List of Ottoman governors of Egypt

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For more details on this topic, see History of Ottoman Egypt.

The Ottoman Empire's governors of Egypt from 1517 to 1805 were at various times known by different but synonymous titles, among them beylerbey, viceroy, governor, governor-general, or, more generally, wāli. Furthermore, the Ottoman sultans very often changed positions of their governors in rapid succession, leading to complex and long lists of incumbents (this being the main reason for a political crisis in 1623, where the local Ottoman soldiers successfully sued to keep Kara Mustafa Pasha as governor after his replacement by Çeşteci Ali Pasha after only one year).

Governors ruled from the Cairo Citadel in Cairo. They ruled along with their divan (governmental council), consisting of a kadı (judge) and defterdar (treasurer). The title "beylerbey" refers to the regular governors specifically appointed to the post by the Ottoman sultan, while the title "kaymakam", when used in the context of Ottoman Egypt, refers to an acting governor who ruled over the province between the departure of the previous governor and the arrival of the next one. Although almost all governors were succeeded and preceded by a kaymakam due to the traveling distance from their old post to Egypt, only the most notable are included in this list.

Below is a list of Ottoman wālis of the Egypt Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 (the Ottoman conquest of Egypt) to 1805 (the beginning of the Muhammad Ali dynasty; see list of monarchs of the Muhammad Ali dynasty). Governors of Egypt after 1805 are not included in this list because, although they were still nominally and officially Ottoman governors of the province, they assumed the monarchical title "Khedive" that was unrecognized by the central Ottoman government and passed the role in a hereditary fashion. Acting governors (kaymakams) are not included in the numbering.

# Governor Start End Title Identity notes[N 1] Tenure notes
1 Yunus Pasha Arolsen Klebeband 01 461 1.jpg 1517 1517 Beylerbey [1][2] Governorship revoked for corruption
2 Hayır Bey No picture available 1517 1522 Beylerbey [1][2][3][4] Died in office
3 Çoban Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1522 1523 Beylerbey [1][2][5][6][7] Put down a small Mamluk revolt[3]
4 Hain Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1523 1524 Sultan [1][2][3][7] Rebelled, declared himself sultan; was executed[3][7]
5 Güzelce Kasım Pasha (1st) No picture available 1524 1525 Beylerbey [1][2][8]
6 Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha Pargalı İbrahim Paşa.jpg 1525 1525 Beylerbey [1][9] Remained for 3 months, organized the civil and military system of Ottoman Egypt[9]
7 Güzelce Kasım Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1525 1525 Beylerbey [1][2]
8 Hadım Süleyman Pasha (1st) No picture available 1525 1535 Beylerbey [1][2]
9 Divane Hüsrev Pasha (tr) No picture available 1535 1537 Beylerbey [1][2]
10 Hadım Süleyman Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1537 1538 Beylerbey [1][2]
11 Davud Pasha No picture available 1538 1549 Beylerbey [1][2][10] Long-standing feud with Rüstem Pasha;[10] died in office
Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha Lala Mustafa Paşa.jpg 1549 1549 Kaymakam [11][12] Served only a few months[12] as acting governor[11]
12 Semiz Ali Pasha No picture available 1549 1554 Beylerbey [1][2][10] Appointed to another position in Constantinople
13 Dukakinzade Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1554 1556 Beylerbey [1][2][13][14] Used to sing in public with a guitar; executed for violating sharia[13]
14 Iskender Pasha No picture available 1556 1559 Beylerbey [1][2][14][15] Had many public works built between Bab Zuweila and Bab al-Khalq[16]
15 Sofu Hadım Ali Pasha No picture available 1559 1560 Beylerbey [1][2][17] Also known as Sufi Ali Pasha[17] or Hadım Ali Pasha;[1][2] died in office[1]
16 Kara Şahin Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1560 1563 Beylerbey [1][2][18] Founder of the Ridwan dynasty, former governor of Gaza
17 Müezzinzade Ali Pasha Ali Pasha.jpg 1563 1566 Beylerbey [1][2][13] Also known as Sufi or Sofu Ali Pasha[13]
18 Mahmud Pasha No picture available 1566 1567 Beylerbey [19][20] Built the Mosque of Mahmud Pasha and assassinated in office by gunfire[20]
19 Koca Sinan Pasha (1st) Arolsen Klebeband 02 327.jpg 1567 1569 Beylerbey [1][2][10]
20 Çerkes Iskender Pasha No picture available 1569 1571 Beylerbey [1][2][21][22][23] Known locally as al-Faqih, "the jurist"[24]
21 Koca Sinan Pasha (2nd) Arolsen Klebeband 02 327.jpg 1571 1573 Beylerbey [1][2][10]
22 Hüseyin Pasha Boljanić No picture available 1573 1574 Beylerbey [1][25][26][27] Of a mild disposition, but thieves multiplied during his short term[25]
23 Hadim Mesih Pasha No picture available 1574 1580 Beylerbey [1][2][13][25] Put to death many thieves, stunting robbery in the region for centuries[25]
24 Hadım Hasan Pasha No picture available 1580 1583 Beylerbey [1][2][28] Jailed in Constantinople[28]
25 Damat Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1583 1585 Beylerbey [1][2]
26 Defterdar Sinan Pasha No picture available 1585 1587 Beylerbey [1][2][3][29] Dismissed after being unable to collect enough taxes[29]
27 Kara Üveys Pasha (de) No picture available 1587 1590 Beylerbey [3][30][31][note 1] Died in office[31]
28 Hadım Hafız Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1590 1594 Beylerbey [1][2] Appointed governor of Bursa
29 Kurd Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1594 1596 Beylerbey [1][2]
30 Emir Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1596 1598 Beylerbey [1][2][21][24][32][33] Known as al-Sharif and seyyid, often visited the Al-Hussein Mosque[24]
