Çerkes Mehmed Pasha 3 April 1624 28 January 1625 Circassian[39] (Çerkes = Circassian)
82. Hafız Ahmed Pasha (1st time) 8 February 1625 1 December 1626 Pomak,[39] from Filibe. One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan.
83. Damat Halil Pasha (2nd time) 1 December 1626 6 April 1628 Armenian,[39] from Zeytun (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
84. Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha 6 April 1628 25 October 1631 Bosniak[40]
85. Hafız Ahmed Pasha (2nd time) 25 October 1631 10 February 1632 Pomak[40] from Filibe.
86. Topal Recep Pasha 10 February 1632 18 May 1632 Bosniak[40] (Topal = Lame)
87. Tabanıyassi Mehmed Pasha 18 May 1632 2 February 1637 Albanian[40] (from Drama)(Tabanıyassı = Flat-footed)
67. Bayram Pasha 2 February 1637 26 August 1638 Turk,[41] from Istanbul
68. Tayyar Mehmed Pasha 27 August 1638 24 December 1638 Turk[41]
90. Kemankeş Kara Mustafa Pasha 23 December 1638 31 January 1644 Albanian[42] (Kemankeş = Archer)
91. Sultanzade Mehmet Pasha (Civan Kapucubaşı Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha) 31 January 1644 17 December 1645 Albanian[42] (Sultanzade = Son of a female member of the Ottoman dynasty)
92. Nevesinli Salih Pasha 17 December 1645 16 September 1647 Bosniak[43] from Nevesinje.
93. Kara Musa Pasha 16 September 1647 21 September 1647 (?)[43] Not included in some lists. The imperial seal was sent to him by way of sea to Crete where he was in campaign, but he fell in front of the castle of Kandiye (Iraklion) five days after his naming to the rank and before receiving the seal.
94. Hezarpare Ahmet Pasha 21 September 1647 8 August 1648 Greek (?),[43] from Istanbul. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier upon Kara Musa Pasha's death. (Hezarpare = Thousand pieces; literally Ahmed Pasha the Thousand Pieces; name given by chroniclers since he was lynched by the mob)
95. Sofu Mehmed Pasha (or Mevlevi Mehmed Pasha) 8 August 1648 21 May 1649 (?)[44] (Sofu = Devout and see Mevlevi)
96. Kara Murat Pasha (Kara Dev Murat Pasha) 21 May 1649 5 August 1651 Albanian[44] (Dev = Giant)
97. Melek Ahmed Pasha 5 August 1651 21 August 1651 Abazin[44] (Melek = Angel)
98. Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (1st time) 21 August 1651 27 September 1651 Abazin[45]
99. Gürcü Mehmed Pasha 27 September 1651 20 June 1652 Georgian[45] (Gürcü - Georgian)
100. Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha 20 June 1652 21 March 1653 Albanian[45] (Tarhoncu, more seldom transcribed as Tarhoncu = 'Tarragon vendor'; in reference to his former profession)
101. Koca Dervish Mehmed Pasha 21 March 1653 28 October 1654 Circassian[45]
102. İpşiri Mustafa Pasha 28 October 1654 11 May 1655 Abazin[46] (İpşiri = Bearer of good news) One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan.
103. Kara Murat Pasha (2nd time) 11 May 1655 19 August 1655 Albanian[46]
104. Ermeni Suleyman Pasha 19 August 1655 28 February 1656 Armenian[46] Ermeni means Armenian. From Malatya.
105. Deli Gazi Hüseyin Pasha, also called Deli Hüseyin Pasha 28 February 1656 5 March 1656 Turk,[47] from Yenişehir. Not included in some lists. The imperial seal was sent to him by way of sea to Crete where he was in campaign, but the ships were called back because of Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha's lobbying, who had been appointed in-attorney in between but wanted the full title for him. (Deli = Mad; due to his daring and courage in the battlefield)
106. Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha (held office for 4 hours) 5 March 1656 5 March 1656 Albanian[47] (Zurnazen = Clarinettist). Not included in some lists. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier due to the influence he exerted on the sultan for Gazi Hüseyin Pasha's dismissal from the office. His appointment caused an uprising in Istanbul and he was exiled after having held the seal for four hours.
107. Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (2nd time) 5 March 1656 25 April 1656 Abazin[47]
108. Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha 26 April 1656 15 September 1656 Turk,[48] from Samsun (Boynu yaralı = Wounded neck)
109. Köprülü Mehmed Pasha 15 September 1656 31 October 1661 Albanian,[48] from the region of Rushnik, associated with his wife's hometown of Köprü in north-central Anatolia, called Vezirköprü today in honor of the family. (see; Köprülü family)
110. Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha 31 October 1661 19 October 1676 Albanian[48] (see Köprülü family)
111. Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha 19 October 1676 25 December 1683 Turk from Merzifon (adopted son in the Albanian Köprülü family)
112. Kara İbrahim Pasha 15 December 1683 18 November 1685 Turk[49]
113. Sarı Süleyman Pasha 18 November 1685 18 September 1687 Bosniak[50] (Sarı = Blond)
114. Abaza Siyavuş Pasha 18 September 1687 23 February 1688 Abazin[50]
115. Ayaşlı İsmail Pasha 23 February 1688 2 May 1688 Turk[51] from Ayaş)
116. Bekri Mustafa Pasha 30 May 1688 7 November 1689 Turk,[51] from Tekirdağ.
117. Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha 10 November 1689 19 August 1691 Albanian[51] (Köprülü family)
118. Arabacı Ali Pasha 24 August 1691 21 March 1692 Albanian[52] (Arabacı = Coachman; in reference to his background)
119. Merfizonlu Hacı Ali Pasha 23 March 1692 17 March 1693 Turk,[52] from Merzifon.
120. Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha 17 March 1693 March 1694 Turk,[53] from Bozok (Yozgat today).
121. Sürmeli Ali Pasha 13 March 1694 22 April 1695 (?)[53] Greek[citation needed] (from Dimetoka) (Sürmeli = One who has eyes tinged with kohl)
122. Elmas Mehmed Pasha 3 May 1695 11 September 1697 Turk[54] (Elmas = Diamond)
123. Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha 17 September 1697 4 September 1702 Albanian[54] (Köprülü family).
124. Daltaban Mustafa Pasha 4 September 1702 24 January 1703 Bosniak[55] according to Joseph von Hammer, from Manastır (Daltaban = Barefoot)
125. Rami Mehmed Pasha 25 January 1703 22 August 1703 Turk (?),[55] from Istanbul
126. Kavanoz Ahmed Pasha 22 August 1703 16 November 1703 Russian[56] (Kavanoz = A jar; named as such because purportedly very short and fat)
127. Damat Hasan Pasha 18 November 1703 28 September 1704 Greek[9][56][57] Ottoman, from Morea, Greece (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
128. Kalaylıkoz Hacı Ahmed Pasha October 1704 25 December 1704 Turk[56] (Kalaylıkoz = Varnished; a reference on his fondness for make-up, ornaments and dresses)
129. Teberdar/Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 25 December 1704 3 May 1706 Turk,[58] from Osmancık.
130. Çorlulu Damat Ali Pasha 3 May 1706 15 June 1710 Turk (?),[58] from Çorlu (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
131. Köprülü Numan Pasha 16 June 1710 17 August 1710 Albanian[58] (Köprülü family).
132. Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 18 August 1710 20 November 1711 Turk,[58] from Osmancık.
