List of pharaohs

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Pharaoh of Egypt
Former Monarchy
Double crown.svg
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
First monarch Narmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch Nectanebo II
(last native)[1]
Cleopatra & Caesarion
(last actual)
Style Five-name titulary
Official residence Varies by era
Appointer Divine right
Monarchy began c. 3100 BC
Monarchy ended 343 BC
(last native pharaoh)[1]
30 BC
(last Greek pharaohs)

This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3100 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.

Note that the dates given are approximate. The list of pharaohs presented below is based on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Existing primary old lists of pharaohs[edit]

The texts of existing primary old lists of pharaohs are incomplete:

Archibald Sayce gave comparative data on several of these lists in his book The Ancient Empires of the East (1884),[2] in addition to the lists found in Herodotus, Diodorus, Eratosthenes, and even a fanciful list found in "the Arabic writers". Yet another fanciful list that does not appear in Sayce, is found in the Book of Sothis that George Syncellus attributed to Manetho.

Legendary period[edit]

In the texts of the Palermo, Turin and Manetho king lists, there are different versions of names of eight god kings that ruled Egypt in the beginning.[citation needed]

Turin King list Manetho
(Greek equivalent)
Ptah Hephestus
Craftsmen & Creation
Ra Helios
Shu Aelos or Agathosdaimon (perhaps Sothis?)
Geb Gaia
Osiris Hades Afterlife
Set Typhon
Horus Ares War
Thoth Athena Knowledge
Ma'at Order

These god kings are followed by differing sets of semi-divine rulers.

Turin King List Length Manetho Length
Second dynasty of gods unknown Dynasty of Halfgods unknown
3 Achu-Dynasties unknown 30 Kings from Memphis 1790 years
Dynasty of Disciples of Horus unknown 10 Kings from Thinis 350 years

Archaic period[edit]

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period, when Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms.

Early Dynastic: Lower Egypt[edit]

Lower Egypt consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. The following list may not be complete:

Name Comments Dates
Hsekiu[3] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Khayu[3] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Tiu[3] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Thesh[3] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Neheb[3] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Wazner[3] Only known from the Palermo stone c. 3100 BC?
Mekh[3] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
(destroyed)[3] Was only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Double Falcon Attested through finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt c. 3200 BC?

Early Dynastic: Upper Egypt[edit]

Upper Egypt consisted of the Nile Valley, south of the Delta. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Image Comments Dates
Scorpion I Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BC?
Iry Hor name.jpg
Possibly the immediate predecessor of Ka. c. 3150 BC?
Ka vessel.JPG
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Possibly the immediate predecessor of Narmer. c. 3100 BC
King Scorpion
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer. c. 3150 BC
The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.[6] c. 3150 BC

First Dynasty[edit]

The First Dynasty ruled from approximately 3150 to 2890 BC, by some chronological schemes. (There are no precise or agreed-upon year dates for any of the Old or Middle Kingdom periods, and reign estimates differ widely from one Egyptologist to the next.)

Name Image Comments Dates
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt. c. 3150 BC
c. 3050 BC
Djer stela retouched.jpg
41 years
Egypte louvre 290.jpg
10 years[7]
Merneith stele.jpg
Female Regent for Den, may have ruled as pharaoh in her own right
Den label.jpg
First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a golden Horus name. 42 years[7]
Anedjib Closeup.jpg
10 years
9 years
2916?–2890 BC

In the interregnum between the first and second dynasties two short lived pharaohs may have reigned :

Name Image Comments Dates
Very short reign c. 2900 BC
Horus Bird
Very short reign c. 2900 BC

Second Dynasty[edit]

The Second Dynasty ruled c. 2890–2686 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
25–29 years
Raneb-Stela MetropolitanMuseum.png
Name may be read Nebra rather than Raneb. Could be the same person as Weneg.[10] 10–14 years
Nynetjer 2.jpg
May have divided Egypt between his successors 43–45 years
Could be an independent ruler or the same as Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb
Abydos KL 02-05 n13.jpg
Possibly the same person as Seth Peribsen [14]
May have reigned over Upper Egypt only, could be the same person as Senedj or Sekhemib-Perenmaat.[16]
CalciteVesselFragmentNameOfSekhemibPerenmmat-BritishMuseum-August21-08 retouched.jpg
May have reigned over Upper Egypt only, could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[16]
Khasekhem oxford2.jpg
Reunified Egypt after a period of troubles ca. 2690 BC 17–18 years