31 Hızır Pasha No picture available 1598 1601 Beylerbey [1][2][33][34]
32 Yavuz Ali Pasha No picture available 1601 1603 Beylerbey [1][2][33][35][36][note 2] Appointed as Grand Vizier[35][36]
33 Maktul Hacı Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1604 1604 Beylerbey [1][2][33][37][38] Murdered in a sepahi mutiny[39][40][41]
34 Hadım Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1604 1605 Beylerbey [1][33][41][note 3] Attempted to get the mutiny under control, but failed[41]
35 Yemenli Hasan Pasha No picture available 1605 1607 Beylerbey [1][2][33][42][43] Previously the beylerbey of Yemen Eyalet (1580–1604)[42][43]
36 Öküz Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1607 1611 Beylerbey [1][2][33][44][45][46][47] Known as "kul kıran" (slavebreaker) for putting down sipahi mutiny[44][45][46][47]
37 Sofu Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1611 1615 Beylerbey [1][2][21][33][note 4] Not to be confused with Grand Vizier Sofu Mehmed Pasha[2]
38 Nişancı Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1615 1618 Beylerbey [1][2][33] Head of Janissaries (1615); not the same as Grand Vizier Nişancı Ahmed Pasha
39 Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1618 1618 Beylerbey [1][2][33][48] Left governance mostly in the hands of his family, corruption ensued[48]
40 Cafer Pasha No picture available 1618 1619 Beylerbey [1][2][33][49] Educated in various sciences and formerly governor of Yemen[49]
41 Hamidi Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1619 1620 Beylerbey [1][49] Also known as Ispartalı Mustafa Pasha,[2] dismissed for anti-merchant policies[33][50]
42 Mere Hüseyin Pasha No picture available 1620 1622 Beylerbey [1][2][28][33] Dismissed after the flooding of the Nile caused a drought[51]
43 Biber Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1622 1622 Beylerbey [1][33][48][52] Dismissed after 75 days;[48] also known as Pır[1] or Babür;[2] former wali of Budin[48]
44 Silahdar Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1622 1623 Beylerbey [1][2][33][48] Drought led to his dismissal and successor accused him of financial fraud[48]
45 Kara Mustafa Pasha (1st) No picture available 1623 1623 Beylerbey [1][3][33][53] Not the same as Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha[1]
46 Çeşteci Ali Pasha No picture available 1623 1623 Beylerbey [1][2][3][33][54][55] Soldiers restored Kara Mustafa Pasha[33][54][55]
47 Kara Mustafa Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1624 1626 Beylerbey [1][2][3][33][54] Soldiers, angry at the rapid change in governors, restored him[3][33][54]
48 Bayram Pasha No picture available 1626 1628 Beylerbey [1][2][33][56] Invested and speculated heavily in local merchants and businesses[56]
49 Tabanıyassı Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1628 1630 Beylerbey [1][2][33][57] Only appeared 6 times in public, but was well-liked[58]
50 Koca Musa Pasha No picture available 1630 1631 Beylerbey [1][3][33][59] Army forced his resignation after his brutality and murder of a local bey[3][60][61]
51 Halil Pasha No picture available 1631 1633 Beylerbey [1][33][62][note 5] Known for his "gentle, impartial, and prosperous administration"[62]
52 Bakırcı Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1633 1635 Beylerbey [1][2][33][63] Dismissed and executed either for his cruelty[1] or his monetary policy[64]
53 Gazi Hüseyin Pasha No picture available 1635 1637 Beylerbey [1][2] Cruel and violent, but kept the army in check[65]
54 Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1637 1640 Beylerbey [2][33][66] Confiscated many emirs' and wealthy residents' inheritances[67]
55 Nakkaş Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1640 1642 Beylerbey [1][2][33] His officials were the de jure rulers and plundered the land[68]
56 Maksud Pasha No picture available 1642 1644 Beylerbey [1][2][33][69] Previous wali of Diyarbekir; overthrown by army[70] and executed by sultan[71]
57 Eyüb Pasha No picture available 1644 1646 Beylerbey [1][2][33][71] Restored order, and after term, gave up all possessions to become a dervish[72]
58 Haydarzade Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1646 1647 Beylerbey [1][2][3][33][72][note 6] All of his rule was reportedly "only a series of confusions and revolutions"[72]
59 Mostarlı Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1648 1648 Beylerbey [1][2][33][72] Neglected affairs and was soon dismissed, but no insurrections occurred[33][73]
60 Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1648 1651 Beylerbey [1][2][3][33][66][74][75] His rule was "agitated by great disturbances," and he amassed great wealth[75]
61 Hadım Abdurrahman Pasha No picture available 1651 1652 Beylerbey [1][2][33][66][76] After his dismissal, he was jailed by successor for not paying debts[76]
62 Haseki Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1652 1656 Beylerbey [1][2][33][77][78][79][80][81] Known locally as Abu'l-Nur, "father of light", for restoring buildings[2][3][24]
63 Halıcı Damadı Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1656 1657 Beylerbey [1][2][33][note 7]
64 Şehsuvarzade Gazi Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1657 1660 Beylerbey [1][2][3] Known locally as Gazi for putting down a rebellion;[24] jailed afterwards[3]
65 Gürcü Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1660 1661 Beylerbey [1][2][3][33] Some soldiers tried to replace him with his predecessor but failed[3]
66 Melek Ibrahim Pasha (tr) No picture available 1661 1664 Beylerbey [1][2][3][33] Reasserted the power of the office over the beys; aka Şeytan Ibrahim Pasha[3]
67 Silahdar Ömer Pasha No picture available 1664 1667 Beylerbey [2][33][82] Also wali of Baghdad (1677–81, 1684–86), Diyarbekir (1688), and Erzurum[82]
68 Şişman Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1667 1668 Beylerbey [1][33] Epithet means "fat"; also called Sofu Ibrahim Pasha;[2] died in office Nov. 1668[1]
