Philippine presidential election

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This is a complete list of Philippine Presidential elections since 1935 with the candidates' political party and its corresponding percentage.

This list also includes the election results of the Vice Presidential elections since 1935.

The offices of the president and vice president are elected separately; hence a voter may split one's vote. The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the position.

History[edit]

The first presidential election was on September 15, 1935, after the ratification of the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines; Manuel Quezon of the Nacionalista Party emerged as the victor, defeating previous president Emilio Aguinaldo (Aguinaldo was elected president by the Malolos Congress). As a commonwealth then of the United States, the constitution decreed that the president shall have one term of six years without reelection. In 1940, it was amended to allow one reelection, but with the term shortened to four years; this setup was first used in the second election in 1941 with Quezon being reelected.

However, World War II intervened and thus suspended the elections of 1945. The Empire of Japan set up the Second Philippine Republic that elected José P. Laurel as president by the National Assembly in 1943. After the Japanese were defeated, Congress rescheduled the much-delayed election in 1946. Manuel Roxas of the newly formed Liberal Party won the election a few weeks prior to the granting of independence by the United States. In 1949, the first election for the newly independent republic was held with President Elpidio Quirino winning; Quirino succeeded Roxas, who died while in office. Thereafter, elections were held every four years every second Tuesday of November of the election year, with the winning president and vice president inaugurated on December 30 succeeding the election. The alternation between the Nacionalistas and the Liberals characterized an apparent two-party system of the Third Republic.

In 1971, President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and ruled by decree. At this time, a new constitution was ratified in 1973 in which the office of the vice president being abolished. and that the president shall be elected by the National Assembly amongst themselves, although once elected, the president will cease to be a member of the National Assembly and any political party (similar to the British Speaker of the House of Commons). With the members of the National Assembly having no term limits, the president may serve indefinitely.

In 1981, via constitutional amendment, the president is again elected via popular vote, with a term of office of six years starting at the thirtieth of June of the year of the election. In the succeeding election on June 16, 1981 (third Monday of June); Marcos was again elected, with much of the opposition boycotting the election. In addition, the amendment also renamed the National Assembly into its Filipino translation as "Batasang Pambansa." In 1984, another amendment reinstated the office of the vice president. The election of the vice president is similar to the United States presidential election, in which a vote for the president is also a vote for the vice president, although this was later changed to a separate vote for each position. Marcos' Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement or KBL) won every presidential election of the Fourth Republic until 1986.

In 1986, Marcos called for an early or "snap" election (the next scheduled election was in 1987) and was, including his running mate Arturo Tolentino, declared the winners. The People Power Revolution erupted that drove Marcos out of power, and Corazon Aquino, the runner-up, assumed the presidency. A new constitution was ratified in 1987 that was essentially identical with the provisions of the amended 1973 constitution as long as the election of the president and vice president is concerned, with the presidential election occurring at the second Monday of May and the inauguration every June 30 of the election year. The 1992 election was the first election under the new constitution and elections are held every six years thereafter. Fidel V. Ramos won the 1992 election with just 23% of the vote, the lowest plurality in history; it also ushered in the multi-party system of the Fifth Republic. Thereafter, no winner has won via a majority, although each has had an increasing percentage of votes with every succeeding election. Joseph Estrada won in 1998 in what was described as landslide, getting just under 40% of the votes, while second place Jose de Venecia getting 16%. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who succeeded Estrada at the outcome of the 2001 EDSA Revolution, was the first sitting president to run since 2006 and defeated Fernando Poe, Jr. in the closest margin in history. Benigno Aquino III won with 42% of the vote in what was also called as a landslide, defeating Estrada who had 26% of the vote, and seven others. The ruling party since 1986 has not won the presidential election.