Old Kingdom[edit]

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2686–2181 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period—or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

Third Dynasty[edit]

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt The Step Pyramid Constructed by Djosers' chief architect and scribe Imhotep[21] 19 or 28 years ca. 2670 BC; Radiocarbon dates start reign between 2691 and 2625[22]
Imhotep participated in the construction of his unfinished step pyramid 2649–2643
Could be the same as Nebka c. 2650
Built an unfinished step pyramid 2643–2637
Huni-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum.png
Could be the same as Qahedjet, may have started the Meidum pyramid 2637–2613

Fourth Dynasty[edit]

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Name Image Comments Dates
Snofru Eg Mus Kairo 2002.png
Built the Meidum Pyramid and the Bent Pyramid (341 ft/103m from the base to the tip), which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried in the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried in the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body.
2613–2589 BC
Khufu CEM.jpg
Greek form: Cheops. Built the great pyramid of Giza. Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, names, and monuments have perished for one reason or another.
2589–2566 BC
Djedefra (Radjedef)
Believed to have created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip).
2566–2558 BC
Khafre statue.jpg
Greek form: Chephren His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Credited by some Egyptologists as the builder of the Great Sphinx of Giza.
2558–2532 BC
Here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho
MenkauraAndQueen-CloseUpOfKingsFace MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Greek form: Mycerinus. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza.
2532–2503 BC
Abydos KL 04-06 n25.jpg
Broke with the tradition of pyramid building and instead had the Mastabat el-Fara'un made for himself
2503–2498 BC
Djedefptah Here some authorities insert Djedefptah a.k.a. Thampthis, following Manetho

Fifth Dynasty[edit]

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
2498–2491 BC
Egypt sahura and god.jpg
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
2477–2467 BC
Shepseskare Cylinder Seal.png
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months.[25]
2467–2460 BC
2460–2458 BC
Nyuserre Ini
Niuserre BrooklynMuseum.png
2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu
Menkauhor CG 40.jpg
2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
DjedkareIsesi-GoldCylanderSeal MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
2414–2375 BC
Unas stelae.jpg
His pyramid is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
2375–2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty[edit]

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Teti-SistrumInscribedWithName MetropolitanMuseum.png
Was possibly murdered by his successor
2345–2333 BC
Abydos KL 06-02 n35.jpg
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I
Kneeling statue of Pepy I.jpg
2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
Hidden treasures 09.jpg
2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II
AnkhnesmeryreII-and-Son-PepiII-SideView BrooklynMuseum.png
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reign "only" 64 years.
2278–2184 BC
Neferka Only mentioned in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[26]
Abydos KL 06-06 n39.jpg
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 2184 BC
Neitiqerty Siptah
Abydos KL 07-01 n40.jpg
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[27] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2184–2181 BC

First Intermediate Period[edit]

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)[edit]

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from c. 2181 to c. 2160 BC. They comprise numerous ephemeral rulers reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt. This table is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[28] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[29]

Name Image Comments Dates
Abydos KL 07-02 n41.jpg
Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[30][31][32]
Neferkare II
Abydos KL 07-03 n42.jpg
Neferkare (III) Neby
Abydos KL 07-04 n43.jpg
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Djedkare Shemai
Abydos KL 07-05 n44.jpg
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Abydos KL 07-06 n45.jpg
Abydos KL 07-07 n46.jpg
Abydos KL 07-08 n47.jpg
Abydos KL 07-09 n48.jpg
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Abydos KL 07-10 n49.jpg
Abydos KL 07-11 n50.jpg
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Abydos KL 07-12 n51.jpg
Neferkamin Anu
Abydos KL 07-13 n52.jpg
Qakare Ibi
Abydos KL 07-14 n53.jpg
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts 2169–2167 BC
Abydos KL 07-15 n54.jpg
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos. 2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Abydos KL 07-16 n55.jpg
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. 2163–2161 BC
Abydos KL 07-17 n56.jpg
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. 2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty[edit]

The Ninth Dynasty[33] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[33]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Egypte louvre 246 panier.jpg
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160–?
-  ?
Neferkare VII -  ?
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
Nebkaure Khety Petrie.png
-  ?
Senenh— or Setut -  ?
-  ?
Mery— -  ?
Shed— -  ?
H— -  ?