133. Ağa Yusuf Pasha 20 November 1711 11 November 1712 Georgian[59]
134. Silahtar Süleyman Pasha 12 November 1712 6 April 1713 Abazin[59]
135. Hoca Ibrahim Pasha 6 April 1713 7 April 1713 Turk,[59] from Serez (Serres)
136. Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha 27 April 1713 5 August 1716 Turk[60] from İznik (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
137. Hacı Halil Pasha 21 August 1716 October 1717 Albanian[60]
138. Nişancı Mehmed Pasha October 1717 9 May 1718 Turk (?),[60] from Kayseri
139. Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha 9 May 1718 16 October 1730 Turk,[60] from Nevşehir. (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
140. Silahdar Damat Mehmed Pasha 16 October 1730 23 January 1731 Turk (?),[61] from Istanbul (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
141. Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha 23 January 1731 11 September 1731 Turk,[61] from Şebinkarahisar (Kabakulak = Someone with mumps)
142. Topal Osman Pasha 21 September 1731 12 March 1732 Turk[62] (Topal = Lame)
143. Hekimbaşızâde/Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1st time) 12 March 1732 14 July 1735 Italian[62] (son of Venetian convert Hekimbaşı Nuh Efendi)
144. Gürcü İsmail Pasha 14 July 1735 25 December 1735 Georgian[62] (Gürcü = Georgian)
145. Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (tr) 10 January 1736 5 August 1737 Turk (?),[63] from Dimetoka
146. Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha 22 August 1737 19 December 1737 Arab (?),[63] from Aleppo
147. Yeğen Mehmed Pasha 3 December 1737 23 March 1739 Turk[63] (Yeğen = Nephew, of the Sultan in his case)
148. İvaz Mehmed Pasha 17 March 1739 23 June 1740 Albanian[64]
149. Nişancı Hacı Ahmed Pasha 22 July 1740 7 April 1742 Turk,[64] from Alanya
150. Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (2nd time) 21 April 1742 4 October 1742 Italian[64] (son of Venetian convert Hekimbaşı Nuh Efendi)
151. Seyyid Hasan Pasha 4 October 1742 10 August 1746 Turk,[64] from Karahisar (Şebinkarahisar today)
152. Tiryaki Hacı Mehmed Pasha 11 August 1746 24 August 1747 (?)[65] (Tiryaki= Someone who has an addiction, to tobacco, opium, alcohol etc.). Reputed to have taken measures which made the prices of these substances plummet during his office.
153. Seyyid Abdullah Pasha 24 August 1747 2 January 1750 Arab (?),[65] from Kerkük
154. Devâtdar/Divitdar Mehmed Pasha 9 January 1750 1 July 1752 (?),[65] from Istanbul
155. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1st time) 1 July 1752 16 February 1755 Turk (?),[65] from Çorlu (Köse = A bowl, someone with no beard)
156. Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (3rd time) 16 February 1755 19 May 1755 Italian[66] (son of Venetian convert Hekimbaşı Nuh Efendi)
157. Naili Abdullah Pasha 19 May 1755 24 August 1755 Turk,[66] from Istanbul
158. Silahdar Bıyıklı Ali Pasha, aka Nişancı Ali Pasha 24 August 1755 23 October 1755 Turk (?)[66]
159. Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha 25 October 1755 1 April 1756 Georgian,[66] from Edirne (Yirmisekiz = Twenty-eight; named as such because his father, Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi, had served in the 28th battalion ("orta") in the corps of Janissaries)
160. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (2nd time) 30 April 1756 3 December 1756 Turk,[67] from Çorlu (Köse = A bowl, someone with no beard)
161. Koca Ragıp Pasha 12 January 1757 8 April 1763 Turk,[67] from Istanbul
162. Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha 11 April 1763 29 September 1763 Turk,[68] from Develi
163. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (3rd time) 29 September 1763 30 March 1765 Turk (?),[68] from Çorlu
164. Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 30 March 1765 7 August 1768 Arab (?),[68] son of Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha
165. Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha 7 August 1768 20 October 1768 Turk,[68] from Develi
166. Yağlıkçızade Mehmed Emin Pasha October 1768 12 August 1769 Turk,[69] from Istanbul
167. Moldovancı Ali Pasha 12 August 1769 12 December 1769 Turk,[69] from Daday
168. Ivazzade Halil Pasha 13 December 1769 25 December 1770 Albanian[69] (son of İvaz Mehmed Pasha)
169. Silahdar Mehmed Pasha 25 December 1770 11 December 1771 Turk (?),[70] from Istanbul
170. Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) December 1771 6 August 1774 (Arap ?)[70]
171. Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 11 August 1774 7 July 1775 [71]
172. Moralı Dervish Mehmed Pasha 7 July 1775 5 January 1777 Turk[70] (from Mora = The Peloponnese)
173. Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha 5 January 1777 1 September 1778 Turk,[72] from Darende.
