List of Parthian kings

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Below is a list of rulers of the Iranian Parthian Empire (247 BC – 228 AD).

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Titles Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Arsacid dynasty, 247 BC–228 AD
1 Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces Coin of Arsaces I of Parthia.jpg King, Karen, Autokrator  ? – 211 BC 247 BC 211 BC A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II
2 Arsaces II Arsaces Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia.jpg  ? – 185 BC 211 BC 185 BC[1] Son of Arsaces I
3 Arsaces III Phriapatius  ? – 170 BC 185 BC 170 BC[2] Grandson of Tiridates I
4 Arsaces IV Phraates I  ? – 167 BC 170 BC 167 BC[3] Son of Phriapatius
5 Arsaces V Mithridates I The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellen  ? – 132 BC 167 BC[4] 132 BC[5] Son of Phriapatius
6 Arsaces VI Phraates II The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros  ? – 127 BC 132 BC 127 BC[6] Son of Mithridates I Killed in battle with Scythians
7 Arsaces VII Artabanus I Coin of Artabanus I of Parthia.jpg King  ? – 126 BC 127 BC 126 BC[7] Son of Phriapatius Killed in battle with Tocharians
8 Arsaces VIII Vologases (I)[8] The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellen, Epiphanes  ? – 122 BC 126 BC 122 BC[9] Son of Phriapatius He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
9 Arsaces IX Artabanus (II)[10] The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 121 BC 122 BC 121 BC Son of Artabanus I Killed in battle with Medians
10 Arsaces X Mithridates II The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter  ? – 91 BC 121 BC[11] 91 BC Son of Artabanus I
11 Arsaces XI Gotarzes I Coin of Gotarzes I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellen, Euergetes, Autokrator  ? – 87 BC 91 BC 87 BC Son of Mithridates II
12 Arsaces XII Artabanus (III)[12] The Great King, Theopator, Nicator  ? – 77? BC 91 BC 77? BC Son of Vologases (I)
13 Arsaces XIII Mithridates (III)[13] The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellen, Autokrator, Philopator, Epiphanes  ? – 67 BC 88 BC 67 BC Son of Mithridates II
14 Arsaces XIV Orodes I Orodesi.jpg The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 75 BC 80 BC 75 BC Son of Mithridates II
15 Arsaces XV Sanatruces I Coin of Sanatruces of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellen 157–70 BC 77 BC 70 BC Son of Vologases (I)[14]
16 Arsaces XVI[15]  ? The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellen, Eusebes  ? – 66 BC 77 BC 66 BC  ?
17 Arsaces XVII Phraates III Coin of Phraates III of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 57 BC 70 BC 57 BC Son of Sanatruces I Killed by Orodes II
18 Arsaces XVIII[16]  ? The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 63 BC 66 BC 63 BC Son of Arsaces XVI
19 Arsaces XIX Mithridates III (or IV) The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellen  ? – 54 BC 65 BC[17] 54 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Orodes II
20 Arsaces XX Orodes II Coin of Orodes II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen, Ktistes  ? – 38 BC 57 BC 38 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Phraates IV
21 Arsaces XXI Pacorus I King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 38 BC 50 BC 38 BC Son of Orodes II Killed in battle with Romans
22 Arsaces XXII Phraates IV PhraatesIVProfile.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 2 BC 38 2 BC Son of Orodes II Killed by Musa
23 Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen, Autokrator, Philorhomaios  ? – after 23 BC 30 BC 25 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Deposed and went to Rome
24 Arsaces XXIV Mithridates (V)[18]  ?  ? – ? BC 12 BC 9 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Musa Musa Parthian Queen Bust.jpg Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania  ? – 4? AD 2 BC 4 AD Queen of Phraates IV
25 Arsaces XXV Phraates V King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 4 AD 2 BC 4 AD Son of Phraates IV & Musa Deposed and went to Rome