Tenth Dynasty[edit]

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130–?
Neferkare VIII  ?
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)  ?
Stele Anpuemhat Quibell.png

Eleventh Dynasty[edit]

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Prince Intef Petrie.png
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Statue Mentuhotep-aa by Khruner.jpg
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
?–2134 BC
Sehertawy Intef I
Intef I.jpg
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
2134–2117 BC
Wahankh Intef II
Funerary stele of Intef II.jpg
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
2117–2069 BC
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Silsileh close up.jpg
Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[34]
2069–2060 BC

Middle Kingdom[edit]

The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

Eleventh Dynasty continued[edit]

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II[35]
Mentuhotep Closeup.jpg
Gained all Egypt ca. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins.
2060–2010 BC
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[36]
Mentuhotep-OsirideStatue-CloseUp MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
2010–1998 BC
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[37]
Relief Mentuhotep IV Lepsius.jpg
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I.
1997–1991 BC

Twelfth Dynasty[edit]

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[38][39]
Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV. Died assassinated.
1991–1962 BC
Kheperkare Senusret I[40] (Sesostris I)
Ägyptisches Museum Leipzig 104.jpg
Built the White Chapel
1971–1926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[41]
Louvre sphinx.jpg
1929–1895 BC
Khakheperre Senusret II[42] (Sesostris II)
Senusret II.jpg
1897–1878 BC
Khakaure Senusret III[43] (Sesostris III)
Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
1878–1860 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[44]
Amenemhet III, basalto, seconda metà del XIX sec. ac. 02.JPG
1860–1815 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[45]
Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso.
1815–1807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[46]
Louvre 0320O7 01.jpg
A rare female ruler.
1807–1802 BC

Second Intermediate Period[edit]

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Then, some time around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Sobekhotep I.jpg
Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies 1802–1800 BC[47]
Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[47] 1800–1796 BC[47]
Stele of Nerikare.png
1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
Amenemhat V.jpg
3 to 4 years[47] 1796–1793 BC[47]
Ameny Qemau Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur 1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Also called Sehotepibre 1792–1790 BC
Iufni Only attested on the Turin canon Very short reign, possibly c. 1790 – 1788 BC[47]
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
Amenemhat VI.jpg
1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni
Stele Nebnuni by Khruner.jpg
1785–1783 BC[47] or 1739 BC[48]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
Cylinder Sehetepibre by Khruner.jpg
1783–1781 BC[47]
Sewadjkare Known only from the Turin canon
Nedjemibre Known only from the Turin canon 7 months, 1780 BC[47] or 1736 BC[49]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Louvre 032007 40.jpg
Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[47]
Renseneb 4 months 1777 BC[47]
Awybre Hor I
Ka Statue of horawibra.jpg
Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[47]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[47]
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[47]
Kay Amenemhat.jpg
Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[47]
Cylinder Sedjefakare Petrie.jpg
A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. 5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[47]
Khutawyre Wegaf
Wegaf Rubensohn.png
Founder of the dynasty in old studies c. 1767 BC
Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Attested by two colossal statues Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[47] or 1711 BC.[50]
Sehetepkare Intef IV
Hotepkare cylinder Petrie.png
Seth Meribre  ?
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
SobekhotepIII-DualRelief BrooklynMuseum.png
4 years and 2 months c. 1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
Neferhotep I 2.jpg
11 years 1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. 1739 BC[47]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
Statue of Sobekhotep IV.jpg
10 or 11 years 1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
Statue of Merhotepre Sobekhotep V.jpg
c. 1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
4 years 8 months and 29 days c. 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau
Ibiaw Scarab Petrie.png
10 years and 8 months 1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[47]
Merneferre Ay I
Merneferre Ay.jpg
Longest reigning king of the dynasty 23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[47] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini
Merhotepre Ini.png
Possibly a son of his predecessor 2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[47] or 1691–1689 BC
Sankhenre Sewadjtu Attested only on the Turin canon 3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[47]
Mersekhemre Ined
Neferhotep II 2.jpg
May be the same person as Neferhotep II 3 years, 1672–1669 BC[47]
Sewadjkare Hori 5 years  ?
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII 2 years and 6 months [47] 1664–1663 BC[47]
Seven kings Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [47] 1663 BC –?[47]
Mer[…]re  ?
Merkheperre Scarab.png
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [47]
Merkare Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [47]
Name lost  ?
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
Sewadjare Mentuhotep.png
c. 1655 BC[47]
[…]mosre  ?
Ibi […]maatre  ?
Hor[…] […]webenre  ?
Se...kare  ?  ?
Seheqenre Sankhptahi
May be the son of his predecessor  ?  ?  ?
Se...enre  ?  ?–1649 BC [47]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Dedumose I
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty c. 1654
Dedumose II
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty  ?
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Late 13th dynasty. After 1660 BC.[47]
Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty  ?

Fourteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[51] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin.

Name Image Comments Dates
Yakbim Sekhaenre
Sekhaenra scarab Petrie.png
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[51] 1805–1780 BC
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Scarab Nubwoserre UC16597.jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[51] 1780–1770 BC
Qareh Khawoserre[51]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[51] 1770–1760 BC
'Ammu Ahotepre[51]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[51] 1760–1745 BC
Canaanite - Scarab with Cartouche of King Sheshi - Walters 4217 - Bottom (2).jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.[51] 1745–1705 BC
Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [51] c. 1705
Khakherewre -  ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[47] -
Stele Merdjefare by Khruner.png
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[47] c. 1699
Sewadjkare III -  ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre -  ?
-  ?
Djefare? -  ?
Webenre c. 1690
Sekheperenre[51] Attested by a single scarab seal 2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Anati Djedkare[51] Only known from the Turin canon
Bebnum[51] Only known from the Turin canon
'Apepi[51] Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nuya[47] Attested by a scarab-seal
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare c. 1700 BC ?
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Shenshek[47] Attested by a scarab-seal
Yakareb scarab.png
YaqubHar scarab Petrie 75.png
May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. 17th–16th centuries BCE

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Chronological position uncertain. 1649 BC – ?
Aperanati scarab Petrie.png
Chronological position uncertain.
Sakir-Har -  ?
Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign 30–40 years
ScarabBearingNameOfApophis MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
- 40 years or more
Cylinder Khondy Petrie.jpg
- 1555–1544

Abydos Dynasty[edit]

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[53][54][55] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[56]
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
Pantjeny stele BM Budge.png
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[56]
Menkhaure Snaaib
May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[57][58][59]
Woseribre Senebkay
Cartouche Senebkay by Khruner.jpg
Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon.

Sixteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13 th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper-Egypt only.

Name Image Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered
Djehuti Sekhemresementawy 3 years
Sobekhotep VIII Sekhemreseusertawy
Stele Sekhemre Seusertawy by Khruner.png
16 years
Neferhotep III Sekhemresankhtawy
Stele JE 59635 by Khruner.png
1 year
Mentuhotepi Seankhenre May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[58] 1 year
Nebiryraw I Sewadjenre
Sewadjenra Scarab Petrie.png
26 years
Nebiriau II
Bebiankh Seuserenre
Dagger Bebiankh by Khruner.jpg
12 years
Dedumose I Djedhotepre
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[58]
Dedumose II Djedneferre
Montuemsaf Djedankhre
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Mentuhotep VI.jpg
Senusret IV Seneferibre
Senusret IV.png
Sekhemre Shedwast

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[60] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[57][58]

Seventeenth Dynasty[edit]