174. Kalafat Mehmed Pasha 1 September 1778 22 August 1779 Bulgarian,[72] from Sofia (Kalafat = Caulker).
175. Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (tr) August 1779 20 February 1781 Turk,[72] from Arabsun near Kırşehir
176. Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 20 February 1781 25 August 1782 [71]
177. Yeğen Hacı Mehmed Pasha 25 August 1782 31 December 1782 Turk[73] (Yeğen = Nephew, to the Ottoman sultan in his case).
178. Halil Hamid Pasha 31 December 1782 30 April 1785 Turk,[73] from Isparta. Great-grandfather of Kemal Derviş, current administrator of the UNDP.
179. Şahin Ali Pasha 30 April 1785 25 January 1786 Georgian[73]
180. Koca Yusuf Pasha (1st time) 25 January 1786 28 May 1789 Georgian[73]
181. Cenaze Hasan Pasha or Meyyit Hasan Pasha 28 May 1789 2 January 1790 Circassian[74] ("Cenaze" or "Meyyit" = A funeral, a corpse; literally "Hasan Pasha the Funeral" or "Hasan Pasha the Corpse"; named as such because he was in his deathbed, seriously ill, throughout his term)
182. Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha 2 January 1790 30 March 1790 (?),[74] possibly with origins related to any which one of the Caucasian/Iranian ethnicities, bought as a slave in childhood in eastern Turkey, raised by Turkish family in Tekirdağ. His name Cezayirli means from Algiers since he had been a corsair there.
183. Çelebizade Şerif Hasan Pasha 16 April 1790 12 February 1791 (?),[74] from Rusçuk.
184. Koca Yusuf Pasha (2nd time) 12 February 1791 1792 Georgian[75]
185. Damat Melek Mehmed Pasha 1792 21 October 1794 Serb[75] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
186. Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmet Pasha 21 October 1794 23 October 1798 Turk,[75] from Safranbolu.[76]
187. Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1st time) 23 October 1798 24 June 1805 Georgian[77] (Kör = Blind)
188. Bostancıbaşı Hafız İsmail Pasha 24 September 1805 13 October 1806 (?)[77]
189. Keçiboynuzu İbrahim Hilmi Pasha 13 October 1806 3 June 1807 Turk (?)[77] (Keçiboynuzu = Carob fruit, named as such because purportedly an extremely puny person)
190. Çelebi Mustafa Pasha 3 June 1807 29 July 1808 (?)[78] (Çelebi = A refined gentleman with good manners)
191. Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, also called (Bayrakdar Mustafa Pasha) 29 July 1808 15 November 1808 Albanian (?),[78] from Rusçuk. (Alemdar or Bayraktar = standard bearer, same rank with two different names among the Janissaries)
192. Çavuşbaşı Memiş Pasha 16 November 1808 December 1808 Albanian[78] (Çavuşbaşı = Head sergent)
Çarhacı Ali Pasha[citation needed] December 1808 March 1809 Turk[citation needed] (Çarhacı = Skirmisher)
193. Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (2nd time) March 1809 February 1811 Georgian[79]
194. Laz Ahmed Pasha February 1811 July 1812 Turk (?),[79] Laz[citation needed]
195. Hurşit Ahmed Pasha July 1812 30 March 1815 Georgian,[79] the only grand vizier who committed suicide (while in office)
196. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1st time) 30 March 1815 6 January 1818 Turk[79]
197. Burdurlu Dervish Mehmed Pasha 6 January 1818 5 January 1820 (?),[80] from Burdur
198. Seyyid Ali Pasha 5 January 1820 21 April 1821 Turk[80]
199. Benderli Ali Pasha 21 April 1821 30 April 1821 (?),[80] from Bender (Moldavia today). The last grand vizier who was executed upon an order clearly given by the sultan (because of the Greek War of Independence).