69 Karakaş Ali Pasha No picture available 1668 1669 Beylerbey [1][2][33][note 8] Assumed office October 1668[1] or April 1669[33]
70 Bayburtlu Kara Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1669 1673 Beylerbey [1][2][33]
71 Canpuladzade Hüseyin Pasha No picture available 1673 1675 Beylerbey [1][2][33][note 9]
72 Cebeci Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1675 1676 Beylerbey [83][1][2][33][note 10] Jailed by the army due to his violence during tax collection[1]
73 Abdurrahman Abdi Arnavut Pasha Arnavut Abdurrahman Abdi Pascha.jpg 1676 1680 Beylerbey [1][2][33]
74 Osman Pasha the Bosnian No picture available 1680 1683 Beylerbey [1][2][33]
75 Hamza Pasha No picture available 1683 1687 Beylerbey [1][2][33]
76 Mollacık Hasan Pasha No picture available 1687 1687 Beylerbey [1][2][33][note 11] Also called by the epithet Kethüda/Ketkhoda, but mostly just Hasan Pasha
77 Damat Hasan Pasha (1st) No picture available 1687 1689 Beylerbey [1][2][33]
78 Sarhoş Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1689 1691 Beylerbey [1][2][33][note 12] Died in office on March 13, 1691[1][33]
79 Hazinedar Moralı Ali Pasha No picture available 1691 1695 Beylerbey [1][2][33][note 13] Also known as Moralı Hazinedar Ali Pasha (epithets switched)[2]
80 Çelebi Ismail Pasha No picture available 1695 1697 Beylerbey [1][2][33][84][85][note 14] Deposed by the local soldiers[86]
Kesici Hasan Pasha No picture available 1697 1698 Kaymakam [1][86][note 15] Acting governor, installed by soldiers; served for 5 to 8 months[86]
81 Firari Hüseyin Pasha No picture available 1698 1699 Beylerbey [1][2][33][note 16] Also known by the epithets Boşnak (Bosniak), Sarı, Dizveren, and Muradi[2][87]
82 Kara Mehmed Pasha (1st) No picture available 1699 1704 Beylerbey [1][2][33][88]
83 Baltacı Süleyman Pasha No picture available 1704 1704 Beylerbey [1][2][33] Never took office[33]
84 Rami Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1704 1706 Beylerbey [1][2][33][89]
85 Dellak Ali Pasha (1st) No picture available 1706 1707 Beylerbey [1][2][note 17]
86 Damat Hasan Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1707 1709 Beylerbey [1][2][90]
87 Moralı Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1709 1710 Beylerbey [1][2][91] Jailed and exiled by the sultan after dismissal[1]
88 Köse Halil Pasha No picture available 1710 1711 Beylerbey [1][2][91] Overthrown by local beys[3][92]
89 Veli Mehmed Pasha (1st) No picture available 1711 1712 Beylerbey [1][2][92] There was an insurrection begun by a Turkish religious fanatic, but it failed[93]
90 Kara Mehmed Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1712 1712 Beylerbey [1] Held the office for a minuscule amount of time[1]
91 Veli Mehmed Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1712 1714 Beylerbey [1][2][92]
92 Abdi Pasha (1st) No picture available 1714 1716 Beylerbey [40][94][95][note 18] Ended the remains of the insurrection begun in 1711 by the religious fanatic[96]
93 Dellak Ali Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1716 1720 Beylerbey [1][2][note 17] His rule was calm, but the sultan ordered his execution[1][97]
94 Recep Pasha No picture available 1720 1721 Beylerbey [1][2][97] Dismissed after failing to assassinate ibn Iwaz on the sultan's orders[98]
95 Nişancı Mehmed Pasha (tr) (1st) No picture available 1721 1725 Beylerbey [1][2][note 19] Deposed by the forces of Çerkes Mehmed Bey after displeasing him[99]
96 Moralı Ali Pasha No picture available 1725 1726 Beylerbey [1][2][100]
97 Nişancı Mehmed Pasha (tr) (2nd) No picture available 1726 1727 Beylerbey [1][2][note 19]
98 Ebubekir Pasha (1st) No picture available 1727 1729 Beylerbey [1][2][101]
99 Abdi Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1729 1729 Beylerbey [40][94][95][note 18]
100 Köprülü Abdullah Pasha No picture available 1729 1731 Beylerbey [1][2][102][note 20]
101 Silahdar Damat Mehmed Pasha (tr) No picture available 1731 1733 Beylerbey [1][2][note 21]
102 Muhassıl Osman Pasha No picture available 1733 1735 Beylerbey [1][2][103] There was a man claiming to be a prophet, and widespread apocalyptic fears[103]
103 Ebubekir Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1735 1739 Beylerbey [1][2][101][note 22] Deposed by local troops[104]
104 Sulayman Pasha al-Azm No picture available 1739 1740 Beylerbey [1][104] Deposed by local troops[105]
105 Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1st) Portrait of a Grand Vizier (?).jpg 1740 1741 Beylerbey [1][2][note 23] His rule was peaceful and free of insurrections[105]
106 Hatibzade Yahya Pasha No picture available 1741 1743 Beylerbey [1][2][105] He was the son-in-law of predecessor Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha[1]
107 Yedekçi Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1743 1744 Beylerbey [1][2][106][note 24] Troops rioted, demanding pay and rations from the granary[106]
108 Koca Mehmed Ragıp Pasha No picture available 1744 1748 Beylerbey [1][2][106][note 25] He was a "profound scholar"; forced to step down by local troops[107]
109 Yeğen Ali Pasha No picture available 1748 1748 Beylerbey [1][2] Nephew of Yedekçi Mehmed Pasha; never took office, only appointed for a week[1][2]
110 Nişancı Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1748 1751 Beylerbey [1][2][108][note 26] Interested in the sciences, but found Egyptians to be largely uneducated[108][109]
111 Seyyid Abdullah Pasha No picture available 1751 1753 Beylerbey [1][2][110][note 27]
112 Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha No picture available 1753 1753 Beylerbey [1][2][110][note 28] Died very soon after taking office[1][110]
113 Baltacızade Mustafa Pasha No picture available 1752 1756 Beylerbey [1][2][note 29]