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep
Rahotep stele BM Budge.png
c. 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I
Reigned at least 7 years -
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
Fragment Sobekemsaf Petrie.jpg
His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramses IX -
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
Louvre 122006 050.jpg
- -
Nubkheperre Intef VI
Reigned more than 3 years -
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII
Louvre 122006 051.jpg
- -
Senakhtenre Ahmose - -
c. 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao
Sequenre tao.JPG
Died in battle against the Hyksos.
1558–1554 BC
1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have comprised the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[47]

New Kingdom[edit]

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I
AhmoseI-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos. c. 1550–1525 BCE; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BCE, the mean point of which is 1557 BCE[61]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
AmenhotepI-StatueHead MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
- 1541–1520
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
- 1520–1492
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
Luxor, hieroglyphs on an obelisk inside the Temple of Hatshepsut, Egypt, Oct 2004.jpg
- 1492–1479
Maatkare Hatshepsut
The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed). Recent evidence suggests she died of bone cancer.[62] 1479–1458
Menkheperre Thutmose III
Often called the "Napoleon of Egypt." Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the Levant. 1479–1425
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
AmenhotepII-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum.png
- 1425–1400
Menkheperure Thutmose IV
- 1400–1390
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King
Ruled Egypt at the peak of its power, surpassed all pharaohs in numbers of monuments built and statues erected. His mortuary temple was the largest ever built, only to be destroyed by Rameses II. Recent DNA testing proved he was the grandfather of Tutankhamun. 1390–1352
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
Founder of brief period of a solar-centered religion (Atenism). His original name means "Amun is pleased." 1352–1334
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare
Spaziergang im Garten Amarna Berlin.jpg
Co-regent and successor of Akhenaten. The identity of this individual is uncertain and disputed. Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti. Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten 1334–1333
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun
Tuthankhamun Egyptian Museum.jpg
Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun. He is also known as the boy king. 1333–1324
Kheperkheperure Ay
Close advisor to two and perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was said to be the power behind the throne during Tutankhamun's reign. 1324–1320
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb
StatueOfHoremhebAndTheGodHorus-DetailOfHoremheb01 KunsthistorischesMuseum Nov13-10.jpg
Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun. Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye). 1320–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[63]
StatueHeadOfParamessu-TitledFrontalView-RamessesI MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
- 1292–1290
Menmaatre Seti I
Abydos sethi.jpg
- 1290–1279
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great
The ruler usually associated with Moses; he reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC 1279–1213
Banenre Merenptah[64]
Merenptah Louxor-HeadAndShoulders-BackgroundKnockedOut.png
A stele describing campaigns in Libya and Canaan contains the only extant reference to "Israel" in Ancient Egyptian records. 1213–1203
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse
Amenmesse-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 1203–1200
Userkheperure Seti II[65]
Turin statue of Seti II.jpg
- 1203–1197
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[66]
- 1197–1191
Satre-merenamun Tausret
A rare female ruler also known as Tawosret in some places, she was probably the wife of Seti II.[67] 1191–1190

Twentieth Dynasty[edit]

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakht
Sethnakht closeup Lepsius.png
- 1190–1186
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. Died assassinated in a harem plot. 1186–1155
User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV
RamessesIV-SmitingHisEnemiesOnAnOstracon MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
- 1155–1149
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
- 1149–1145
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
Egypte louvre 129 ramses6.jpg
- 1145–1137
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
Mold with Throne Name of Ramses VII LACMA M.80.202.468.jpg
- 1137–1130
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII
SFEC-MEDINETHABU-Sethiherkhepeshef II.jpg
- 1130–1129
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX
RamessesIX-Relief MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 1129–1111
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[68]
- 1111–1107
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[69]
Temple Khonsu Ramesses XI Lepsius.jpg
Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as wehem mesut.[70] 1107–1077

Third Intermediate Period[edit]

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–732 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed[71]
Also known as Smendes I 1077–1051
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu
- 1051–1047
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Golden Mask of Psusennes I.jpg
Also known as the Silver Pharaoh 1047–1001
Usermaatre Amenemope
Mask of Amenemope1.jpg
- 1001–992
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
Seal Aakheperre Osorkon Petrie.jpg
- * (Osochor ) 992–986
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun
Siamun’s royal cartouche on a lintel.jpg
- 986–967
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
Statue CG42192 legrain.jpg
- 967–943