200. Izmirli Hacı Salih Pasha (tr) 30 April 1821 11 November 1822 Donmeh (?)[80]
201. Bostancıbaşı Deli Abdullah Pasha 11 November 1822 4 March 1823 Turk[81] (Deli = Mad, literally Abdullah Pasha the Mad)
202. Turnacızade Silahdar Ali Pasha 4 March 1823 13 December 1823 (?)[81]
203. Mehmed Said Galip Pasha 13 December 1823 15 September 1824 Turk[81]
204. "Benderli" Mehmed Selim Pasha 15 September 1824 26 October 1828 (?),[81] from Bender (Moldavia today)
205. Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 26 October 1828 28 January 1829 Turk,[82] from Darende.
206. Reşid Mehmed Pasha January 1829 17 February 1833 Georgian or Greek[82]
207. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (2nd time) 17 February 1833 8 July 1839 Turk[82]
208. Husrev Pasha 8 July 1839 29 May 1841 Abazin[83]
209. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (3rd time) 29 May 1841 7 October 1841 Turk[83]
210. Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 7 October 1841 3 September 1842 Turk[84] from Darende
211. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (4th time) 3 September 1842 31 July 1846 Turk[84]
212. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1st time) 31 July 1846 28 April 1848 Turk[84]
213. İbrahim Sarim Pasha 28 April 1848 13 August 1848 Turk[85]
214. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (2nd time) 13 August 1848 27 January 1852 Turk[85]
215. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (5th time) 27 January 1852 7 March 1852 Turk[85]
216. Koca Mustafa Reşit Pasha (3rd time) 7 March 1852 7 August 1852 Turk[86]
217. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1st time) 7 August 1852 4 October 1852 Turk[86]
218. Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha 4 October 1852 14 May 1853 Hamsheni [87](Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman Dynasty).
219-220. Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st time) 14 May 1853 30 May 1854 Albanian,[88] from Egypt, called Giritli=Cretan because he had served as governor in that island for a long time.
221. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1st time) 30 May 1854 24 November 1854 Turk,[89] from Cyprus
222. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (4th time) 24 November 1854 4 May 1855 Turk[89]
223. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (2nd time) 4 May 1855 1 December 1856 Turk[90]
224. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (5th time) 1 December 1856 2 August 1857 Turk[90]
225. Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd time) 2 August 1857 23 October 1857 Albanian[90]
226. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (6th time) 23 October 1857 7 January 1858 Turk[90]
227. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (3rd time) 11 January 1858 8 October 1859 Turk[91]
228. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (2nd time) 8 October 1859 24 December 1859 Turk,[91] from Cyprus
229. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (1st time) 24 December 1859 27 May 1860 Turk[91] (Mütercim = A translator, an interpreter)
230. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (3rd time) 27 May 1860 6 August 1861 Turk,[92] from Cyprus
231. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (4th time) 6 August 1861 22 November 1861 Turk[92]
232. Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1st time) 22 November 1861 6 January 1863 Turk,[92] from Konya (Keçecizade family).
233. Yusuf Kamil Pasha 6 January 1863 3 June 1863 Turk[93]
234. Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (2nd time) 3 June 1863 5 June 1866 Turk[93]
235. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (2nd time) 5 June 1866 11 February 1867 Turk[94]
236. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (5th time) 11 February 1867 7 September 1871 Turk[94]
237. Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1st time) September 1871 31 July 1872 Georgian,[94] was often called Nedimoff due to his Russophile policies
238. Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (1st time) 31 July 1872 19 October 1872 Turk (?),[95] family from Rusçuk, born in Istanbul.
239. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (3rd time) 19 October 1872 February 1873 Turk[95]
240. Sakızlı Ahmed Esat Pasha (1st time) 15 February 1873 15 April 1873 Turk,[95] from Sakız/Chios
241. Şirvanlı Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha 15 April 1873 14 February 1874 Turk[95] or Kurd[citation needed], from Şirvan.
242. Hüseyin Avni Pasha 14 February 1874 25 April 1875 Turk[96]
243. Sakızlı Ahmed Esat Pasha (2nd time) April 1875 August 1875 Turk,[96] from Sakız (Chios)
244. Mahmud Nedim Pasha (2nd time) 21 August 1875 11 May 1876 Georgian[96]
245. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (4th time) 12 May 1876 19 December 1876 Turk[96]
246. Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (2nd time) 19 December 1876 5 February 1877 Turk (?)[97] The last grand vizier who was executed -while in exile in Taif-. Whether or not there was a direct order from the Sultan Abdulhamid II remains subject of discussion to this day.)