Summary[edit]

Manner of election Constitution Term of service Reelection Election day Inauguration Elections implemented
President Vice president
Majority of the members of the Malolos Congress none Malolos Constitution Four years None varies As elected Malolos Congress
Popular vote Same as president 1935 Constitution Six years No Second Tuesday of November Dec 30 1935
Popular vote Popular vote 1935 Constitution as amended Four years Once Second Tuesday of November Dec 30 1941, 1946, 1949, 1953, 1957, 1961, 1965, 1969
Majority of the members of the National Assembly none 1943 Constitution Six years No varies Dec 30 1943
Majority of the members of the National Assembly none 1973 Constitution Six years Unlimited varies "Not be later than three days after his proclamation by the National Assembly, nor in any case earlier than the expiration of the term of his predecessor" 1978
Popular vote none 1973 Constitution as amended Six years Unlimited Second Tuesday of June Jun 30 1981
Popular vote Together with the president 1973 Constitution as amended Six years Unlimited As provided by law Jun 30 none
Popular vote Popular vote 1973 Constitution as amended Six years Unlimited As provided by law Jun 30 1986
Popular vote Popular vote 1987 Constitution Six years No for the incumbent president Second Monday of May Jun 30 1992, 1998, 2004, 2010

Regional trends[edit]

Regional corridors[edit]

Political strategists have divided the country into several "corridors" that replicate or combine administrative regions, which in turn are mostly based from the main ethnic groups. In 1992, prior to the 1992 election, Luis Villafuerte outlined several "corridors" throughout the country, from north to south:[1]

Corridor Islands/provinces/regions Voters as of 2010  % Map
Solid North Ilocandia 3,900,911 7.69% Philippine election corridors.png
Dagupan-Lucena corridor* Pangasinan, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, Metro Manila 20,144,499 39.71%
Bicol corridor Bicol Region 2,857,925 5.63%
Panay corridor Panay Island 2,385,660 4.70%
Negros corridor Negros Island 2,265,740 4.47%
Cebu corridor Cebu, Bohol and Siquijor 3,207,106 6.32%
Samar-Leyte corridor Eastern Visayas 2,431,584 4.79%
Northern Mindanao corridor Northern Mindanao and Caraga 3,782,379 7.46%
Zamboanga Peninsula corridor Zamboanga Peninsula 1,856,826 3.66%
Davao corridor Davao Region 2,555,783 5.04%
Cotabato corridor Central Mindanao 2,639,119 5.20%
Not mentioned by Villafuerte 2,696,201 5.32%

*now the Lingayen-Lucena corridor

Metro Manila as an opposition stronghold[edit]

Manila, and by extension, Metro Manila, has voted for the opposition candidate (or the opponent(s) of the incumbent's party) in the election.

Election Party of incumbent Winner in Metro Manila National winner Opposition won at Metro Manila?
1941 Nacionalista Nacionalista Nacionalista No
1946 Nacionalista Liberal Liberal Yes
1949 Liberal Nacionalista Liberal Yes
1953 Liberal Nacionalista Nacionalista Yes
1957 Nacionalista Liberal Nacionalista Yes
1961 Nacionalista Liberal Liberal Yes
1965 Liberal Nacionalista Nacionalista Yes
1969 Nacionalista Nacionalista Nacionalista No
1981 KBL KBL KBL No
1986 KBL PDP-Laban Disputed; PDP-Laban candidate assumed presidency. Yes
1992 Incumbent supported Lakas candidate PRP Lakas Yes
1998 Lakas LAMMP LAMMP Yes
2004 Lakas KNP Lakas Yes
2010 Lakas Liberal Liberal Yes

Bellwether provinces[edit]

Since the creation of the province of Basilan, the province has always had the provincial winner be elected President. The national winner has always been the winner Negros Oriental except in 1961.

Election National winner Winner in Basilan Basilan winner won nationally? Negros Oriental winner Negros Oriental winner won nationally?
1935 Manuel L. Quezon N/A Manuel L. Quezon Yes
1941 Manuel L. Quezon Manuel L. Quezon Yes
1946 Manuel Roxas Manuel Roxas Yes
1949 Elpidio Quirino Elpidio Quirino Yes
1953 Ramon Magsaysay Ramon Magsaysay Yes
1957 Carlos P. Garcia Carlos P. Garcia Yes
1961 Diosdado Macapagal Carlos P. Garcia No
1965 Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Marcos Yes
1969 Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Marcos Yes
1981 Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Marcos Yes Ferdinand Marcos Yes
1986 Corazon Aquino assumed presidency Corazon Aquino Yes Corazon Aquino Yes
1992 Fidel V. Ramos Fidel V. Ramos Yes Fidel V. Ramos Yes
1998 Joseph Estrada Joseph Estrada Yes Joseph Estrada Yes
2004 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Yes Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Yes
2010 Benigno Aquino III Benigno Aquino III Yes Benigno Aquino III Yes

Home province as a stronghold[edit]

Candidates usually win their home provinces. and by extension, region, except when the province has two or more candidates as residents.