Twenty-Second Dynasty[edit]

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I
Karnak Sheshonq I.jpg
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
- 922–887
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
Sheshonq II mask2004.jpg
- 887–885
Takelot I
Takelot I a.jpg
- 885–872
Hedjkheperre Harsiese
Sarcophage Harsiesis.JPG
A rebel, at Thebes 880–860
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
Egypte louvre 066.jpg
- 872–837
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
Shoshenq III.jpg
- 837–798
Shoshenq IV - 798–785
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami
Louvre 122006 015.jpg
- 785–778
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
Louvre 122006 014.jpg
- 778–740
Aakheperre-setepenamun Osorkon IV
Louvre egide tete lionne.JPG
- 740–720

Twenty-Third Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Karnak Ptah 08.jpg
Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837–813
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast
Torso of Pedubast I by Michael Martin.jpg
A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II 826–801
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I Co-regent with Pedubast 812–811
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801–795
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Osorkon III.jpg
Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795–767
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III
Karnak Takelot III.jpg
Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. 773–765
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun
Egypte louvre 054.jpg
Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. 765–762

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini
Louvre C100 stele Petrie.png
Reigned at Thebes only 762-?

The Libu[edit]

Not recognised as a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu 805–795
 ? - 795–780
Niumateped - 780–755
Titaru - 763–755
Ker - 755–750
Rudamon - 750–745
Ankhor - 745–736
Tefnakht - 736–732

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte
Tefnakht Athens stela (T. Efthimiadis) det.jpg
- 732–725
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
Apis Bakenranef 6 Mariette.jpg
- 725–720

Late period[edit]

The Late Period runs from 732 BC to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty[edit]

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye
Stele Piye submission Mariette.jpg
King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752–721 according to Dan'el Kahn
Neferkare Shabaka
Shabaqo-DonationStela MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 721–707/706 according to Rolf Krauss/David Warburton[72]
Djedkaure Shebitku
Shebitqo-DonationStela MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 707/706–690 according to Dan'el Kahn[73]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa
- 690–664
Bakare Tantamani
Nubian head.JPG
lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664–653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – 4th century AD).

Twenty-sixth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC.[74]

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Necho I Horus.png
Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I. 672–664 BC
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Psammetique Ier TPabasa.jpg
Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II. 664–610 BC
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
Necho-KnellingStatue BrooklynMuseum.png
Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II. 610–595 BC
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
Sphinx Psammetique II 1104.jpg
Son of Necho II and father of Apries. 595–589 BC
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)
Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II. 589–570 BC
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II)
Farao Amasis.JPG
He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III. 570–526 BC
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
Psamtik III.jpg
Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed. 526–525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty[edit]

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Metsuire Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Cambyses II.jpg
Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC 525–521 BC
Petubastis III
Ignota prov., pannello decorativo del re sehibra, xxiii dinastia, 823-716 ac..JPG
A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta 522/21–520 BC
Smerdis (Bardiya) Son of Cyrus the Great 522–521 BC
Setutre Darius I the Great
- 521–486 BC
Xerxes I the Great
Xerxes I.jpg
- 486–465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465–464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand
Artaxerxes I of Persia.JPG
- 464–424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424–423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424–423 BC
Darius II
Tomb of Darius II.jpg
424–404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. 404–398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I
Louvre 032007 15.jpg
Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed. 398–393 BC
Psammuthis-ReliefFragmentBearingNames MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 393 BC
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Achoris-StatueTorso MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes. Father of Nefaarud II. 393–380 BC
Nefaarud II Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor. 380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty[edit]

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos. 380–362 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta. 362–360 BC
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
NectaneboII-StatueHead MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[75] 360–343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty[edit]

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Inscription Pesepolis British Museum.jpg Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343–338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338–336 BC
Khababash Stela Nastasen Kambasuten Lepsius.jpg Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia 338–335 BC
Darius III Meister der Alexanderschlacht 003.jpg Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336–332 BC

