List of Polish Americans

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This is a list of notable Polish Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants. To be included in this list, the person must have a Wikipedia article showing they are Polish American or must have references showing they are Polish American and are notable.


Arts and entertainment[edit]

Television, radio and film actors[edit]

Architects[edit]

Artists[edit]

Authors[edit]

Designers[edit]

Filmmakers[edit]

Journalists[edit]

Models[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Television personalities[edit]

Theater and dance[edit]

Business and economics[edit]

Explorers[edit]

  • John Scolvus (15th century) aka John of Cologneo, navigator (possibly the first Pole in the Americas)

Military[edit]

  • Gabby Gabreski (1919–2002), fighter ace in World War II, and again in Korea[142]
  • Ralph Ignatowski (1926–1945), awarded the Purple Heart with Gold Star, Presidential Unit Citation with Star, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, and the World War II Victory Medal.
  • Jan Karski (1914–2000), Polish World War II resistance fighter and scholar[143]
  • Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746–1817), Polish and Lithuanian national hero, general and a leader of 1794 uprising (which bears his name) against the Russian Empire[144]
  • Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski (1824–1887), Polish military leader and a Union general in the American Civil War[145]
  • Donald J. Kutyna (born 1933), General, commander in chief of the North American Aerospace Defense Command and the United States Space Command from 1990 to 1992, and commander of Air Force Space Command at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado from 1987 to 1990
  • Robert J. Modrzejewski (born 1934), U.S. Marine and Medal of Honor Recipient for conspicuous gallantry in Vietnam
  • Kazimierz Pułaski – (1746–1779), Polish soldier and politician who has been called "the father of American cavalry." From 1777 until his death, Pułaski fought in the American Revolutionary War for the independence of the United States.
  • Hyman G. Rickover (1900–1986) US Navy Admiral; known as the "Father of the Nuclear Navy", first Director of Naval Reactors
  • Edward Rowny (born 1917), U.S. Army General and ambassador Chief U.S. Negotiator for Arms Control
  • John Shalikashvili (1936–2011), U.S. Army general and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, born in Warsaw, Poland and emigrated to U.S. as a teenager. Became the first draftee to rise to rank of General and first JCS Chairman after General Colin Powell.
  • Matt Urban (1919–1995), U. S. Army officer, per Guinness Book of World Records the most decorated U. S. serviceman[146]
  • Frank P. Witek (1921–1944), U.S. Marine and Medal of Honor Recipient[147]

Politics[edit]

Religion[edit]

Science[edit]