President[edit]

Bolded name indicates the national winner.

Election Candidate Home province of the candidate Winner at the home province Candidate won at home province?
1935 Manuel L. Quezon Tayabas Manuel L. Quezon Yes
Emilio Aguinaldo Cavite Emilio Aguinaldo Yes
Gregorio Aglipay Ilocos Norte Gregorio Aglipay Yes
1941 Manuel L. Quezon Tayabas Manuel L. Quezon Yes
Juan Sumulong Rizal Manuel L. Quezon No
1946 Manuel Roxas Capiz Manuel Roxas Yes
Sergio Osmeña Cebu Sergio Osmeña Yes
1949 Elpidio Quirino Ilocos Sur Elpidio Quirino Yes
Jose Paciano Laurel Batangas Jose Paciano Laurel Yes
Jose Avelino Samar Jose Avelino Yes
1953 Ramon Magsaysay Zambales Ramon Magsaysay Yes
Elpidio Quirino Ilocos Sur Elpidio Quirino Yes
1957 Carlos P. Garcia Bohol Carlos P. Garcia Yes
Jose Yulo Negros Occidental Carlos P. Garcia No
Manuel Manahan La Union Jose Yulo No
Claro M. Recto Quezon Claro M. Recto Yes
1961 Diosdado Macapagal Pampanga Diosdado Macapagal Yes
Carlos P. Garcia Bohol Carlos P. Garcia Yes
1965 Ferdinand Marcos Ilocos Norte Ferdinand Marcos Yes
Diosdado Macapagal Pampanga Diosdado Macapagal Yes
1969 Ferdinand Marcos Ilocos Norte Ferdinand Marcos Yes
Sergio Osmeña, Jr. Cebu Ferdinand Marcos No
1981 Ferdinand Marcos Ilocos Norte Ferdinand Marcos Yes
Alejo Santos Bulacan Ferdinand Marcos No
1986 Corazon Aquino Tarlac Corazon Aquino Yes
Ferdinand Marcos Ilocos Norte Ferdinand Marcos Yes
1992 Fidel V. Ramos Pangasinan Fidel V. Ramos Yes
Miriam Defensor-Santiago Iloilo Miriam Defensor-Santiago Yes
Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr. Tarlac Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr. Yes
Ramon Mitra, Jr. Palawan Ramon Mitra, Jr. Yes
Imelda Marcos Leyte Imelda Marcos Yes
Jovito Salonga Rizal Miriam Defensor-Santiago No
Salvador Laurel Batangas Salvador Laurel Yes
1998 Joseph Estrada San Juan Joseph Estrada Yes
Jose de Venecia, Jr. Pangasinan Jose de Venecia, Jr. Yes
Raul Roco Camarines Sur Raul Roco Yes
Emilio Osmeña Cebu Emilio Osmeña Yes
Alfredo Lim Manila Joseph Estrada No
Renato de Villa Batangas Renato de Villa Yes
Miriam Defensor-Santiago Iloilo Miriam Defensor-Santiago Yes
Juan Ponce Enrile Cagayan Juan Ponce Enrile Yes
2004 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Pampanga Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Yes
Fernando Poe, Jr. Manila Fernando Poe, Jr. Yes
Panfilo Lacson Cavite Panfilo Lacson Yes
Raul Roco Camarines Sur Raul Roco Yes
Eddie Villanueva Bulacan Fernando Poe, Jr. No
2010 Benigno Aquino III Tarlac Benigno Aquino III Yes
Joseph Estrada San Juan Benigno Aquino III No
Manny Villar Las Piñas City Manny Villar Yes
Gilberto Teodoro Tarlac Benigno Aquino III No
Eddie Villanueva Bulacan Benigno Aquino III No

Vice-President[edit]

