List of Panamanian monkey species

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The range of the Central American Squirrel Monkey within Panama no longer includes its type locality of David.

At least six monkey species are native to Panama. A seventh species, the Coiba Island Howler (Alouatta coibensis) is often recognized, but some authors treat it as a subspecies of the Mantled Howler, (A. palliata).[1] An eighth species, the Black-headed Spider Monkey is also often recognized, but some authorities regard it as a subspecies of Geoffroy's Spider Monkey.[2] All Panamanian monkey species are classified taxonmically as New World monkeys, and they belong to four families. The Coiba Island Howler, Mantled Howler, Black-headed Spider Monkey and Geoffroy's Spider Monkey all belong to the family Atelidae. The White-headed Capuchin and Central American Squirrel Monkey belong to the family Cebidae. the family that includes the capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. The Panamanian Night Monkey belongs to the family Aotidae, and Geoffroy's Tamarin belongs to the family Callitrichidae.

The Mantled Howler, the Panamanian Night Monkey, Geoffroy's Spider Monkey and the White-Headed Capuchin all have extensive ranges within Panama.[3][4][5][6] Geoffroy's Tamarin also has a fairly wide range within Panama, from west of the Panama Canal to the Colombian border.[7] The range of the Black-headed Spider Monkey within Panama is limited to the eastern portion of the country near the Colombian border.[8] The Central American Squirrel Monkey only occurs within Panama in the extreme western portion of the country, near Costa Rica.[9] Its now has a smaller range within Panama than in the past, and is no longer found in its type locality, the city of David.[9] As its name suggests, the Coiba Island Howler is restricted to Coiba Island.[10] The Azuero Howler Monkey (Alouatta coibensis trabeata or Alouatta palliata trabeata), which is considered a subspecies of either the Coiba Island Howler or the Mantled Howler, is restricted to the Azuero Peninsula.[3]

The Black-headed Spider Monkey is the largest Panamanian monkey with an average size of 8.89 kilograms (19.6 lb) for males and 8.8 kilograms (19 lb) for males.[11][12] Geoffroy's Spider Monkey is the next largest, followed by the howler monkey species. Geoffroy's Tamarin is the smallest Panamanian monkey, with an average size of about 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb).[13]

One Panamianian monkey, the Black-headed Spider Monkey, is considered to be critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and Geoffroy's Spider Monkey is considered to be endangered.[3][8] The Central American Squirrel Monkey was once considered endangered, but its conservation status was upgraded to vulnerable in 2008.[9] The Coiba Island Howler is also considered to be vulnerable.[10] Three species, the Mantled Howler, the White-headed Capuchin and Geoffroy's Tamarin are rated as "least concern" from a conservation standpoint.[5][6][7]

Key[edit]

The White-headed Capuchin is found throughout Panama.
Latin Name Latin binomial name, or scientific name, of the species
Common Name Common name of the species, per Wilson, et al. Mammal Species of the World (2005)
Family Family within New World monkeys to which the species belongs
Average Size - Male Average size of adult male members of the species, in kilograms and pounds
Average Size - Female Average size of adult female members of the species, in kilograms and pounds
Conservation Status Conservation status of the species, per IUCN as of 2008

Panamanian monkey species[edit]

The critically endangered Black-headed Spider Monkey (Ateles fusciceps) is the largest Panamanian monkey.
The Panamanian Night Monkey (Aotus zonalis) is the only nocturnal Panamanian monkey.
Latin Name Common Name Family Average Size - Male Average Size - Female Conservation Status References
Alouatta coibensis[a] Coiba Island Howler Atelidae 7.150 kg (15.76 lb) 5.350 kg (11.79 lb) Vulnerable [10][11][14]
Alouatta palliata Mantled Howler Atelidae 7.150 kg (15.76 lb) 5.350 kg (11.79 lb) Least Concern [5][11][15]
Aotus zonalis[b] Panamanian Night Monkey Aotidae 0.889 kg (1.96 lb) 0.916 kg (2.02 lb) Data Deficient [4][16][17]
Ateles fusciceps[c] Black-headed Spider Monkey Atelidae 8.890 kg (19.60 lb) 8.800 kg (19.40 lb) Critically Endangered [8][12][18]
Ateles geoffroyi Geoffroy's Spider Monkey Atelidae 8.210 kg (18.10 lb) 7.700 kg (16.98 lb) Endangered [3][11][19]
Cebus capucinus White-headed Capuchin Cebidae 3.668 kg (8.09 lb) 2.666 kg (5.88 lb) Least Concern [6][20][21]
Saguinus geoffroyi Geoffroy's Tamarin Callitrichidae 0.486 kg (1.07 lb) 0.507 kg (1.12 lb) Least Concern [7][13][22]
Saimiri oerstedii Central American Squirrel Monkey Cebidae 0.829 kg (1.83 lb) 0.695 kg (1.53 lb) Vulnerable [9][21][23]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rylands, A., Groves, C., Mittermeier, R., Cortes-Ortiz, L. & Hines, J. (2006). "Taxonomy and Distributions of Mesoamerican Primates". In Estrada, A., Garber, P., Pavelka, M. & Luecke, L. New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates. Springer. pp. 29–80. ISBN 0-387-25854-X. 
  2. ^ a b Collins, A. (2008). "The taxonomic status of spider monkeys in the twenty-first century". In Campbell, C. Spider Monkeys. Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–67. ISBN 978-0-521-86750-4. 
  3. ^ a b c d Cuarón, A.D., Morales, A., Shedden, A., Rodriguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). Ateles geoffroyi. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  4. ^ a b Cuarón, A.D., Palacios, E., Morales, A., Shedden, A., Rodriguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). Aotus zonalis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  5. ^ a b c Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P.C., Link, A., Palacions, E. & Morales, A. (2008). Alouatta palliata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  6. ^ a b c Causado, J., Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). Cebus capucinus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  7. ^ a b c Marsh, L., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). Saguinus geoffroyi. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
  8. ^ a b c Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P.C. & Link, A. (2008). Ateles fusciceps. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 5 November 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d Wong, G., Cuarón, A.D., Rodriguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). Saimiri oerstedii. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  10. ^ a b c d Cuarón, A. D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P. C. & Link, A. (2008). Alouatta palliata ssp. coibensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  11. ^ a b c d Di Fiore, A. and Campbell, C. (2007). "The Atelines". In Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K., Panger, M., & Bearder, S. Primates in Perspective. The Oxford University Press. pp. 155–177. ISBN 978-0-19-517133-4. 
  12. ^ a b Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Mammals. Pogonias Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7. 
  13. ^ a b Defler, T. (2004). Primates of Colombia. Conservation International. pp. 163–169. ISBN 1-881173-83-6. 
  14. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 148–149. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  15. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 149. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  16. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 140. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  17. ^ Fernandez-Duque, E. (2007). "Aotinae". In Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K., Panger, M., & Bearder, S. Primates in Perspective. The Oxford University Press. pp. 139–154. ISBN 978-0-19-517133-4. 
  18. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 150. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  19. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 150–151. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  20. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 137. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  21. ^ a b Jack, K. (2007). "The Cebines". In Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K., Panger, M., & Bearder, S. Primates in Perspective. The Oxford University Press. pp. 107–120. ISBN 978-0-19-517133-4. 
  22. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  23. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 138–139. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.