  • Henryk Arctowski (1871–1958), scientist, oceanographer and Antarctica's explorer[157]
  • Julius Axelrod (1912–2004), was an American biochemist
  • Paul Baran (1926–2011), Internet pioneer, one of the developers of packet-switched networks along with Donald Davies and Leonard Kleinrock
  • Mieczysław G. Bekker (1905–1989), engineer and scientist. inventor of the lunar rover [158]
  • Karol J. Bobko (born 1937), former NASA astronaut[159]
  • Stanislaw Burzynski (born 1943), development of Antineoplaston as an alternative cancer treatment.
  • Elonka Dunin (born 1958), U.S. game developer, writer, and amateur cryptographer who maintains a website dedicated to the Kryptos sculpture/cipher located at the CIA's headquarters[160]
  • Andrzej Ehrenfeucht (born 1932), mathematician and computer scientist; formulated the Ehrenfeucht–Fraïssé game and Ehrenfeucht–Mycielski sequence
  • Kazimierz Fajans(1887–1975), pioneer in the science of radioactivity. Created Fajans rules & discovered the element protactinium.
  • Christopher Ferguson (born 1961), former NASA astronaut
  • Richard Feynman (1918–1988), physicist; 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics[161]
  • Casimir Funk (1884–1967), biochemist, generally credited with the first formulation of the concept of Vitamins in 1912[162]
  • Walter Golaski (1913–1996), engineer[163]
  • Joanna Hoffman, part of the original Apple Macintosh developer team. She acted as the team's only marketing person for more than a year; among her contributions was writing the first draft of the Macintosh User Interface Guidelines.
  • Josef Hofmann (1876–1957), inventor of windshield wipers, shock absorbers for vehicles, oil burning furnace.
  • Roald Hoffmann (born 1937), chemist & writer, Nobel Prize winner (1981)[164]
  • Leonid Hurwicz (1917–2008), economist, Nobel Prize winner (2007)[165]
  • Christopher Jargocki (born 1944), physicist & author[166]
  • Hilary Koprowski (born 1916) virologist and immunologist[167]
  • Alfred Korzybski (1879–1950) probably best-remembered for developing the theory of general semantics[168]
  • Stephanie Kwolek (born 1923), inventor nylon and kevlar[169]
  • Gerhard Lenski (born 1924), sociologist known for contributions to the sociology of religion, social inequality, and ecological-evolutionary social theory
  • Richard Lenski (born 1956), evolutionary biologist, proved evolution with the E. coli long-term evolution experiment.
  • Janusz Liberkowski (born 1953), winner of the first season of the show American Inventor. His invention was the Anecia Safety Capsule.
  • Henryk Magnuski (1909–1978), inventor of the first walkie talkie the SCR-300
  • Bronislaw Malinowski (1884–1942), one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists
  • Krzysztof Matyjaszewski (1950), polymer chemist best known for the discovery of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)
  • Albert Abraham Michelson (1852–1931), Polish-born American physicist. Awarded the Nobel Prize in physics (1907) for work done on the measurement of the speed of light; also the first American to receive the Nobel in the sciences
  • Ralph Modjeski (1861–1940), engineer & bridge builder[170]
  • Jan Moor-Jankowski (1924–2005), primatologist; Polish independence fighter during World War II[171]
  • Stanisław Mrozowski (1902–1999), worked on the Manhattan Project
  • Jan Mycielski (1932), mathematician whose work includes The Ehrenfeucht–Mycielski sequence, The Mycielskian, The Mycielski–Grötzsch graph and Mycielski's theorem
  • Bohdan Paczyński (1940–2007), astronomer, leading scientist in theory of the evolution of stars[172]
  • Scott E. Parazynski (born 1961), NASA astronaut, performed a dangerous EVA never performed before to repair a live solar array on the International Space Station[140]
  • James A. Pawelczyk (born 1960), astronaut, Associate Professor of Physiology and Kinesiology at Penn State; the first Pole in outer space (1980)
  • Sidney Pestka (born 1936), genecist & biochemist who discovered how the genetic code of the mRNA is translated into protein through the small ribosomal subunit
  • Frank Piasecki (born 1929), aviation engineer, developed vertical lift aircraft
  • Piotr Piecuch (born 1960), physical chemist, best known for his work in theoretical and computational chemistry, particularly ab initio quantum-mechanical methods based on coupled-cluster theory.
  • Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898–1988), emigrated to the U.S. in 1899; awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (1944) for work on molecular-beam magnetic-resonance detection method.
  • Wojciech Rostafiński (born 1921), worked for NASA contributed to the theory of aeronautics and applied mathematics, listed in Scientific Citation Index.
  • Albert Sabin, Polish born medical scientist, discovered oral vaccine for Poliomyelitis
  • Andrew Schally (born 1926), endocrinologist and Nobel Prize winner in 1977 in Medicine for research work[173]
  • Tadeusz Sendzimir (1894–1989), engineer and inventor of international renown with 120 patents in mining and metallurgy, 73 of which were awarded to him in the United States[174]
  • Maria Siemionow, Polish surgeon who performed the first face transplant surgery in the U.S
  • Igor Sikorsky (1889–1972), Helicopter engineer who founded the first helicopter industry in the U.S.
  • Jack W. Szostak (born 1952), Nobel Prize–winning biologist. Szostak's work helped us to understand telomeres & his work helped to create the human genome project.
  • Alfred Tarski (1902–1983), mathematician and philosopher[175]
  • Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner (1877–1969), patent & invention of sound film on motion pictures
  • Adam Ulam (1922–2000), historian and political scientist at Harvard University, one of the world's foremost authorities on Russia and the Soviet Union
  • Stanisław Ulam (1909–1984), mathematician who participated in the Manhattan Project and proposed the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons[176]
  • Andrzej Walicki (born 1930), economist; in 1998 he won Balzan Prize for his contribution to the study of the Russian and Polish cultural and social history, and also the study of European culture in the 19th century
  • Frank Wilczek (born 1951), physicist, Nobel Prize 2004[177]
  • Anne Wojcicki, biotech analyst, biologist, and businesswoman. As a businesswoman, she is the co-founder of 23andMe (genetics testing)
  • Stanley Wojcicki, professor and former chair of the physics department at Stanford University in California
  • Aleksander Wolszczan (born 1946), astronomer, discoverer of the first extrasolar planets and pulsar planets[178]
  • Maria Zakrzewska (1829–1902), pioneering female doctor in the United States[179]
  • Edmund Zalinski (1849–1909), invented pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun, invented an electrical fuse, Other inventions included a modified entrenching tool, a ramrod-bayonet, and a telescopic sight for artillery and the Zalinsky boat, one of the earliest submarines in the United States
  • George D. Zamka, (born 1962), NASA astronaut
  • Casimir Zeglen (1869–19??), invented the first bulletproof vest in the world in 1897 He was a Catholic priest of St Stanislaus Kostka Roman Catholic Church in Chicago
  • Florian Znaniecki (1882–1958), sociologist/philosopher[180]
  • Wojciech H. Zurek (1900–1992), pioneer in information physics,co- author of a proof stating that a single quantum cannot be cloned &coined the terms einselection and quantum discord.
  • Antoni Zygmund (1900–1992), mathematician, "Trigonometric Series"[181]