26 Arsaces XXVI Orodes III King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 6 4 6 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Killed by Parthian aristocrats
27 Arsaces XXVII Vonones I Coin of Vonones I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen, Nikephoros  ? – 19 8 12 Son of Phraates IV Deposed and went to Rome. Later, He was killed by Romans.
28 Arsaces XXVIII Artabanus III
Coin of Artabanus III from the mint at Ecbatana. The reverse shows a throned archer with a bow. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑϹΙΛΕΩϹ ΒΑϹΙΛΕΩΝ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΑΡϹΑΚΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥϹ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟϹ (king of kings Arsaces, the benefactor, the just, the illustrious, friend of the Greeks).
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 40 10 40 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
29 Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III  ?  ? – ? 35 36 Probably a descendant of Tiridates II Deposed and went to Rome
30 Arsaces XXX Cinnamus  ?  ? – ? 37 37 Son of Artabanus III Abdicated
31 Arsaces XXXI Gotarzes II Godarz.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen 11 – 51 40 – 51 Son of Artabanus III
32 Arsaces XXXII Vardanes I King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 46 40 46 Son of Artabanus III Killed by Gotarzes II
33 Arsaces XXXIII Vonones II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 51 c. 45 51
34 Arsaces XXXIV Mithridates (VI)[19]  ?  ? – ? 49 50 Son of Vonones I Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
35 Arsaces XXXV Vologases I (or II) VologasesI.JPG King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen, The Lord  ? – 77 51 77 Son of Vonones II
36 Arsaces XXXVI Vardanes II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – ? 55 58 Son of Vologases I (or II) Deposed
37 Arsaces XXXVII Vologases II (or III) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – ? 77 89/90 Probably son of Vologases I (or II)
38 Arsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II PacorusII.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 115 77 115 Probably son of Vologases I (or II)
39 Arsaces XXXIX Artabanus IV King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – ? 80 81 Probably son of Vologases I (or II)
40 Arsaces XL Osroes I Coin of Osroes I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 130 89/90 130 Probably son of Vologases II (or III)
41 Arsaces XLI Vologases III (or IV) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 148 105 148  ?
42 Arsaces XLII Mithridates IV (or VII) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – c. 145 115 c. 145 Brother of Osroes I Killed in battle with Romans
43 Arsaces XLIII Parthamaspates King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – after 123 116 117 Son of Osroes I Deposed and went to Rome
44 Arsaces XLIV[20] Sanatruces II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – c. 145 c. 145 c. 145 son of Mithridates IV (or VII) Killed in battle with Romans
45 Arsaces XLV Vologases IV (or V) Coin of Vologases IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 191 148 191 Son of Mithridates IV (or VII)
46 Arsaces XLVI Vologases V (or VI) Coin of Vologases V of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 208 191 208 Son of Vologases IV (or V)
47 Arsaces XLVII Osroes II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – ? c. 190 c. 195 Probably son of Vologases IV (or V)
48 Arsaces XLVIII Vologases VI (or VII) Coin of Vologases VI of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen 181–228 208 228 Son of Vologases V (or VI) Killed by Ardashir I
49 Arsaces XLIX Artabanus V King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – 226 213 226 Son of Vologases V (or VI) Killed by Ardashir I
50 Arsaces L Tiridates IV[21] King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellen  ? – ? 217 222 Son of Vologases IV (or V) He was also king of Armenia

