List of Philippine–American War Medal of Honor recipients

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The Philippine-American War was an armed military conflict between the United States and the First Philippine Republic, fought from 1899 to at least 1902, which arose from a Filipino political struggle against U.S. occupation of the Philippines. While the conflict was officially declared over on July 4, 1902,[1][2][3] American troops continued hostilities against remnants of the Philippine Army and other resistance groups until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions part of the war.[3]

The Medal of Honor was created during the American Civil War and is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces. The recipient must have distinguished themselves at the risk of their own life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an enemy of the United States. Due to the nature of this medal, it is commonly presented posthumously.[4]

Eighty-six men were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions in the Philippine–American War: 70 from the Army, 10 from the Navy, and 6 from the Marine Corps. Four of the awards were posthumous. Among the recipients were Webb Hayes, the son of former U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, and two prominent Marine Corps officers, Hiram I. Bearss and David Dixon Porter. Bearss became known for leading long-range reconnaissance patrols behind enemy lines and was later wounded as a colonel in World War I. Porter was from a distinguished military family and rose to become a major general. José B. Nísperos, a member of the Philippine Scouts who was honored for continuing to fight after being wounded, was the first Asian recipient of the Medal of Honor.[5]

Recipients[edit]

      This with the * indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied in their entirety from the actual Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Unit Notes
Anders, Frank L.Frank L. Anders Army Corporal San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon May 13, 1899 Company B, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry With 11 other scouts, completely routed about 300 of the enemy
Matthew A Batson.jpg Batson, Matthew A.Matthew A. Batson Army First Lieutenant Calamba, Luzon July 26, 1899 4th U.S. Cavalry ”Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy's fire and [forced them to retreat]”
CaptHIBearss USMC.jpg Bearss, Hiram I.Hiram I. Bearss Marine Corps Captain junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar November 17, 1901 Marine Corps Subsequently awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for actions in World War I
Bell, HarryHarry Bell Army Captain Near Porac, Luzon October 17, 1899 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Led a successful charge against a superior force, capturing and dispersing the enemy and relieving other members of his regiment from a perilous position”
JamesBell.jpg Bell, J. FranklinJ. Franklin Bell Army Colonel Near Porac, Luzon September 9, 1899 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers Later became Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Bickham, Charles G.Charles G. Bickham Army First Lieutenant Bayong, near Lake Lanao, Mindanao May 2, 1902 27th U.S. Infantry ”Crossed a fire-swept field, in close range of the enemy, and brought a wounded soldier to a place of shelter”
Biegler, George W.George W. Biegler Army Captain Near Loac, Luzon October 21, 1900 28th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”With but 19 men resisted and at close quarters defeated 300 of the enemy”
Birkhimer, William E.William E. Birkhimer Army Captain San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon May 13, 1899 3d U.S. Artillery ”With 12 men charged and routed 300 of the enemy”
Boehler, OttoOtto Boehler Army Private Near San Isidro May 16, 1899 Company I, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry ”With 21 other scouts completely routed 600 of the enemy”
Buckley, Howard MajorHoward Major Buckley Marine Corps Private Luzon March 25, 1899
March 27, 1899
March 29, 1899
April 4, 1899
Marine Corps ”For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battle”
Byrne, Bernard A.Bernard A. Byrne Army Captain Bobong, Negros July 19, 1899 6th U.S. Infantry Rallied his men on the bridge after the line had been broken and pushed back
Carson, Anthony J.Anthony J. Carson Army Corporal Catubig, Samar April 15, 1900 – April 19, 1900 Company H, 43d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Assumed command of a detachment and withstood the attacks of a large enemy force for 2 days, saving the lives of the survivors and protecting the wounded until relief came”
Catherwood, John H.John H. Catherwood Navy Ordinary Seaman Mundang, Basilan, Philippine Islands September 24, 1911 USS Pampanga (PG-39) For actions during the Moro Rebellion
Cawetzka, CharlesCharles Cawetzka Army Private Near Sariaya, Luzon August 23, 1900 Company F, 30th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Single-handed, he defended a disabled comrade against a greatly superior force of the enemy”
Cecil, Josephus S.Josephus S. Cecil Army First Lieutenant Bud-Dajo, Jolo March 7, 1906 19th U.S. Infantry Risked his life to carry a wounded man and the body of one who was killed beside him
Condon, Clarence M.Clarence M. Condon Army Sergeant Near Calulut, Luzon November 5, 1899 Battery G, 3d U.S. Artillery ”While in command of a detachment of 4 men, charged and routed 40 entrenched insurgents, inflicting on them heavy loss.