Sports[edit]

Baseball[edit]

Basketball[edit]

  • Carol Blazejowski (born 1956) women's professional basketball player
  • Vince Boryla (born 1927) pro basketball player, coach, and executive
  • Dan Dickau (born 1978)
  • Mike Gminski (born 1959) former college and professional basketball player
  • Tom Gola (1933–2014) one of Philadelphia's most famous basketball players[207]
  • Marcin Gortat (born 1984) pro basketball player, Center position
  • Bobby Hurley (born 1971) Duke and NCA Basketball Player [208]
  • Mike Krzyzewski (born 1947) head coach of the Duke University men's basketball team and the 2008 gold medal-winning U.S. men's Olympic basketball team
  • Mitch Kupchak (born 1954) former professional basketball player and current general manager of the Los Angeles Lakers since the 2000–2001 season after Jerry West moved to the Memphis Grizzlies organization
  • Bob Kurland (born 1924) 7-foot basketball center
  • David Logan (born 1982) basketball player for Maccabi Tel Aviv
  • Red Mihalik (born 1916) NCAA & Olympic Official/Referee [209]
  • Eric Piatkowski (born 1970) National Basketball Association player with the Phoenix Suns
  • Joe Proski (1940– ) First trainer of Phoenix Suns, Inducted into Phoenix Ring of Fame 2001
  • Joel Przybilla (born 1979) professional basketball player in the NBA
  • Kelly Tripucka (born 1959) National Basketball Association player for the Detroit Pistons, Utah Jazz, and Charlotte Hornets from 1981 to 1991
  • Steve Wojciechowski (born 1976) assistant coach of the Duke University men's basketball team

Bowling[edit]

  • Eddie Lubanski – considered one of the greatest bowlers of all time, in the Guinness book of World Records

Boxing[edit]

Figure skating[edit]

  • Tara Lipinski (born 1982) Olympic Gold Medalist figure skater and celebrity
  • Janet Lynn (born 1953) figure skater and Olympic bronze medalist[215]

Football[edit]