Argead Dynasty[edit]

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)
Napoli BW 2013-05-16 16-24-01 DxO.jpg
Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt 332–323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Philippos III Arridaios Budge 162.png
Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323–317 BC
Haaibre Alexander IV
Roxana with Alexander IV Aegus the son of Alexander the Great.jpg
Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317–309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty[edit]

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, who in modern times is known simply as Cleopatra who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, and had children with both of them. Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans. Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy I Soter Louvre Ma849.jpg Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305–285 BC
Berenice I Berenice I.jpg Wife of Ptolemy I  ?–285 BC
Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II.jpg - 288–246 BC
Arsinoe I Arsinoe I Dekadrachme.jpg Wife of Ptolemy II 284/281–c. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II.jpg Wife of Ptolemy II 277–270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I Ptolemy III Euergetes.jpg - 246–222 BC
Berenice II BerenikeIIOnACoinOfPtolemyIII.jpg Wife of Ptolemy III 244/243–222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator Octadrachm Ptolemy IV BM CMBMC33.jpg - 222–204 BC
Arsinoe III Oktadrachmon Arsinoe III.jpg Wife of Ptolemy IV 220–204 BC
Hugronaphor Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 205–199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 199–185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Tetradrachm Ptolemy V.jpg Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC 204–180 BC
Cleopatra I Cleopatra I El Kab.jpg Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193–176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BCE) - 2009.jpg Died 145 BC 180–164 BC
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546.jpg Wife of Ptolemy VI 175–164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171–163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BCE) - 2009.jpg Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163–145 BC
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546.jpg Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163–127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145–144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg Restored 145–131 BC
Cleopatra III Cleopatra II and III Kom Ombo Temple.jpg Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142–131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg Restored 127–116 BC
Cleopatra III Cleopatra II and III Kom Ombo Temple.jpg Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127–107 BC
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546.jpg Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124–116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Edfu29.JPG Died 80 BC 116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116–115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy X Alexander I Louvre Ma970.jpg Died 88 BC 110–109 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) PtolSmash 212.jpg Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80–58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV 79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII 58–57 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. 58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos PtolSmash 212.jpg Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55–51 BC
Cleopatra VII Kleopatra-VII.-Altes-Museum-Berlin1.jpg Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51–30 BC
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–47 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48–47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Ptolemy XIV.jpg Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47–44 BC
Ptolemy XV Denderah3 Cleopatra Cesarion.jpg Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over. 44–30 BC


Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar and Roman General Marc Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius. See the list of Roman Emperors.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Clayton 1995, p. 217. "Although paying lip-service to the old ideas and religion, in varying degrees, pharaonic Egypt had in effect died with the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo II in 343 BC"
  2. ^ Dynastic Tables: Kings of Egypt
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Breasted (1909) p.36
  4. ^ Rice (1999) p.86
  5. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp.57f.
  6. ^ Shaw (2000) p.196
  7. ^ a b Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit (Agyptologische Abhandlungen), ISBN 3447026774, O. Harrassowitz (1987), p. 124
  8. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp. 83–84
  9. ^ Wilkinson (1999) p. 84
  10. ^ Jochem Kahl: Ra is my Lord: Searching for the Rise of the Sun God at the Dawn of Egyptian History. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 3-447-05540-5, page 12–14 & 74.
  11. ^ Wilkinson (1999) p. 79
  12. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp. 87–88
  13. ^ Pascal Vernus, Jean Yoyotte, The Book of the Pharaohs, Cornell University Press 2003, p.27
  14. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen.. Deutscher Kunstverlag, München/Berlin 1984, ISBN 3-422-00832-2, page 171.
  15. ^ [1] Seth-Peribsen
  16. ^ a b Darell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008
  17. ^ [2] King Khasekhem
  18. ^ [3] King Khasekhemwy
  19. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 1999, pp.83 & 95
  20. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, pp.79 & 258
  21. ^ Verner (2001)
  22. ^ Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., [url=""]Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt[/url], [i]Science[/i] 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554 - 1557
  23. ^ Clayton (1994) p.32
  24. ^ Clayton (1994) p.42
  25. ^ Miroslav Verner (2000): Who was Shepseskara, and when did he reign?, in: Miroslav Bárta, Jaromír Krejčí (editors): Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute, Prague, ISBN 80-85425-39-4, p. 581–602, available online.
  26. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.73
  27. ^ Ryholt & Bardrum (2000) pp.87–100.
  28. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : P. von Zabern, 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6, available online
  29. ^ Kim Ryholt: "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris", Zeitschrift für ägyptische, 127, 2000, p. 99
  30. ^ Gustave Jéquier, Maṣlaḥat al-Āthār (1993): Les pyramides des reines Neit et Apouit (in French), Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale, OCLC 195690029, see plate 5.
  31. ^ Percy Newberry (1943): Queen Nitocris of the Sixth Dynasty, in: The Journal of Egyptian Archeology, vol. 29, pp=51–54
  32. ^ Gae Callender: Queen Neit-ikrety/Nitokris, in: Miroslav Barta, Filip Coppens, Jaromic Krecji (editors): Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2010/1, Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, 2011, ISBN 978-8-07-308384-7, see pp. 249–250
  33. ^ a b Turin Kinglist, Columns IV,18 to V,10, Ancient Egypt dot org. Accessed 10 February 2010.
  34. ^ Margaret Bunson: Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-1438109978, available online, see p. 181
  35. ^ Labib Habachi: King Nebhepetre Menthuhotep: his monuments, place in history, deification and unusual representations in form of gods, in: Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 19 (1963), pp. 16–52
  36. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 23–25
  37. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 25–26
  38. ^ [4] Amenemhat I
  39. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 28–35
  40. ^ Murnane (1977) p.2
  41. ^ Murnane (1977) p.7
  42. ^ Murnane (1977) p.9
  43. ^ Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.251
  44. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 56–61
  45. ^ "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BCE)". Digital Egypt for Universities. 
  46. ^ Grajetzk (2006) pp.61-63
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  48. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3
  49. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3
  50. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, 2002
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  52. ^ a b Kings of the 2nd Intermediate Period
  53. ^ Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens, In Orientalia 57 (1988), p. 259
  54. ^ Ryholt, K.S.B. (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Period, C. 1800-1550 B.C. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 164. ISBN 8772894210. 
  55. ^ "Giant Sarcophagus Leads Penn Museum Team in Egypt To the Tomb of a Previously Unknown Pharaoh". Penn Museum. January 2014. Retrieved 16 Jan 2014. 
  56. ^ a b Marcel Marée: A sculpture workshop at Abydos from the late Sixteenth or early Seventeenth Dynasty, in: Marcel Marée (editor): The Second Intermediate period (Thirteenth-Seventeenth Dynasties), Current Research, Future Prospects, Leuven, Paris, Walpole, MA. 2010 ISBN 978-90-429-2228-0. p. 247, 268
  57. ^ a b Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  58. ^ a b c d Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  59. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien 49, Mainz 1999.
  60. ^ Wolfgang Helck, Eberhard Otto, Wolfhart Westendorf, Stele - Zypresse: Volume 6 of Lexikon der Ägyptologie, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1986, Page 1383
  61. ^ Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Science 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554-1557.
  62. ^ Tooth clinches identification of Egyptian queen
  63. ^ "Ramesses I Menpehtire". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  64. ^ "King Merenptah". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
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  66. ^ "Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  67. ^ "Tausret". 
  68. ^ Grimal (1992) p.291
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  70. ^ Shaw (ed), Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 309. 
  71. ^ Cerny p.645
  72. ^ R. Krauss and D.A. Warburton, "Chronological Table for the Dynastic Period" in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. p.494
  73. ^ Dan'el Kahn, "The Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var and the Chronology of Dynasty 25," Orientalia 70 (2001), pp.1-18
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  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380-1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3. 
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
  • Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
  • Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt., Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Shaw, Garry. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012.
  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Verner, Miroslav, The Pyramids - Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8
  • Egypt, History & Civilisation By Dr. R Ventura. Published by Osiris, PO Box 107 Cairo.

External links[edit]