Davis, Charles P.Charles P. Davis Army Private Near San Isidro May 16, 1899 Company G, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry ”With 21 other scouts completely routed 600 of the enemy”
Downs, Willis H.Willis H. Downs Army Private San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon May 13, 1899 Company H, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry With 11 other scouts, completely routed about 300 of the enemy
Epps, Joseph L.Joseph L. Epps Army Private Vigan, Luzon December 4, 1899 Company B, 33d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Discovered a party of insurgents inside a wall, climbed to the top of the wall, covered them with his gun, and forced them to stack arms and surrender.”
Amgerguson.jpg Ferguson, Arthur M.Arthur M. Ferguson Army First Lieutenant Near Porac, Luzon September 28, 1899 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Charged alone a body of the enemy and captured a captain”
Fitz, JosephJoseph Fitz Navy Ordinary Seaman On board the USS Pampanga, Mount Dajo Jolo March 8, 1906 USS Pampanga (PG-39) For displaying bravery and extraordinary heroism in the presence of the enemy
Forbeck, Andrew P.Andrew P. Forbeck Navy Seaman Katbalogan, Samar July 16, 1900
”For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy during battle”
MajGenFrederickFunston.jpg Funston, FrederickFrederick Funston Army Colonel Rio Grande de la Pampanga, Luzon April 27, 1899 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry Riverine operations in Luzon
Galbraith, RobertRobert Galbraith Navy Gunner's Mate Third Class El Pardo, Cebu September 12, 1899 – September 13, 1899
For extraordinary heroism and gallantry while under fire of the enemy
Galt, Sterling A.Sterling A. Galt Army Artificer Bamban, Luzon November 9, 1899 Company F, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents”
Gaujot, Antoine A. M.Antoine A. M. Gaujot Army Corporal Battle of Paye, San Mateo December 19, 1899 Company M, 27th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers Brother of Julien E. V. Gaujot, also a Medal of Honor recipient, First recipient from Virginia Tech
Gedeon, LouisLouis Gedeon Army Private Mount Amia, Cebu February 4, 1900 Company G, 19th U.S. Infantry “Singlehanded, defended his mortally wounded captain from an overwhelming force of the enemy”
Gibson, Edward H.Edward H. Gibson Army Sergeant San Mateo December 19, 1899 Company M, 27th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Attempted under a heavy fire of the enemy to swim a river for the purpose of obtaining and returning with a canoe”
Gillenwater, James R.James R. Gillenwater Army Corporal Near Porac, Luzon September 3, 1899 Company A, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”While on a scout drove off a superior force of insurgents and with the assistance of 1 comrade brought from the field of action the bodies of 2 comrades, 1 killed and the other severely wounded.”
Greer, Allen J.Allen J. Greer Army Second Lieutenant Near Majada, Laguna Province July 2, 1901 4th U.S. Infantry ”Charged alone an insurgent outpost with his pistol, killing 1, wounding 2, and capturing 3 insurgents with their rifles and equipment.”
Grove, William R.William R. Grove Army Lieutenant Colonel Near Porac, Luzon September 9, 1899 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”In advance of his regiment, rushed to the assistance of his colonel, charging, pistol in hand, 7 insurgents, and compelling surrender of all not killed or wounded.”
Harrison, Bolden R.Bolden R. Harrison Navy Seaman Mundang, Basilan, Philippine Islands September 24, 1911 USS Pampanga (PG-39) For actions during the Moro Rebellion
Harvey, HarryHarry Harvey Marine Corps Sergeant Benictican, Bataan Province February 16, 1900 Marine Corps Distinguished himself by meritorious conduct in the presence of the enemy
Hayes, WebbWebb Hayes Army Lieutenant Colonel Vigan, Luzon December 4, 1899 31st Infantry, U.S. Volunteers Son of former President of the U.S. Rutherford B. Hayes
Henderson, JosephJoseph Henderson Army Sergeant Patian Island July 2, 1909 Troop B, 6th U.S. Cavalry For bravery in action during the Moro Uprising
Henrechon, George F.George F. Henrechon Navy Machinist's Mate Second Class Mundang, Basilan, Philippine Islands September 24, 1911 USS Pampanga (PG-39) For actions during the Moro Rebellion
High, Frank C.Frank C. High Army Private Near San Isidro May 16, 1899 Young's Scouts, Company G, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment ”With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.”