  • Danny Abramowicz (born 1945) wide receiver in the National Football League who played for the New Orleans Saints and the San Francisco 49ers
  • Pete Banaszak (born 1944) college and professional football player
  • Steve Bartkowski (born 1952) former NFL quarterback
  • Zeke Bratkowski (born 1931) All-American quarterback at the University of Georgia in 1952 and 1953
  • Bryan Bulaga (born 1989) NFL offensive tackle
  • Brad Cieslak (born 1982) American football tight end in the NFL who currently plays for the Cleveland Browns.
  • Lou Creekmur (born 1927) NFL left offensive tackle/guard for the Detroit Lions from 1951–59
  • Frank Dancewicz (1924–1985) former NFL quarterback
  • Mike Ditka (born 1939) former NFL player, television commentator, and coach
  • Frank Gatski (1919–2005) former NFL player
  • Stephen Gostkowski (born 1984) placekicker for the New England Patriots of the National Football League.
  • Jim Grabowski (born 1944) football player and broadcaster
  • Bruce Gradkowski quarterback for the Cincinnati Bengals
  • Chris Gronkowski (born 1986) is an American football fullback for the Denver Broncos
  • Dan Gronkowski (born 1985) is an American football tight end for the Cleveland Browns
  • Rob Gronkowski (born 1989) is an American football tight end for the New England Patriots
  • Jack Ham (born 1948) former football linebacker who played for the Pittsburgh Steelers
  • Leon Hart (1928–2002) football tight end and defensive end
  • Henry Hynoski (born 1988) is an American football fullback for the New York Giants
  • Jeff Jagodzinski (born 1963) head coach of the Boston College Eagles football team
  • Sebastian Janikowski (born 1978) kicker for the Oakland Raiders[216]
  • Vic Janowicz (1930–1996) played halfback for Ohio State University
  • Ron Jaworski (born 1951) former football player, NFL analyst on ESPN
  • Mike Kenn (born 1956) former offensive tackle for Atlanta Falcons [217]
  • Joe Klecko (born 1953) former NFL defensive end
  • Frank Kush (born 1929) football coach who most prominently served as head coach at Arizona State University for more than two decades
  • Joe Kowalewski (born 1982) tight end for the New York Jets.
  • Glen Kozlowski (born 1962) wide receiver for the Chicago Bears.
  • Ted Kwalick (born 1947) former football tight end in the NFL and World Football League
  • Chris Liwienski (born 1975) American football offensive guard who currently plays for the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League.
  • Johnny Lujack (born 1925) former football quarterback for the University of Notre Dame and the Chicago Bears
  • Don Majkowski (born 1964) former NFL quarterback
  • Ted Marchibroda (born 1931) former football quarterback and head coach in the National Football League
  • Dan Marino former Quarterback for the Miami Dolphins [218]
  • John Matuszak (1950–1989) former football defensive end with the Oilers, Chiefs, and Raiders; son of Marv Matuszak
  • Marv Matuszak (1931–2004) former football linebacker; son of John Matuszak
  • Lou Michaels Former Pro Defensive Linemen; 1958–1971 with Colts, Steelers, Rams, and Packers [219]
  • Walt Michaels (born 1929) former football player and coach, remembered for his six-year tenure as head coach of the New York Jets from 1977–1982
  • Dick Modzelewski (born 1931) former College & Pro Football Player: Redskins, Steelers, Giants & Browns. Coach for Cleveland Browns. College football Hall of Fame.[220]
  • Mike Munchak (born 1960) former Pro Offense with the Houston Oilers; Pro Football Hall of Fame [221]
  • Gene Mruczkowski (born 1980) American football offensive lineman for the New England Patriots of the National Football League.
  • Scott Mruczkowski (born 1982) American football center San Diego Chargers, Bowling Green.
  • Bronko Nagurski (1908–1990) former NFL player and professional wrestler
  • Bill Osmanski (1915–1996) College & Pro Football Hall of Fame, Former player with Chicago Bears.[222]
  • Walt Patulski (born 1950) former defensive end for the University of Notre Dame, Buffalo Bills, and St. Louis Cardinals
  • Jason Pociask (born 1983) football tight end for the New York Jets.
  • Paul Posluszny (born 1984) Linebacker for the Jacksonville Jaguars.
  • Bill Romanowski (born 1966) former football player for the San Francisco 49ers, and Oakland Raiders
  • Tony Romo NFL quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys[223]
  • Ed Rutkowski (born 1941) former wide receiver and quarterback for the Buffalo Bills. Later became County Executive of Erie County (Buffalo).
  • Mark Stepnoski one of NFL's top linemen with the Dallas cowboys [224]
  • Hank Stram (1923–2005) Head Coach, Kansas City Chiefs
  • Mike Tomczak (born 1962) Former NFL quarterback
  • Frank Tripucka (born 1927) former quarterback for the Broncos, Cardinals and Lions [225]
  • Steve Wisniewski Former Pro-bowler, offensive guard with the Oakland Raiders [226]
  • Alex Wojciechowicz (1915–1992) former offensive lineman and linebacker for the Detroit Lions and Philadelphia Eagles
  • Tom Zbikowski (born 1985) Safety for the Baltimore Ravens

Golf[edit]