114 Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (2nd) Portrait of a Grand Vizier (?).jpg 1756 1757 Beylerbey [1][2][note 23] His second term was again largely peaceful[111]
115 Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm No picture available 1757 1757 Beylerbey [1][2] Nephew of Sulayman Pasha al-Azm[2]
116 Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha Said Effendi by Coypel in Paris in 1742.jpg 1757 1758 Beylerbey [1][2][102][note 30]
117 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (tr) (1st) No picture available 1758 1761 Beylerbey [1][2][112][113][note 31]
118 Kamil Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1761 1761 Beylerbey [1][2][89][112] Deposed in August 1761 by the local emirs[89][112]
119 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (tr) (2nd) No picture available 1761 1762 Beylerbey [89][112][note 31] Reinstalled by the local emirs[89][112]
120 Ebubekir Rasim Pasha No picture available 1762 1762 Beylerbey [1][2][89] Died two months into term, buried in the City of the Dead necropolis in Cairo[89][112]
121 Ahıskalı Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1762 1764 Beylerbey [1][2][note 32]
122 Hacı Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1764 1764 Beylerbey [1][2][note 33] Died soon after taking office in September 1764[1][2]
123 Macar Hacı Hasan Pasha No picture available 1764 1765 Beylerbey [1][2][112] Dismissed soon after taking office[89][112]
124 Silahdar Mahir Hamza Pasha (tr) No picture available 1765 1767 Beylerbey [2][89][note 34] Deposed by the local emirs[89]
125 Çelebi Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1767 1767 Beylerbey [1][2][89][note 35]
126 Rakım Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1767 1768 Beylerbey [1][2][102][114][115][116] Deposed by Ali Bey Al-Kabir after making a move against him[117]
Ali Bey Al-Kabir Ali Bey.jpg 1768 1769 Kaymakam [117][note 36] Became acting governor after forcing out the last governor[117]
127 Köprülü Hafız Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1769 1769 Beylerbey [1][2][note 37] Died shortly after taking office[1][2]
128 Kelleci Osman Pasha No picture available 1769 1771 Beylerbey [1][2][note 38] After him, a kaymakam (acting governor) probably ruled for a year
129 Vekil Osman Pasha No picture available 1772 1773 Beylerbey [1][2][note 39] Died shortly after taking office[1][2]
130 Kara Halil Pasha No picture available 1773 1774 Beylerbey [1][2][118][note 40] Had little power; actual power was held by Mamluk Muhammad Bey Abu'l-Dhahab[119]
131 Hacı Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1774 1775 Beylerbey [1][2][note 41]
132 Izzet Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1775 1778 Beylerbey [1][2][120][note 42] Deposed by local emirs Mamluk on July 15, 1778[121]
133 Raif Ismail Pasha (1st) No picture available 1779 1779 Beylerbey [1][122][note 43] He was replaced by the sultan in late September 1779 with Ibrahim Pasha[123]
134 Ibrahim Pasha No picture available 1779 1779 Beylerbey [124][note 44] He died in office in November 1779 (one month after his arrival)[125]
135 Raif Ismail Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1779 1780 Beylerbey [1][125][note 43] Reappointed November 1779, but deposed by local Mamluk emirs in July 1780[125]
Ibrahim Bey (1st) No picture available 1780 1781 Kaymakam [125] The sultan gave office back to Raif Ismail Pasha, but Ibrahim Bey didn't comply[126]
136 Melek Mehmed Pasha (tr) No picture available 1781 1782 Beylerbey [1][127][note 45] His rule was peaceful and he was well-liked by the emirs[128]
137 Name unknown No picture available 1782 1783 Beylerbey [129][note 46] His identity is unknown, perhaps partially named "Sharif/Şerif Pasha"
138 Silahdar Mehmed Pasha (tr) No picture available 1783 1784 Beylerbey [1][2][note 47] Deposed by the Mamluk bey Murad Bey on October 30, 1784[130]
Murad Bey Mourad-Bey ag1.png 1784 1785 Kaymakam [130] He deposed his predecessor, but he was already the de facto ruler of Egypt[130]
Ibrahim Bey (2nd) No picture available 1784 1785 Kaymakam [131] The incoming governor made him acting governor on February 20, 1785[131]
139 Yeğen Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (tr) No picture available 1785 1786 Beylerbey [1][2][132][note 48] Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha expelled the Mamluk emirs (Murad and Ibrahim)[1][133]
Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha No picture available 1786 1787 Admiral [134] De facto ruler when Keki Abdi Pasha refused the office until emirs were defeated[134]
140 Keki Abdi Pasha (1st) No picture available 1787 1788 Beylerbey [1][2][134] Appointed on 24 October 1786, but left governance to Hasan Pasha for a while[134]
141 Ismail Pasha the Tripolitanian (1st) No picture available 1788 1789 Beylerbey [1][135][note 49] The sultan reinstated Keki Abdi Pasha upon his request on 3 January 1789[136]
142 Keki Abdi Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1789 1789 Beylerbey [136] Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha, Ismail Pasha's mentor, asked sultan to reinstate him[136]
143 Ismail Pasha the Tripolitanian (2nd) No picture available 1789 1791 Beylerbey [136][note 49] Dismissed and appointed governor of Morea Eyalet[137]
144 Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmet Pasha No picture available 1791 1794 Beylerbey [1][2][138][139][note 50] Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey, previously exiled in 1786, returned to de facto power[140]
145 Kayserili Hacı Salih Pasha No picture available 1794 1796 Beylerbey [1][2][139] Mamluk emirs Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey continued to wield de facto power[139]
The French occupy Egypt in 1798, with Napoleon Bonaparte (1798–99), Jean Baptiste Kléber (1799–1800), and Jacques-François Menou (1800–01) holding de facto governing power.