Huntsman, John A.John A. Huntsman Army Sergeant Bamban, Luzon November 9, 1899 Company E, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”For distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents”
Jensen, GotfredGotfred Jensen Army Private San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon May 13, 1899 Company D, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry ”With 11 other scouts, without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into a position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards (140 m) and completely routed about 300 of the enemy, who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack”
Gordon Johnston.jpg Johnston, GordonGordon Johnston Army First Lieutenant Mount Bud Dajo, Jolo March 7, 1906 Signal Corps ”Voluntarily took part in and was dangerously wounded during an assault on the enemy's works.”
Kennedy, John T.John T. Kennedy Army Second Lieutenant Patian Island July 4, 1909 6th U.S. Cavalry ”While in action against hostile Moros, he entered with a few enlisted men the mouth of a cave occupied by a desperate enemy, this act having been ordered after he had volunteered several times. In this action 2d Lt. Kennedy was severely wounded.”
Kilbourne, Charles E.Charles E. Kilbourne Army First Lieutenant Paco Bridge February 5, 1899 U.S. Volunteer Signal Corps ”Within a range of 250 yards (230 m) of the enemy and in the face of a rapid fire climbed a telegraph pole at the east end of the bridge and in full view of the enemy coolly and carefully repaired a broken telegraph wire, thereby reestablishing telegraphic communication to the front.”
Kinne, John B.John B. Kinne Army Private Near San Isidro May 16, 1899 Company B, 1st North Dakota Infantry ”With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.”
Leahy, Cornelius J.Cornelius J. Leahy* Army Private Near Porac, Luzon September 3, 1899 Company A, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Distinguished gallantry in action in driving off a superior force and with the assistance of 1 comrade brought from the field of action the bodies of 2 comrades, 1 killed and the other severely wounded, this while on a scout.”
Leonard, JosephJoseph Leonard Marine Corps Private Luzon March 25, 1899
March 27, 1899
March 29, 1899
April 4, 1899
Marine Corps Enlisted as Joseph Melvin
Logan, John A.John A. Logan* Army Major San Jacinto November 11, 1899 33d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”For most distinguished gallantry in leading his battalion upon the entrenchments of the enemy, on which occasion he fell mortally wounded”
Longfellow, Richard M.Richard M. Longfellow Army Private Near San Isidro May 16, 1899 Company A, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry ”With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.”
Lyon, Edward E.Edward E. Lyon Army Private San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon May 13, 1899 Company B, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment (Young's Scouts) ”With 11 other scouts, without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards (140 m) and completely routed about 300 of the enemy, who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack.”
Maclay, William P.William P. Maclay Army Private Hilongas, Leyte May 6, 1900 Company A, 43d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Charged an occupied bastion, saving the life of an officer in a hand-to-hand combat and destroying the enemy”
Mathews, George W.George W. Mathews Army Captain (Assistant Surgeon) Near Labo, Luzon October 29, 1899 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”While in attendance upon the wounded and under a severe fire from the enemy, seized a carbine and beat off an attack upon wounded officers and men under his charge.”
McConnell, JamesJames McConnell Army Private Vigan, Luzon December 4, 1899 Company B, 33d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Fought for hours lying between 2 dead comrades, notwithstanding his hat was pierced, his clothing plowed through by bullets, and his face cut and bruised by flying gravel.”
McGrath, Hugh J.Hugh J. McGrath* Army Captain Calamba, Luzon July 26, 1899 4th U.S. Cavalry ”Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy's fire and drove him from his entrenchments”
McGuire, Fred H.Fred H. McGuire Navy Hospital Apprentice Mundang, Basilan, Philippine Islands September 24, 1911 USS Pampanga (PG-39) For actions during the Moro Rebellion
Archie Miller.jpg Miller, ArchieArchie Miller Army First Lieutenant Patian Island July 2, 1909 6th U.S. Cavalry Defended a machine gun from capture by the enemy along with Sergeant Joseph Henderson
Moran, John E.John E. Moran Army Captain Near Mabitac, Laguna, Luzon September 17, 1900 Company L, 37th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”After the attacking party had become demoralized, fearlessly led a small body of troops under a severe fire and through water waist deep in the attack against the enemy.”