  • Matt Kuchar (born 1978) professional golfer with 6 PGA Tour wins to date including The Players Championship of 2012 and has been ranked as high as #5 in the world.
  • Billy Burke (1902–1972) prominent golfer of the 1930s
  • Betsy King (born 1955) professional golfer[227]
  • Paul Stankowski (born 1969) professional golfer with 2 PGA Tour wins and finished tied for 5th at the 1997 Masters as well as a tie for 17th at the 1997 U.S. Open
  • Bob Toski (born 1926) golf player and teacher
  • Al Watrous (1899–1983) PGA Champion [209]
  • Walt Zembriski (born May 4, 1935) an ex-ironworker, played on both PGA and Senior PGA tour

Hockey[edit]

Olympic athletes[edit]

  • Mark Gorski (born 1960) Track Cyclist – Gold medal
  • Bob Gutowski (1935–1960) Pole Vaulter, won silver at 1956 Summer Olympics [234]
  • Jeffrey Klepacki Rower in 1992, 1996 and 2000 Olympics. Won Rowing World Championship titles in 1994, 1998 and 1999.
  • Christopher Liwski Rower on 2004 and 2008 Olympic Teams (alternate). Won Rowing World Championship title in 2007.
  • Norbert Schemansky (born 1924) Gold, Silver and Bronze Olympic Metalist in Weightlifting [235]
  • Jenn Suhr (née Stuczynski) Pole vaulter, won silver at 2008 Summer Olympics
  • Stanisława Walasiewicz (a.k.a. Stella Walsh) (1911–1980) athlete and Olympic champion

Soccer[edit]

  • Brad Guzan – USA international goalkeeper currently playing in England for Aston Villa
  • Wojtek Krakowiak (born 1976) soccer player, most recently played for the Tampa Bay Mutiny of Major League Soccer.
  • Danny Szetela (born 1987) soccer player for the Columbus Crew of the MLS.
  • Chris Wondolowski (born 1983) soccer player for the San Jose Earthquakes of the MLS, 2010 MLS Golden Boot winner.

Wrestling[edit]

Rob Van Dam.

Other sports[edit]

  • Gary Styczynski (born 1965), professional poker player, whose accomplishments include winning the 2007 World Series of Poker