146 Lokmacı Hacı Ebubekir Pasha No picture available 1796 1798 Beylerbey [1][2][141][note 51] French troops under Napoleon landed at Alexandria and later reached Cairo[141]
147 Abdullah Pasha al-Azm No picture available 1798 1799 Beylerbey [1][2][142][note 52] Napoleon had him confirmed governor as a sign of Ottoman consent to his rule[142]
147 Nasuh Pasha al-Azm No picture available 1800 1801 Beylerbey [1][2][143][note 53] The French left Cairo (and eventually Egypt altogether)
The French occupation ends in 1801, succumbing to a combined British and Ottoman attack.
148 Ebu Merak Mehmed Pasha No picture available 1801 1801 Beylerbey [1][2][144][145][146][note 54] Dismissed 21 September 1801, he left for his estate on 8 January 1802[145][146]
149 Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha (1st) No picture available 1802 1803 Beylerbey [1][2][145][147][note 55] Arrived 22 January 1802;[147] he was instructed to kill or imprison Mamluk emirs
Tahir Pasha No picture available 1803 1803 Kaymakam [148][note 56] Grabbed power; head of Albanian troops; assassinated by Janissaries in 26 days[149]
Albanian troops led by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, originally sent in 1801 by the Ottoman sultan to fight the French, grab de facto control of Egypt from the Ottomans.
150 Müftizade Ahmed Pasha No picture available 1803 1803 Governor [1][150][151][note 57] Took power in June against the Albanians, although they had de facto control[151]
Ibrahim Bey (3rd; concurrently) No picture available 1803 1804 Kaymakam [152][153] Made governor by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in June, who governed through him[152]
151 Trabluslu Ali Pasha (concurrently) No picture available 1803 1804 Beylerbey [1][2][154] Sent by the Ottomans in July to take back Egypt from the Albanians, but killed[154]
152 Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha (2nd) No picture available 1804 1804 Beylerbey [155][note 58] He was a puppet governor for 2 days under Muhammad Ali of Egypt[155]
153 Hurshid Ahmed Pasha Hoursit.jpg 1804 1805 Beylerbey [1][2][156][157] Allowed by Muhammad Ali of Egypt to govern, but forced to step down in favor of him
154 Muhammad Ali of Egypt ModernEgypt, Muhammad Ali by Auguste Couder, BAP 17996.jpg 1805 Muhammad Ali, head of the Albanians, is officially appointed governor in 1805, beginning the Muhammad Ali dynasty;
see List of monarchs of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty for nominal "governors" after 1805.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This is the column for including and viewing as many independent sources on the identity and name of that particular governor, independent sources being sources that do not reference one another.
  1. ^ Sicill-i Osmani and Öztuna both say simply "Üveys Pasha," but the subject of that article by that name died much earlier than this. Only named Kara because that's what the only existing Wikipedia article on him (on the German Wikipedia) is named.
  2. ^ He was succeeded by Maktul Hacı Ibrahim Pasha; a kaymakam (acting governor) ruled between his departure from governorship in December 1603 and the arrival of Ibrahim Pasha in early 1604.
  3. ^ Öztuna refers to this governor as "Gürci Mehmed Pasha," which is technically correct because he was indeed of Georgian origins, but Gürcü Mehmed Pasha is referred to distinctly from this person and was about 30 years younger than this Hadım Mehmed Pasha.
  4. ^ According to Sicill-i Osmani, he was from Razgrad. After his governorship, he later became the governor of Rumelia (1617), Sivas (1617–19), and Budin (1624–26). He died in 1626.
  5. ^ Öztuna's Büyük Osmanlı Tarihi claims that this was Damat Halil Pasha, but it is incorrect; their lifetimes don't match up, and it was known that this was a distinct person.
  6. ^ He was the brother-in-law of Melek Ahmed Pasha. He can also be named Haydar Agazade Ahmed Pasha.
  7. ^ He was previously Kapudan Pasha (1656) and Defterdar (1656), according to Sicill-i Osmani.
  8. ^ He was the previous governor of Silistra Eyalet and Rumelia Eyalet, and he died in January 1670, according to Sicill-i Osmani.
  9. ^ He was also governor of Bosnia Eyalet (1671–72), Budin Eyalet (1672–?), and Van Eyalet (1680–?), according to Sicill-i Osmani
  10. ^ His name is also given as Defterdar Ahmed Pasha because of his long-term previous role as Defterdar (finance minister) of the Ottoman Empire from 1662 to 1675.
  11. ^ Also referred to as Kethüda Hasan Pasha or Ketkhoda Hasan Pasha (not the same as the 18th-century Kethüda Hasan Pasha) because of his being made a Kethüda early in his career, but he is mostly just referred to as Hasan Pasha. The exact month and day start of his term are disputed, according to Holt.
  12. ^ He previously served as Kapudan Pasha (1684–1685) and the Ottoman governor (wali) of Özü Eyalet (1674, 1677), Karaman Eyalet (i.e. Konya; 1674–1677), Anatolia Eyalet (1677), Eğri Eyalet (1677, again in 1677), Aleppo Eyalet (1685–1686), and Baghdad Eyalet (1687–1688), according to Sicill-i Osmani.
  13. ^ Also known as Moralı Hazinedar Ali Pasha (epithets switched)
  14. ^ He used to be a Janissary, eventually becoming the agha (head) of the Janissaries. He also served as the Ottoman governor (wali) of Rumelia Eyalet (1685–?), Sidon Eyalet (?–1689/90), Karaman Eyalet (1689/90–1691/92), Anatolia Eyalet (1691/92), Damascus Eyalet (1692/93–1693/94), Crete Eyalet (1693/94–1695), Baghdad Eyalet (1697–1699), and Van Eyalet (1699–1701). He died in November or December 1702.