247. İbrahim Edhem Pasha 5 February 1877 11 January 1878 Greek,[97] from Chios/Sakız; sold as a slave in childhood to -later- Grand Vizier Husrev Pasha during the 1822 events in that island)
248. Ahmed Hamdi Pasha 11 January 1878 4 February 1878 Abazin[98]
249. Ahmed Vefik Pasha 4 February 1878 18 April 1878 Turk,[98] from Istanbul.
250. Mehmed Sadık Pasha 18 April 1878 28 May 1878 Turk[99]
251. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (5th time) 28 May 1878 4 June 1878 Turk[99]
252. Saffet Pasha 4 June 1878 October 1878 Turk[100]
253. Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha October 1878 28 July 1879 Abazin[100]
254. Ahmed Arifi Pasha 28 July 1879 September 1879 Turk[100]
255. Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) 18 October 1879 9 June 1880 Turk[101]
256. Kadri Pasha 9 June 1880 12 September 1880 Turk,[101] from Antep
257. Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time) 12 September 1880 2 May 1882 Turk[102]
258. Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha 2 May 1882 12 July 1882 Turk,[102] from Kütahya (Germiyanid family)
259. Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time) 12 July 1882 30 November 1882 Turk[103]
260. Ahmed Vefik Pasha (2nd time) 1 December 1882 3 December 1882 Turk[103]
261. Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time) 3 December 1882 24 September 1885 Turk[103]
262. Kâmil Pasha (1st time) 25 September 1885 4 September 1891 Turk,[104] from Cyprus.
263. Ahmed Cevat Şakir Pasha 4 September 1891 8 June 1895 Turk,[104] from Kabaağaç in Afyonkarahisar (Şakirpaşazade family)
264. Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time) 9 June 1895 3 October 1895 Turk[104]
265. Kâmil Pasha (2nd time) 3 October 1895 7 November 1895 Turk,[105] from Cyprus.
266. Halil Rifat Pasha 7 November 1895 9 November 1901 Turk (?),[105] from Serez
267. Mehmed Said Pasha (6th time) 13 November 1901 15 January 1903 Turk[105]
268. Avlonyalı Mehmed Ferid Pasha 15 January 1903 22 July 1908 Albanian,[106] from Avlonya (Vlorë)
269. Mehmed Said Pasha (7th time) 22 July 1908 6 August 1908 Turk[106]
270. Kâmil Pasha (3rd time) 5 August 1908 14 February 1909 Turk,[106] from Cyprus
271. Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1st time) 14 February 1909 14 April 1909 Greek[107] or Turk[108] from Cyprus
272. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1st time) 14 April 1909 5 May 1909 Turk[108]
273. Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (2nd time) 5 May 1909 12 January 1910 Greek or Turk, from Midilli
274. İbrahim Hakkı Pasha 12 January 1910 30 September 1911 Turk (?)[109]
275-276. Mehmed Said Pasha (8th time) 30 September 1911 22 July 1912 Turk[109]
277. Ahmed Muhtar Pasha 22 July 1912 29 October 1912 Turk,[110] from Bursa
278. Kâmil Pasha (4th time) 29 October 1912 23 January 1913 Turk,[111] from Cyprus
279. Mahmud Shevket Pasha 23 January 1913 11 June 1913 Chechen (?),[111] Circassian[112] and/or Arab[113] Ottoman, from Baghdad
280. Said Halim Pasha 12 June 1913 4 February 1917 Albanian (?)[114] Albanian origins (from the family of the Khedives of Egypt)
281. Mehmed Talaat Pasha 4 February 1917 14 October 1918 (?),[114] from Edirne
282-283. Ahmed Izzet Pasha 14 October 1918 11 November 1918 Albanian[115][116] Ottoman, from Istanbul
284. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (2nd time) 11 November 1918 4 March 1919 Turk[117]
285-287. Damat Ferid Pasha (1st time) 4 March 1919 2 October 1919 Albanian[117] Serbian with family origins in the village of Potoci, near Pljevlja (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