Other[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://crimemagazine.com/03/nickadams,0815.htm
  2. ^ mentioned she was Polish in her autobiography, Baby Doll: An Autobiography, ISBN #978-0877955580
  3. ^ Mentioned she was Polish on The Ellen DeGeneres Show, 3/14/05
  4. ^ Chicago Daily Southtown article by Dan Pearson (2/16/2006) mentions Carols is part Polish (father from Poland) and part Spanish (mother from Spain)
  5. ^ http://ca.askmen.com/women/models_60/95c_lisa_boyle.html
  6. ^ IMDb biography for Jennifer Connelly
  7. ^ http://www.polishculture-nyc.org/elzbieta_czyzewska.htm
  8. ^ "'The Count of Monte Cristo': Dagmara Dominczyk profile". USA Today. 2005-01-21. 
  9. ^ http://www.beckerfilms.com/fame.html
  10. ^ http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=54312&page=3
  11. ^ http://www.billjerome.com/tedknight/varietyshow/bp_761129_mo.html
  12. ^ (TV Guide, 1987)
  13. ^ http://the-office-tv-show.com/Cast/Jim.asp
  14. ^ Gilpatrick, Kristin, Famous Wisconsin Film Stars, 2002, p.55 (ISBN 1-878569-86-4)
  15. ^ http://joelando.org/article3.html
  16. ^ http://www.celebrityindex.com/Tea_Leoni/biography.html
  17. ^ http://abc.go.com/primetime/eyes/bios/eric_mabius.html
  18. ^ Profile of Rose Marie
  19. ^ Profile of Ross Martin
  20. ^ Profile of Helena Modjeska
  21. ^ Jerry O'Connell, profile 1
  22. ^ Jerry O'Connell, profile 2
  23. ^ Hiltbrand, David (2004-01-04). "Jerry Orbach gets his due on the sidewalks of New York". The Boston Globe. 
  24. ^ http://uk.movies.yahoo.com/artists/p/Joanna-Pacula/index-150694.html
  25. ^ Jared Padalecki profile
  26. ^ Stefanie Powers, profile 1
  27. ^ Stefanie Powers, profile 2
  28. ^ http://www.beata.com/press/daystar.htm
  29. ^ Robert Prosky profile
  30. ^ Souri, Ranjit (November 2009). "Desis on Cable: Reshma Shetty and Danny Pudi". India Currents. 
  31. ^ "Teresa K. Pudi (Komendant)". Poles.org. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  32. ^ Wagner, Curt (23 January 2012). "'Community' star Danny Pudi, wife have twins". Show Patrol (Chicago: RedEye). Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  33. ^ (mentioned he was of partial Polish descent spoke some Polish on ABC's Dancing with the Stars, March 19, 2007)
  34. ^ "Melinda And Melinda". Archived from the original on 2005-10-13. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  35. ^ Casey Siemaszko, profile 1
  36. ^ Casey Siemaszko, profile 2
  37. ^ Nina Siemaszko profile
  38. ^ http://www.afterellen.com/archive/ellen/People/olga-interview.html
  39. ^ Goodman, Walter (1998-03-12). "TELEVISION REVIEW; Hardy Newcomers With Strong Roots". The New York Times. 
  40. ^ http://www.americanprofile.com/issues/20030824/20030824_3286.asp
  41. ^ Eric Szmanda profile
  42. ^ Roberts, Sheila. "Alan Tudyk Interview, Death At A Funeral". MoviesOnline.ca. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  43. ^ http://www.surfnetinc.com/chuck/tyler10.htm
  44. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7856813/site/newsweek/
  45. ^ http://www.2blowhards.com/archives/000438.html
  46. ^ http://isurvived.org/InTheNews/JewishMuseum-Poland.html
  47. ^ Norman Jaffe
  48. ^ http://www.daniel-libeskind.com/daniel/index.html?c=bio
  49. ^ http://www.witoldrybczynski.com/about-me/
  50. ^ http://www.bu.uni.torun.pl/Archiwum_Emigracji/Book_e.htm
  51. ^ http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/bakos65.htm
  52. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9078543?query=Georg%20Benda&ct=
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  54. ^ ASIN 379133171
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  60. ^ http://www.artsandartists.org/exhpages/julian.html
  61. ^ http://www.jewish-theatre.com/visitor/article_list.aspx?articleGroupID=50
  62. ^ Glueck, Grace (2002-03-29). "ART IN REVIEW; Jack Tworkov – 'Red, White and Blue'". The New York Times. 
  63. ^ http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/weber_max.html
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  67. ^ http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/milosz.htm
  68. ^ http://www.polishculture-nyc.org/fiction.htm
  69. ^ http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~sarmatia/406/262best.html
  70. ^ http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/392
  71. ^ http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar751954
  72. ^ http://www.pw.org/directory/writer_detail.php?writer_id=143161
  73. ^ http://www.adamzamoyski.com/CV.htm
  74. ^ http://www.locusmag.com/2002/Reviews/Gevers04_Zebrowski.html
  75. ^ http://www.ferrago.com/story/4421
  76. ^ Profile of Tad Danielewski
  77. ^ Samuel Goldwyn profile
  78. ^ Dargis, Manohla (2005-02-07). "We're Sorry". The New York Times. 