Mosher, Louis C.Louis C. Mosher Army Second Lieutenant Gagsak Mountain, Jolo June 11, 1913 Philippine Scouts ”Voluntarily entered a cleared space within about 20 yards (18 m) of the Moro trenches under a furious fire from them and carried a wounded soldier of his company to safety at the risk of his own life.”
Nísperos, José B.José B. Nísperos Army Private Lapurap, Basilan September 24, 1911 34th Company, Philippine Scouts ”Having been badly wounded continued to fire his rifle with one hand until the enemy was repulsed, thereby aiding materially in preventing the annihilation of his party and the mutilation of their bodies”
Nolan, Joseph A.Joseph A. Nolan Army Artificer Labo, Luzon May 29, 1900 Company B, 45th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Voluntarily left shelter and at great personal risk passed the enemy's lines and brought relief to besieged comrades”
Parker, JamesJames Parker Army Lieutenant Colonel Vigan, Luzon December 4, 1899 45th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”While in command of a small garrison repulsed a savage night attack by overwhelming numbers of the enemy, fighting at close quarters in the dark for several hours.”
Pierce, Charles H.Charles H. Pierce Army Private Near San Isidro, Luzon October 19, 1899 Company I, 22d U.S. Infantry ”Held a bridge against a superior force of the enemy and fought, though severely wounded, until the main body came up to cross.”
DDPorter USMC MOH.jpg Porter, David D.David D. Porter Marine Corps Captain junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar November 17, 1901 Marine Corps Grandson of Admiral David Dixon Porter
Prendergast, Thomas F.Thomas F. Prendergast Marine Corps Corporal Luzon March 25, 1899
March 27, 1899
March 29, 1899
April 5, 1899
Marine Corps ”For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battle”
Quinn, Peter H.Peter H. Quinn Army Private San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon May 13, 1899 Company L, 4th U.S. Cavalry ”With 11 other scouts without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into a position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards (140 m) and completely routed about 300 of the enemy who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack.”
Ray, Charles W.Charles W. Ray Army Sergeant Near San Isidro, Luzon October 19, 1899 Company I, 22d U.S. Infantry ”Captured a bridge with the detachment he commanded and held it against a superior force of the enemy, thereby enabling an army to come up and cross.”
Robertson, Marcus W.Marcus W. Robertson Army Private Near San Isidro May 16, 1899 Company B, 2d Oregon Volunteer Infantry ”With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.”
Ross, Frank F.Frank F. Ross Army Private Near San Isidro May 16, 1899 Company H, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry ”With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.”
Sage, William H.William H. Sage Army Captain Near Zapote River, Luzon June 13, 1899 23d U.S. Infantry ”With 9 men volunteered to hold an advanced position and held it against a terrific fire of the enemy estimated at 1,000 strong. Taking a rifle from a wounded man, and cartridges from the belts of others, Capt. Sage himself killed 5 of the enemy.”
Schroeder, Henry F.Henry F. Schroeder Army Sergeant Carig September 14, 1900 Company L, 16th U.S. Infantry ”With 22 men defeated 400 insurgents, killing 36 and wounding 90”
Shaw, George C.George C. Shaw Army First Lieutenant Fort Pitacus, Lake Lanao, Mindanao May 4, 1903 27th U.S. Infantry ”For distinguished gallantry in leading the assault and, under a heavy fire from the enemy, maintaining alone his position on the parapet after the first 3 men who followed him there had been killed or wounded, until a foothold was gained by others and the capture of the place assured.”
Shelton, George M.George M. Shelton Army Private La Paz, Leyte April 26, 1900 Company I, 23d U.S. Infantry ”Advanced alone under heavy fire of the enemy and rescued a wounded comrade”
George F Shiels.jpg Shiels, George F.George F. Shiels Army Major (Surgeon) Tuliahan River March 25, 1899 U.S. Volunteers ”Voluntarily exposed himself to the fire of the enemy and went with 4 men to the relief of 2 native Filipinos Iying wounded about 150 yards (140 m) in front of the lines and personally carried one of them to a place of safety.”
Sletteland, ThomasThomas Sletteland Army Private Near Paete, Luzon April 12, 1899 Company C, 1st North Dakota Infantry ”Single-handed and alone defended his dead and wounded comrades against a greatly superior force of the enemy”
Stewart, George E.George E. Stewart Army Second Lieutenant Passi, Island of Panay November 26, 1899 19th U.S. Infantry ”While crossing a river in face of the enemy, this officer plunged in and at the imminent risk of his own life saved from drowning an enlisted man of his regiment.”