There are some old chronologies that differ from the above list. Two of them are preseneted below:

Chronological Table of the Arsacid Kings of Parthia[22]
New Chronology Old Chronology
247 BC Arsacid era begins;
Andragoras autonomous as satrap
c. 250 BC Arsaces I of Parthia
246 BC Arsaces I of Parthia leads revolt in Parthia c. 248 BC Tiridates I of Parthia
238 BC Arsaces I of Parthia in control of Parthia
217 or 214 BC Arsaces II of Parthia 211 BC Artabanus I
c. 191 BC Phriapatius of Parthia c. 191 BC Phriapatius of Parthia
c. 176 BC Phraates I of Parthia c. 176 BC Phraates I of Parthia
c. 171 BC Mithridates I of Parthia c. 171 BC Mithridates I of Parthia
c. 139/138 BC Phraates II of Parthia c. 138/137 BC Phraates II of Parthia
c. 127 BC Artabanus I of Parthia c. 128 BC Artabanus II of Parthia
c. 124/123 BC Mithridates II of Parthia c. 123 BC Mithridates II of Parthia
c. 90 BC Gotarzes I of Parthia;
Orodes I of Parthia
c. 91 BC Gotarzes I of Parthia
c. 80 BC Orodes I of Parthia
78/77 BC Sanatruces of Parthia 76/77 BC Sanatruces of Parthia
71/70 BC Phraates III of Parthia 58/57 BC Mithridates III of Parthia
58/57 BC Orodes II of Parthia c. 57 BC Orodes II of Parthia
before 53 BC Mithridates III of Parthia (struck coins at Seleucia)
c. 40 BC Phraates IV of Parthia c. 40 BC Phraates IV of Parthia
c. 39 BC Death of Pacorus I of Parthia 38 BC Death of Pacorus I of Parthia
32–30 BC Invasion by Tiridates I 30–25 BC Tiridates II of Parthia
27/26 BC Tiridates I strikes coins at Seleucia
3/2 BC Phraates V of Parthia 3/2 BC Phraates V of Parthia
5/6 AD Orodes III of Parthia 4 AD Orodes III of Parthia
8/9 AD Vonones I of Parthia 7/8 AD Vonones I of Parthia
10/11 AD Artabanus III of Parthia 12 AD Artabanus III of Parthia
36 AD Tiridates II of Parthia 36 AD Tiridates III of Parthia
37 AD Cinnamus 37 AD Cinnamus
39–45 AD Vardanes I of Parthia 38 AD Gotarzes II of Parthia
43/44–50/51 AD Gotarzes II of Parthia 39–47/48 AD Vardanes I of Parthia
50/51–76/77 AD Vologases I of Parthia c. 51 AD Vonones II of Parthia
55 AD Vardanes II of Parthia 51/52–79/80 AD Vologases I of Parthia
77/78–78/79 AD Vologases II of Parthia
77/78–86/87 AD Pacorus II of Parthia 78–115/116 AD Pacorus II of Parthia
79/80–80/81 AD Artabanus IV of Parthia 80–81 AD Artabanus IV of Parthia
92/93–95/96 AD Pacorus II of Parthia
104/105–107/108 AD Vologases III of Parthia 105/106–147 AD Vologases II
108/109–127/128 AD Osroes I of Parthia;
Parthamaspates of Parthia in 117 AD
109/110–128/129 AD Osroes I of Parthia;
Parthamaspates of Parthia in 117 AD
111/112–146/147 AD Vologases III of Parthia
c. 130–147 AD Mithridates IV of Parthia 128/129–147? AD Mithridates IV of Parthia
147/148–190/191 AD Vologases IV of Parthia 148–192 AD Vologases III of Parthia
190/191–207/208 AD Vologases V of Parthia 191–207/208 AD Vologases IV of Parthia
207/208–221/222 AD Vologases VI of Parthia 207/208–222/223 AD Vologases V of Parthia
c. 213 – c. 224 AD Artabanus V of Parthia c. 213 – c. 224 AD Artabanus V of Parthia

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  2. ^ Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  3. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  4. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  5. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  6. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  7. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  8. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  9. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  10. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  11. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C."
  12. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  13. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  14. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  15. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  16. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  17. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  18. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  19. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10
  20. ^ See: Unknown King (III) (c. A.D. 140)
  21. ^ See: Tiridates III (c. AD 224 – 228?)
  22. ^ This table appears in Bivar 1983, pp. 98–99, an appendix for his book chapter "The Political History of Iran Under the Arsacids" in The Cambridge History of Iran

References[edit]