288. Ali Rıza Pasha 2 October 1919 8 March 1920 Turk (?),[118] from Istanbul
289. Salih Hulusi Pasha 8 March 1920 5 April 1920 Circassian,[118] from Istanbul
290-291. Damat Ferid Pasha (2nd time) 5 April 1920 21 October 1920 Albanian[118] Serbian with family origins in the village of Potoci, near Pljevlja (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
292. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (3rd time) 21 October 1920 1 November 1922 Turk,[119] last grand vizier

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ http://books.google.com.tr/books?id=kRZXAAAAYAAJ&q=Ba%C5%9FnaZIR&dq=Ba%C5%9FnaZIR&hl=tr&sa=X&ei=SzawU6uUDcSQ7Ab_vYDYAw&ved=0CDYQ6AEwBQ
  2. ^ http://books.google.com.tr/books?id=QjzYdCxumFcC&pg=PA235&dq=GRAND+VIZIER+HAD+BECOME+COMPATIBLE+WITH+THAT+OF+A+prime+minister&hl=tr&sa=X&ei=iDSwU-iRCsmK7Ab3gIEI&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=GRAND%20VIZIER%20HAD%20BECOME%20COMPATIBLE%20WITH%20THAT%20OF%20A%20prime%20minister&f=false
  3. ^ İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971, p. 7. (Turkish)
  4. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 8. (Turkish)
  5. ^ a b c d e Danişmend (1971), p. 9. (Turkish)
  6. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=q2YopOyq66AC&pg=PT246&dq=bayezid+pasha+albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ryECVNa8GOLm7AaJrIC4Dw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=bayezid%20pasha%20albanian&f=false
  7. ^ http://books.google.al/books?id=ptXG0uA70lAC&pg=PA55&dq=bayezid+pasha+albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ryECVNa8GOLm7AaJrIC4Dw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=bayezid%20pasha%20albanian&f=false
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Danişmend (1971), p. 10. (Turkish)
  9. ^ a b c Radushev, Evg (2003). Inventory of Ottoman Turkish documents about Waqf preserved in the Oriental Department at the St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. p. 228. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Danişmend (1971), p. 11. (Turkish)
  11. ^ Theoharis Stavrides (2001). The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic (1453-1474) ISBN 978-90-04-12106-5. Brill Academic Publishers. 
  12. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 12. (Turkish)
  13. ^ a b Türkçülük ve Türkçülük mücadeleleri tarihi. 1969. p. 53. "10 - Hadım Ali Paşa (Arnavut-devşirme, köle)" 
  14. ^ Türkçülük ve Türkçülük mücadeleleri tarihi. 1969. p. 53. "11 - Koca Mustafa Paşa (Rum)" 
  15. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 13. (Turkish)
  16. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 14. (Turkish)
  17. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 15. (Turkish)
  18. ^ Alper, Omer Mahir, "Yunus Paşa", (1999) Yaşamları ve Yapıtlarıyla Osmanlılar Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul:Yapı Kredi Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık A.Ş. C.2 s.678 ISBN 975-08-0072-9
  19. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 16. (Turkish)
  20. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 17. (Turkish)
  21. ^ A military history of modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War by Andrew James McGregor p.30 [1]
  22. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 18. (Turkish)
  23. ^ Samarčić, Radovan (2004). Sokollu Mehmet Paşa (3rd ed.) Istanbul: Aralik. ISBN 975-8823-62-0
  24. ^ Kočan, Ismet (Dec. 21, 2005). Mit i stvarnost - Mehmed-paša Sokolović, Večernje Novosti Online.