Stoltenberg, Andrew V.Andrew V. Stoltenberg Navy Gunner's Mate Second Class Katbalogan, Samar July 16, 1900
”For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battle”
Paul F Straub.jpg Straub, Paul F.Paul F. Straub Army Major (Surgeon) Alos, Zambales, Luzon December 21, 1899 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Voluntarily exposed himself to a hot fire from the enemy in repelling with pistol fire an insurgent attack and at great risk of his own life went under fire to the rescue of a wounded officer and carried him to a place of safety.”
Thordsen, William G.William G. Thordsen Navy Coxswain Hilongas May 6, 1900
”For heroism and gallantry under fire of the enemy”
Trembley, William B.William B. Trembley Army Private Calumpit, Luzon April 27, 1899 Company B, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry ”Swam the Rio Grande de Pampanga in face of the enemy's fire and fastened a rope to the occupied trenches, thereby enabling the crossing of the river and the driving of the enemy from his fortified position.”
Van Schaick, Louis J.Louis J. Van Schaick Army First Lieutenant Near Nasugbu, Batangas November 23, 1901 4th U.S. Infantry ”While in pursuit of a band of insurgents was the first of his detachment to emerge from a canyon, and seeing a column of insurgents and fearing they might turn and dispatch his men as they emerged one by one from the canyon, galloped forward and closed with the insurgents, thereby throwing them into confusion until the arrival of others of the detachment.”
Volz, JacobJacob Volz Navy Carpenter's Mate Third Class Mundang, Basilan, Philippine Islands September 24, 1911 USS Pampanga (PG-39) For actions during the Moro Rebellion
Walker, Frank O.Frank O. Walker Army Private Near Taal, Luzon January 18, 1900 Company F, 46th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Under heavy fire of the enemy he rescued a dying comrade who was sinking beneath the water”
Wallace, George W.George W. Wallace Army Second Lieutenant Tinuba, Luzon March 4, 1900 9th U.S. Infantry ”With another officer and a native Filipino, was shot at from an ambush, the other officer falling severely wounded. 2d Lt. Wallace fired in the direction of the enemy, put them to rout, removed the wounded officer from the path, returned to the town, a mile distant, and summoned assistance from his command.”
Weaver, AmosAmos Weaver Army Sergeant Between Calubus and Malalong November 5, 1899 Company F, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers ”Alone and unaided, charged a body of 15 insurgents, dislodging them, killing 4 and wounding several.”
Weld, Seth L.Seth L. Weld Army Corporal La Paz, Leyte December 5, 1906 Company L, 8th U.S. Infantry ”With his right arm cut open with a bolo, went to the assistance of a wounded constabulary officer and a fellow soldier who were surrounded by about 40 Pulajanes, and, using his disabled rifle as a club, beat back the assailants and rescued his party.”
Wetherby, John C.John C. Wetherby* Army Private Near Imus, Luzon November 20, 1899 Company L, 4th U.S. Infantry ”While carrying important orders on the battlefield, was desperately wounded and, being unable to walk, crawled far enough to deliver his orders.”
White, EdwardEdward White Army Private Calumpit, Luzon April 27, 1899 Company B, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry ”Swam the Rio Grande de Pampanga in face of the enemy's fire and fastened a rope to occupied trenches, thereby enabling the crossing of the river and the driving of the enemy from his fortified position.”
Wilson, Arthur H.Arthur H. Wilson Army Second Lieutenant Patian Island July 4, 1909 6th U.S. Cavalry ”While in action against hostile Moros, when, it being necessary to secure a mountain gun in position by rope and tackle, voluntarily with the assistance of an enlisted man, carried the rope forward and fastened it, being all the time under heavy fire of the enemy at short range.”

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
General
Inline
  1. ^ Delmendo, Sharon (2004). The Star-Entangled Banner: One Hundred Years of America in the Philippines. Rutgers University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-8135-3411-4. Retrieved December 3, 2007. 
  2. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1960 (Eighth edition 1990)). History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: Garcia. ISBN 971-10-2415-2. 
  3. ^ a b Constantino, Renato (1975). The Philippines: A Past Revisited. ISBN 978-971-8958-00-1. 
  4. ^ "A Brief History — The Medal of Honor". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Department of Defense. August 8, 2006. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  5. ^ Owens, Ron (2004). Medal of Honor: Historical Facts & Figures. Paducah, Kentucky: Turner Publishing Company. pp. 71–73, 80–81. ISBN 978-1-56311-995-8.