  15. ^ Al-Damurdashi claims his name is Mustafa Bey Kizlar in his Chronicles, but Holt warns repeatedly to avoid taking Damurdashi's data too literally, as much of it is for literary effect, while Mehmet Süreyya Bey claims someone named Kesici Hasan Pasha was the governor during this period in Sicill-i Osmani. Holt declares a 5 month vacation of the office, which indicates the rule of a kaymakam (acting governor). Öztuna is silent, attaching the end of the term of Ismail Pasha straight to the beginning of Hüseyin Pasha's.
  16. ^ May be found at the following article names: Dizveren Sarı Hüseyin Pasha, Sarı Dizveren Hüseyin Pasha, Bosniak Sarı Hüseyin Pasha, Boşnak Sarı Hüseyin Pasha, Bosniak Firari Sarı Hüseyin Pasha, Boşnak Firari Sarı Hüseyin Pasha, Muradi Husayn Pasha, Muradi Hüseyin Pasha, or similar.
  17. ^ a b Damurdashi gives his name as Izmirli Ali Pasha in his Chronicles, but Holt warns that Damurdashi's accounts are largely fictional and warns to treat its data "with caution," while Mehmet Süreyya Bey gives his name as Dellak Ali Pasha (as does Öztuna). These two names seem to be distinct people, as the list of Bulgarian rulers gives their governorships of Bulgaria as distinct terms (albeit being immediately after one another), so it could go either way. However, interestingly, Mehmet Süreyya Bey's encyclopedia of Ottoman statesmen says that a man named Hüseyin Pasha (who was a kethüda) was the governor of Egypt during this exact time, while his list says Dellak Ali Pasha was, BUT that he was followed the same year by someone named Kethüda Hasan Ağa. Von Hammer indicates only "Ali." He was succeeded by a kaymakam (acting governor) known as either Kethüda Hüseyin Pasha or Kethüda Hasan Agha.
  18. ^ a b Sicilli says "Abdi Pasha" (but does not include him in the definitions, just the order of walis), Öztuna says "Arnavudlu Abdi Pasha", everywhere else (including Damurdashi and al-Jabarti) says "Abidin Pasha" (pronounced "Abidi Pasha")
  19. ^ a b He previously served as the Grand Vizier from 1717 to 1718.
  20. ^ Although Öztuna says that he served again in 1733–34, and he got this from the Sicill-i Osmani order of Egypt valis, they are both wrong. Both al-Jabarti and the encyclopedia of Sicill-i Osmani only show Abdullah Pasha being governor of Egypt only once; besides, he was in Persia during this time, according to Sicill-i Osmani.
  21. ^ He previously served as Grand Vizier for a short time in 1731.
  22. ^ Al-Jabarti holds that he was succeeded by someone named Mustafa Pasha, who held the office until 1739, but no other evidence can be found of him.
  23. ^ a b He served as Grand Vizier before (1732–35) and after (1742–43 and 1755) his term as governor.
  24. ^ Al-Jabarti reports that he served until 1745 or 1746, not 1744.
  25. ^ He later served as Grand Vizier from 1757 to 1763.
  26. ^ He previously served as Grand Vizier from 1740 to 1742. Also referred to as Şehla Ahmed Pasha.
  27. ^ He previously served as Grand Vizier from 1747 to 1750.
  28. ^ He previously served as Grand Vizier from 1750 to 1752.
  29. ^ He also served as the Ottoman governor of Morea Eyalet (1746–47), Sanjak of Eğriboz (1747–48), Aidin Eyalet (1748), Sanjak of Candia (Heraklion, 1748–50, again in 1751 and 1752), Crete Eyalet (1750–51), and Sidon Eyalet (1756–57), according to Sicill-i Osmani. He died in 1762 in Didymoteicho. Öztuna refers to him as Baltacı Mustafa Pasha.
  30. ^ He served as Grand Vizier (1755–56) before his term as governor.
  31. ^ a b He served as Grand Vizier before (1752–55, 1756) and after (1763–65) his terms as governor.
  32. ^ According to Sicill-i Osmani, he previously served as Kapudan Pasha from 1761 to 1762. He also served as the Ottoman governor of Vidin Eyalet (1759–61), Karaman Eyalet (1764–66), and Kars Eyalet (1766–67). He died in April 1767 after being hit by a rock thrown by angry citizens in Kars Eyalet while he was serving as governor there.
  33. ^ He previously served as Defterdar (finance minister) of the Ottoman Empire from 1755 to 1756, from 1757 to 1758, and from 1760 to 1762. He then served as the Ottoman governor of Morea Eyalet (1762–63) and Sanjak of Eğriboz (1763–64). All according to Sicill-i Osmani.
  34. ^ He later served as Grand Vizier in 1768.
  35. ^ Al-Jabarti makes no mention of him and is vague.
  36. ^ Uzunçarşılı claims that he held power until 1773 (Kara Halil Pasha), but Sicill-i Osmani disagrees, naming 3 interceding governors. Even Al-Jabarti declares that Ali Bey gave up power in 1769 when a new governor from Istanbul was assigned (although he doesn't name him). Uzunçarşılı probably read Al-Jabarti's chronicle, but missed the part about the new pasha coming in 1769, since after that, Al-Jabarti does not name any other pasha by name or sequence until 1773 with Kara Halil Pasha.
  37. ^ Öztuna has Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha following him for a second term, but since he died soon after taking office the first time in 1753, this is impossible.