  25. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 19. (Turkish)
  26. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 21. (Turkish)
  27. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 22. (Turkish)
  28. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 23. (Turkish)
  29. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 24. (Turkish)
  30. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 25. (Turkish)
  31. ^ Islamic Desk Reference: Compiled from "The Encyclopaedia of Islam", E. J. Van Donzel, BRILL, 1994, p.165. "Bosnian origin" 
  32. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 26. (Turkish)
  33. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 27. (Turkish)
  34. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 28. (Turkish)
  35. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 29. (Turkish)
  36. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 30. (Turkish)
  37. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 31. (Turkish)
  38. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 32. (Turkish)
  39. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 33. (Turkish)
  40. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 34. (Turkish)
  41. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 35. (Turkish)
  42. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 36. (Turkish)
  43. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 37. (Turkish)
  44. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 38. (Turkish)
  45. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 39. (Turkish)
  46. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 40. (Turkish)
  47. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 41. (Turkish)
  48. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 42. (Turkish)
  49. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 44. (Turkish)
  50. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 45. (Turkish)
  51. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 46. (Turkish)
  52. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 47. (Turkish)
  53. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 48. (Turkish)
  54. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 49. (Turkish)
  55. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 50. (Turkish)
  56. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 51. (Turkish)
  57. ^ Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy, Nicole Svobodny, Ludmilla A. Trigos (2006). Under the sky of my Africa: Alexander Pushkin and blackness. Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8101-1971-4. "Shortly afterward a new grand vizier, Hasan, came to take the place of the old one, and he held his post during the period we are interested in: from November 16, 1703, to September 28, 1704. He was the new sultan's son-in-law… "he was a very honest and comparatively humane pasha of Greek origin and cannot be suspected of selling the sultan's pages to a foreigner."" 
  58. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 52. (Turkish)
  59. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 53. (Turkish)
  60. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 54. (Turkish)
  61. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 55. (Turkish)
  62. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 56. (Turkish)
  63. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 57. (Turkish)
  64. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 58. (Turkish)
  65. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 59. (Turkish)
  66. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 60. (Turkish)
  67. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 61. (Turkish)
  68. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 62. (Turkish)
  69. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 63. (Turkish)
  70. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 64. (Turkish)
  71. ^ a b Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman, eds., Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Beşiktaş, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, pp. 848–849 
  72. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 65. (Turkish)
  73. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 66. (Turkish)
  74. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 67. (Turkish)
  75. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 68. (Turkish)
  76. ^ Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman, eds., Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Beşiktaş, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, p. 849 
  77. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 69. (Turkish)
  78. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 70. (Turkish)
  79. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 71. (Turkish)
  80. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 72. (Turkish)
  81. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 73. (Turkish)
  82. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 74. (Turkish)
  83. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 75. (Turkish)
  84. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 76. (Turkish)
  85. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 77. (Turkish)
  86. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 78. (Turkish)
  87. ^ History and identity among the Hemshin -HOVANN H. SIMONIAN -172
  88. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 79. (Turkish)
  89. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 80. (Turkish)
  90. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 81. (Turkish)
  91. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 82. (Turkish)
  92. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 83. (Turkish)
  93. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 84. (Turkish)
  94. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 85. (Turkish)
  95. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 86. (Turkish)
  96. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 87. (Turkish)
  97. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 88. (Turkish)
  98. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 89. (Turkish)
  99. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 90. (Turkish)
  100. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 91. (Turkish)
  101. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 92. (Turkish)
  102. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 93. (Turkish)
  103. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 94. (Turkish)
  104. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 95. (Turkish)
  105. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 96. (Turkish)
  106. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 97. (Turkish)
  107. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner." 
  108. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 98. (Turkish)
  109. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 99. (Turkish)
  110. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 100. (Turkish)
  111. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 101. (Turkish)
  112. ^ Nâzım Tektaş, Sadrazamlar: Osmanlı'da ikinci adam saltanatı, Çatı Kitapları, 2002, p. .
  113. ^ Ali Bilgenoğlu, Osmanlı Devleti'nde Arap milliyetçi cemiyetler, Müdafaa-i Hukuk Yayınları, 2007, p. 87.(Turkish)
  114. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 102. (Turkish)
  115. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 103. (Turkish)
  116. ^ Nâzım Tektaş, Sadrazamlar: Osmanlı'da ikinci adam saltanatı, Çatı Kitapları, 2002, p. .
  117. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 104. (Turkish)
  118. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 105. (Turkish)
  119. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 106. (Turkish)

See also[edit]

External links and references[edit]