Election Home province of the national winner Winner at the home province of the national winner National winner National winner won at home province?
1935 Cebu Sergio Osmeña Sergio Osmeña Yes
1941 Cebu Sergio Osmeña Sergio Osmeña Yes
1946 Ilocos Sur Elpidio Quirino Elpidio Quirino Yes
1949 Iloilo Fernando Lopez Fernando Lopez Yes
1953 Bohol Carlos P. Garcia Carlos P. Garcia Yes
1957 Pampanga Diosdado Macapagal Diosdado Macapagal Yes
1961 Misamis Oriental Gil Puyat Emmanuel Pelaez No
1965 Iloilo Fernando Lopez Fernando Lopez Yes
1969 Iloilo Fernando Lopez Fernando Lopez Yes
1986 Batangas Salvador Laurel Salvador Laurel Yes
1992 San Juan Joseph Estrada Joseph Estrada Yes
1998 Pampanga Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Yes
2004 Oriental Mindoro Noli de Castro Noli de Castro Yes
2010 Makati City Jejomar Binay Jejomar Binay Yes

Results summary[edit]

Year President elect Losing candidates*
Candidate Votes % Candidate Votes % Candidate(s) Votes %
1935 Manuel L. Quezon 695,332 67.99% Emilio Aguinaldo 179,349 17.54% Gregorio Aglipay 148,010 14.47%
1941 Manuel L. Quezon 812,352 86.91% Juan Sumulong 70,899 7.58%
1946 Manuel Roxas 1,333,392 55.78% Sergio Osmeña 1,051,243 43.98%
1949 Elpidio Quirino 1,803,808 50.93% José P. Laurel 1,318,330 37.22% José Avelino 419,890 11.85%
1953 Ramon Magsaysay 2,912,992 68.90% Elpidio Quirino 1,313,991 31.08%
1957 Carlos P. Garcia 2,072,257 41.28% José Yulo 1,386,829 27.62% Manuel Manahan 1,049,420 20.90%
1961 Diosdado Macapagal 3,554,840 55.05% Carlos P. Garcia 2,902,996 44.95%
1965 Ferdinand Marcos 3,861,324 51.94% Diosdado Macapagal 3,187,752 42.88% Raul Manglapus 384,564 5.17%
1969 Ferdinand Marcos 5,017,343 61.47% Sergio Osmeña, Jr. 3,143,122 38.51%
1981 Ferdinand Marcos 18,309,360 88.02% Alejo Santos 1,716,449 8.25%
1986 Ferdinand Marcos 10,807,197 53.62% Corazon Aquino 9,291,761 46.10%
1992 Fidel V. Ramos 5,342,521 23.58% Miriam Defensor Santiago 4,468,173 19.72% Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr.
Ramon Mitra, Jr.
Imelda Marcos
Jovito Salonga
4,116,376
3,316,661
2,338,294
2,302,124
18.17%
14.64%
10.32%
10.16%
1998 Joseph Estrada 10,722,295 39.86% Jose de Venecia 4,258,483 15.87%
2004 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 12,905,808 39.99% Fernando Poe, Jr. 11,782,232 36.51% Panfilo Lacson
Raul Roco
Eddie Villanueva
3,510,080
2,082,762
1,988,218
10.88%
6.45%
6.16%
2010 Benigno Aquino III 15,208,678 42.08% Joseph Estrada 9,487,837 26.25% Manny Villar
Gilbert Teodoro
5,573,835
4,095,839
15.42%
11.33%

*only candidates from third parties whose votes surpassed the margin between the winner and the best loser are included.

Graphical[edit]

Year Result Valid votes Turnout
1935
68% 18% 14%
99%
N/A
1941
82% 18%
N/A N/A
1946
55% 46%
90%
95%
1949
51% 37% 12%
99%
70%
1953
69% 31%
98%
77%
1957
41% 28% 21% 9%
98%
76%
1961
55% 45%
96%
79%
1965
52% 43% 5%
98%
76%
1969
61% 39%
98%
80%
1981
88% 8%
95%
81%
1986
54% 46%
97%
79%
1992
24% 20% 18% 15% 10% 10%
93%
76%
1998
40% 16% 14% 12% 9%
92%
87%
2004
40% 37% 11% 6% 6%
96%
76%
2010
42% 26% 15% 11%
95%
74%

Results by popular vote margin[edit]

For president[edit]