  38. ^ According to Sicill-i Osmani, he was of Georgian origins, beginning as a slave. After serving as governor of Egypt, he became the governor of Sivas Eyalet (1771), Sanjak of Tirhala (1771), Morea Eyalet (1771–72), Sanjak of Eğriboz (1772). He had a large role in keeping the Russian siege out of Varna in 1773. He died in 1774.
  39. ^ According to Sicill-i Osmani, he was originally a local bey in Egypt before going to Mecca for a short while and then becoming governor.
  40. ^ According to Sicill-i Osmani, he was from the city of Çorlu, and was thus sometimes known as Çorlulu Kara Halil Pasha or Çorlulu Halil Pasha. He was also the governor of Belgrade (1768–?) and Jeddah (1774–75). He died in 1775.
  41. ^ According to Sicill-i Osmani, he was from the town of Arapgir. He died in September 1775. Al-Jabarti claims that the governor during this time was "Mustafa Pasha al-Nablusi", and holds that an Ibrahim Pasha was briefly governor in 1779 before dying, which raises the possibility that Sicill-i is mistaken and that this Hacı Ibrahim Pasha died in November 1779, not September 1775, and was the governor then. However, Sicill-i Osmani makes no mention of him being governor of Jeddah in the past, which al-Jabarti claims he was right before becoming the governor of Egypt.
  42. ^ He served as Grand Vizier before (1774) and after (1781–82) his term as governor. Sicill-i Osman refers to him in the index governors listing as Şehrî İzzet Paşa (but not the main encyclopedia) because of his previous position as şehremini ("caretaker of the city"). An acting governor served after his removal from office in July 1778 until the arrival of Raif Ismail Pasha in January 1779, according to al-Jabarti.
  43. ^ a b He served as Reisülküttap from 1774 to 1776, and became the governor of Crete from 1781 to 1782. He was executed in 1785. He may also be referred to as Ismail Raif Pasha. Although Öztuna makes no mention of him, he is included in Al-Jabarti, who mentions his previous role as Reisülküttap and gives a thorough description of his personality and physical appearance, and he is included as a governor of Egypt in Sicill-i Osmani during this time. According to al-Jabarti, he took office on January 23, 1779, by arriving in Cairo.
  44. ^ Öztuna and Sicill-i Osmani make no mention of him, but al-Jabarti, whose history for this period is first hand and likely more accurate than Sicill-i (and Öztuna, who almost exclusively uses Sicill-i as his only source and is quite vague on this period), holds that he was the former governor of Jeddah Eyalet. According to al-Jabarti, in September 1779, the sultan ordered that he trade positions with Raif Ismail Pasha, with Ibrahim Pasha becoming governor of Egypt and Raif Ismail Pasha becoming governor of Jeddah in his stead. He was probably distinct from Hacı Ibrahim Pasha (died 1775), as he died in November 1779 and held office later.
  45. ^ He later served as Grand Vizier from 1792 to 1794. Öztuna says he served from 1779, but Sicill-i Osmani says he served from 1780. Al-Jabarti describes him as a "distinguished-looking man with gray hair." He arrived in Egypt in February 1781, and left office to become grand vizier in July 1782.
  46. ^ Although al-Jabarti mentions that a pasha served as governor at this time (in between Melek Mehmed Pasha and Silahdar Mehmed Pasha from July 1782 to July 1783 (see identity al-Jabarti citation), he does not mention his name. An unknown source implies that it might have been someone with the name or partial name "Sharif Pasha" ("Şerif Pasha" in Turkish).
  47. ^ He previously served as Grand Vizier from 1770 to 1771.
  48. ^ He previously served as Grand Vizier in 1782. During his term as governor after 1786, real power lay with the Kapudan Pasha Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha, who had been sent by the sultan to rid Egypt of the Mamluk emirs. After he was dismissed and replaced by his successor Abdi Pasha on 24 October 1786, Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha demanded an audit of his accounts in order to recover money to pay for the upkeep of the Ottoman army stationed in Egypt waiting to combat the Mamluk emirs. Combined with the debts owed to him by the wanted emirs and the death of his wife, Yeğen Seyyid Mehmed Pasha became very distressed. He was forced to sell his furniture and clothing to pay what he owed according to Hasan Pasha's audit. According to al-Jabarti, tension was rumored to constantly exist between Yeğen Seyyid Mehmed Pasha and Hasan Pasha since Hasan Pasha's arrival in early August 1786.
  49. ^ a b He was the former assistant (kethüda) and protegé of Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha. Öztuna's list of governors replaces him with Raif Ismail Pasha, but this is certainly incorrect, as Raif Ismail Pasha was executed in 1785 according to Sicill-i Osmani, which, along with Al-Jabarti (a completely independent source), defines the two men as very distinct people. Öztuna most likely confused them because of their identical names.
  50. ^ He served as Grand Vizier before (1774, 1781–82) and after (1794–98) his term as governor. He was governor from early May 1791 to September 1794.
  51. ^ Sicill-i Osmani says that he was also the governor of Anatolia Eyalet from 1794 to 1796. He "failed to conserve his position" as governor of Egypt and was dismissed in 1798, dying soon afterwards.
  52. ^ According to al-Jabarti, on 3 November 1798, a letter arrived in Egypt, making Abdullah Pasha governor.
  53. ^ He was previously fighting against the French in Egypt alongside Murad Bey. According to Sicill-i Osmani, he was appointed governor in August 1799, but according to al-Jabarti, he only arrived and took office in late February 1800.
  54. ^ He became governor on 9 August 1801. Between his dismissal on 21 September 1801 and his successor Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha's arrival on 22 January 1802, a deputy appointed by Koca Hüsrev Pasha ruled, according to Al-Jabarti volume 3, page 303. According to Sicill-i Osmani (p. 1049), he was from Gaza. After his governorship, he became the Ottoman governor of Konya (1802), Diyarbekir Eyalet (1803), and Sivas Eyalet (1803–04, 1805–06), and Jeddah (1804–05). In 1805, he was taken to Damascus with a group of soldiers. From 1806 to 1812, he lived in Aleppo, but was executed in 1812.
  55. ^ The news of his appointment came on 21 September 1801, but he only arrived in Cairo and took office on 22 January 1802.
  56. ^ Some sources refer to his name as "Thir Pasha." He was the commander of the Albanian troops sent by the Ottoman sultan in 1801 to fight against the French. He chased his predecessor and legitimate governor Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha out of Cairo and to Damietta in northern Egypt when he failed to pay the Albanian troops due to lack of funding. The local judges confirmed him as kaymakam (acting governor) on 6 May 1803, according to al-Jabarti. After Tahir Pasha in turn failed to pay the salaries of the Turkish (Janissary) troops, two of them assassinated him that same year.
  57. ^ Although Sicill-i Osmani is vague about his exact position during this time, it definitely places him as the governor of Medina at this time, and the governor of Damietta a bit earlier, both roles that al-Jabarti specifies that this "Ahmad Pasha" had, leaving little doubt that this was the same Ahmed Pasha. He held actual governorship rule in Egypt for only about 1 day.
  58. ^ His "governorship" lasted only 2 days, from March 12 to March 14, 1804, and was a complete farce under Muhammad Ali of Egypt, who held real power. Muhammad Ali made Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha governor in name only until the brothers of the late Tahir Pasha, who had fought against Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha, demanded his exile to northern Egypt. Although his successor Hurshid Ahmed Pasha's governorship was announced 2 days before his governorship, on March 10, Muhammad Ali still made him governor, even if only for two days.

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  132. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 171. 
  133. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 181. 
  134. ^ a b c d 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. pp. 216–217. 
  135. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. pp. 286–288. 
  136. ^ a b c d 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 289. 
  137. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 315. At the beginning of Ramadan a Tatar messenger arrived bearing an edict deposing Isma'il Pasha and that he should direct himself to Morea... 
  138. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 315. ...the pasha of Morea, Muhammad Pasha, who had been in Jidda the previous year and was known as 'Izzat, was to be governor of Egypt. 
  139. ^ a b c 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 430. In the month of Safar [September 1794] news came of the arrival of Salih Pasha, governor of Egypt, at Alexandria. [Safranbolulu Izzet] Muhammad (Mehmet) Pasha took provisions for a journey, set out and traveled to Alexandria. 
  140. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. pp. 317–322, 373. 
  141. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 3. ...and Bakr Pasha sent the letter with his envoy overland... 
  142. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 46. ...and the governor of Egypt will be 'Abdallah Pasha ibn al-'Azm who is at present governor of Syria. 
  143. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 139. ...on the 22nd of Ramadan (Feb. 17 1800) ... Nasuh Pasha, the governor of Egypt ... bestowed robes upon them. 
  144. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 295. On the 28th (Aug. 9 [1801]) ... Muhammad Pasha Abu Maraq, candidate for the office of governor of Egypt ... bestowed garments of honor, and scattered gold and silver coins 
  145. ^ a b c 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 303. On Monday the 12th (of Jumada I 1216) [21 September 1801] ... The news came that Muhammad Khusraw Pasha was appointed governor of Egypt. He was the katkhuda of Husayn Pasha Kapudan ... It was rumored that Muhammad Pasha Abu Maraq was dismissed and would leave for his estate. 
  146. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 316. On the third (of Ramadan 1216) [8 January 1802 CE] Muhammad Pasha (Abu Maraq) departed. 
  147. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 317. Muhammad Pasha (Khusraw), the governor of Egypt, reached Bulaq ... On Friday the 17th (Jan. 22 [1802]) he entered cAiro via Bab al-Nasr in a solemn procession devoid of the customary composition. 
  148. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 372. The qadi produced a sable fur with which he invested Tahir Pasha as qa'im maqam, until such time as the governorship fell to him, or another governor should arrive. 
  149. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. pp. 376–377. Whenever the Janissaries asked for some of their jamakiya pay, [Tahir Pasha] would tell them that they had nothing coming from him; that he would pay them only from the date he became governor [as he was only acting governor (kaymakam)] ... they rushed at him with drawn swords; one of them struck him, sent his head flying ... Tahir Pasha's body lay cast aside with no one paying it the slightest attention. 
  150. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 377. [Janissaries] entered into a plot with Ahmad Pasha, governor of Medina. 
  151. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 378. 
  152. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. pp. 380, 394. ...'by order of Ibrahim Bey, Governor of the Province, and our Master Muhammad Ali.' [Muftizade] Ahmad Pasha's governorship had lasted one day and one night. ...Ibrahim Bey convoked a diwan at his daughter's house ... and took over the duties of qa'im maqam of Egypt. 
  153. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 428. 
  154. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 394. On the 20th (July 10) news came of the arrival of 'Ali Pasha al-Tarabulusi in Alexandria, as governor of Egypt in place of Muhammad Pasha (Khusraw). 
  155. ^ a b 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. pp. 438–440. [On March 12] Muhammad Ali went up to the Citadel and came down with Muhammad Pasha Khusraw and his companions at his side... It became known among the people that Muhammad Pasha had returned to the governorship of Egypt... On the eve of Wednesday [March 14] Muhammad Pasha Khusraw ... [was] taken down to Bulaq and shipped off to Lower Egypt... His governorship – or, rather, his pretended governorship... he had continued to believe confidently in his return to the governorship of Cairo... such were his delusions! 
  156. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 437. At the seventh hour after sunset [on 10 March 1804] ... a firman ... arrived from Ahmad Pasha Khurshid, the governor of Alexandria, appointing the latter to the governorship of Egypt. 
  157. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 3. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 442. On the eve of Monday the 14th (March 26) the pasha arrived at the port of Bulaq. 

Main sources[edit]