Year Winner  % of vote  % margin Votes Vote margin Second place
2004 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 39.99% 3.48% 12,905,808 1,123,576 Fernando Poe, Jr.
1992 Fidel V. Ramos 23.58% 3.86% 5,342,521 874,348 Miriam Defensor Santiago
1986 Ferdinand Marcos 53.62% 7.52% 10,807,197 1,515,436 Corazon Aquino
1965 Ferdinand Marcos 51.94% 9.06% 3,861,324 673,572 Diosdado Macapagal
1961 Diosdado Macapagal 55.05% 10.10% 3,554,840 651,844 Carlos P. Garcia
1946 Manuel Roxas 55.78% 11.80% 1,333,392 282,149 Sergio Osmeña
1957 Carlos P. Garcia 41.28% 13.66% 2,072,257 685,428 José Yulo
1949 Elpidio Quirino 50.93% 13.71% 1,803,808 485,478 José P. Laurel
2010 Benigno Aquino III 42.08% 15.83% 15,208,678 5,720,841 Joseph Estrada
1969 Ferdinand Marcos 61.47% 22.96% 5,017,343 1,874,221 Sergio Osmeña, Jr.
1998 Joseph Estrada 39.86% 23.99% 10,722,295 6,463,812 Jose de Venecia
1953 Ramon Magsaysay 68.90% 37.82% 2,912,992 1,599,001 Elpidio Quirino
1935 Manuel L. Quezon 67.99% 50.45% 695,332 515,983 Emilio Aguinaldo
1941 Manuel L. Quezon 86.91% 79.33% 812,352 741,453 Juan Sumulong
1981 Ferdinand Marcos 88.02% 79.77% 18,309,360 16,592,911 Alejo Santos

For vice president[edit]

Year Winner  % of vote  % margin Votes Vote margin Second place
1965 Fernando Lopez 48.48% 0.37% 3,531,550 26,724 Gerardo Roxas
2010 Jejomar Binay 41.65% 2.07% 14,645,574 727,084 Mar Roxas
2004 Noli de Castro 49.80% 2.91% 15,100,431 881,722 Loren Legarda
1961 Emmanuel Pelaez 37.57% 3.20% 2,394,400 203,976 Sergio Osmeña, Jr.
1981 Arturo Tolentino 50.65% 4.80% 10,134,130 961,025 Salvador Laurel
1946 Elpidio Quirino 52.36% 4.98% 1,161,725 110,482 Eulogio Rodriguez
1949 Fernando Lopez 52.19% 6.11% 1,341,284 157,069 Manuel Briones
1957 Diosdado Macapagal 46.55% 8.64% 2,189,197 406,185 José Laurel, Jr.
1992 Joseph Estrada 33.00% 11.27% 6,739,738 2,301,244 Marcelo Fernan
1969 Fernando Lopez 62.76% 25.51% 5,001,737 2,033,211 Genaro Magsaysay
1953 Carlos P. Garcia 62.90% 25.79% 2,515,265 1,031,463 José Yulo
1998 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 49.56% 27.45% 12,667,252 7,015,184 Edgardo Angara
1935 Sergio Osmeña 86.91% 82.86% 812,352 741,453 Raymundo Melliza
1941 Sergio Osmeña 92.10% 84.20% 1,445,897 1,321,862 Emilio Javier

Results per election[edit]

1935[edit]

1941[edit]

1946[edit]

1949[edit]

1953[edit]

1957[edit]

1961[edit]

1965[edit]

1969[edit]

1981 (Presidential only)[edit]

e • d Summary of the June 16, 1981 Philippine presidential election results
Candidate Party Results
Votes %
Ferdinand Marcos KBL 18,309,360 88.02%
Alejo Santos Nacionalista (Roy Wing) 1,716,449 8.25%
Bartolome Cabangbang Federalist 749,845 3.60%
Delfin Manapaz Independent 6,499 0.03%
Ursula Dajao Independent 4,955 0.02%
Benito Valdez Independent 4,224 0.02%
Lope Rimando Independent 1,954 0.01%
Lucio Hinigpit Sovereign Citizen 1,945 0.01%
Pacifico Morelos Independent 1,740 0.01%
Jose Igtobay Independent 1,421 0.01%
Simeon del Rosario Independent 1,234 0.01%
Salvador Enage Independent 1,185 0.01%
Florencio Tipano Independent 592 0.00%
Valid votes 20,801,403 95.2%
Invalid votes 1,042,426 4.8%
Votes cast 21,843,829 80.9%
Registered voters 26,986,451 100.00%

1986[edit]

1992[edit]

1998[edit]

2004[edit]

2010[edit]

Results per province/city[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Felipe B. Miranda and Alex Magno (co-discussants) (1992-02-21). "Strategies and Statistics: The Presidential Battle for Ballots". University of the Philippines Diliman.