  79. ^ http://www.sover.net/~ozus/doa.htm
  80. ^ Profile of Andrzej Sekuła
  81. ^ Profile of the Wachowskis
  82. ^ a b c d Profile of film producer Albert Warner
  83. ^ Profile of Billy Wilder
  84. ^ Profile of Dariusz Wolski
  85. ^ Barol, Bill (2008-03-28). "Rita Cosby, American Hero". Huffington Post. 
  86. ^ [1]
  87. ^ http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~sarmatia/996/Kotarba.html
  88. ^ [2]
  89. ^ http://www.zimbio.com/portal/Erica+Campbell/details
  90. ^ http://www.citizen-times.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050617/ENT04/50616007/1035/ENT&template=printart
  91. ^ http://www.harpercollins.com/global_scripts/product_catalog/book_xml.asp?isbn=0060566175&tc=cx
  92. ^ a b http://twinship.tv/
  93. ^ http://www.bestsexycelebs.com/joanna_krupa/
  94. ^ http://www.playboy.com/girls/playmates/directory/200610.html
  95. ^ http://www.celebrityspud.com/browse/celebrities/female/Beth-Ostrosky/
  96. ^ http://www.cityofflint.com/RAMpage/JUNEram.pdf
  97. ^ Profile of Eddie Blazonczyk
  98. ^ Profile of Peter Cetera
  99. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:102213983/Urszula+Dudziak+Headlines+Jan+Karski+Memorial+Concert.html?refid=SEO
  100. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:114147718/Pol-Am+Hussar+Battles+Anti-Polish+Slur.html?refid=SEO
  101. ^ http://www.celebrityrockstarguitars.com/rock/gilbert.htm
  102. ^ Profile of Lawrence Gwozdz
  103. ^ Profile of Mieczysław Horszowski
  104. ^ Profile of Bobby Jarzombek
  105. ^ Profile of Jan A.P. Kaczmarek
  106. ^ Profile of Jan Kiepura
  107. ^ "I'm 100% Polish" (stated on KFOX Radio Station 98.5FM)
  108. ^ "Wade Hall, Hell-Bent For Music: the Life of Pee Wee King". Archived from the original on 2001-05-17. Retrieved August 28, 2013. 
  109. ^ Profile of Gene Krupa
  110. ^ a b Profile of Liberace
  111. ^ Profile of Adam Makowicz
  112. ^ Profile of Ray Manzarek
  113. ^ Profile of Paul Mazurkiewicz
  114. ^ Vaziri, Aidin (2010-08-28). [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi? file=/chronicle/archive/2006/04/23/PKGU9GIRI11.DTL "Karen O Of The Yeah Yeah Yeahs"]. The San Francisco Chronicle. 
  115. ^ http://www.jazzatnewport.org/home.cfm?dir_cat=47264
  116. ^ http://www.genepitney.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=3&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=20
  117. ^ Profile of Bogdan Raczynski
  118. ^ http://www.ia.ucsb.edu/93106/2001/april16/festival/festival.html
  119. ^ http://www.collegebound.net/celeb101/music/googoo.html
  120. ^ http://www.staypoland.com/poland-abroad.htm
  121. ^ Profile of Zygmunt Stojowski
  122. ^ Profile of Michał Urbaniak
  123. ^ Profile of Bobby Vinton
  124. ^ Profile of Henryk Wars
  125. ^ Jack White stated that he was of Polish descent during a performance in Gdynia, Poland.
  126. ^ [stated she was Polish on The View: "Hey, be careful what you say about Poland. I'm Polish."]
  127. ^ http://thingy.apana.org.au/~fun/jennyjones/article_7.html
  128. ^ http://www.j-archive.com/showplayer.php?player_id=2778
  129. ^ http://profile.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=user.viewprofile&friendid=156945
  130. ^ http://www.mobipocket.com/en/eBooks/AuthorDetails.asp?AuthorID=13950
  131. ^ "CNN.com". CNN. 2001-02-07. 
  132. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/megan-smolenyak-smolenyak/hey-jon-stewart-your-roots_b_2755031.html?utm_hp_ref=poland
  133. ^ http://home.nycap.rr.com/useless/q-tips/index.html
  134. ^ http://www.wic.org/bio/johnson.htm
  135. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/02_51/b3813001.htm
  136. ^ http://www.bkhs.org/NewsEvents/News/Detail/?id=170
  137. ^ http://www.salon.com/bc/1999/02/cov_16bc.html
  138. ^ "A New Pac-Man". Time. 1984-07-16. 
  139. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/2002/10/05/mbook05_ed3_.php
  140. ^ a b http://www.polishnews.com/text/news_and_correspondence/scott_parazynski.html
  141. ^ http://www.crn.com/sections/special/supplement/816/816p53_hof.jhtml
  142. ^ http://www.stashunderground.com/blog/index.php?itemid=21
  143. ^ http://www.holocaustforgotten.com/karski.html
  144. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08694a.htm
  145. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:86844165/Wlodzimierz+Krzyzanowski~C~+Polonias+Forgotten+Hero.html?refid=SEO
  146. ^ http://www.polishamericancenter.org/urban.html
  147. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:104240621/VETERANS+DAY,+NOVEMBER+11%3B+Remembering+Polish+American+Hero+PFC+Frank+P~R~+Witek.html?refid=SEO
  148. ^ a b http://users.rcn.com/salski/PoloniaSFO/PoloniaSFO_Pages/ThePolishAmericans.htm
  149. ^ http://thehill.com/thehill/export/TheHill/News/UndertheDome/051106.html
  150. ^ http://c250.columbia.edu/c250_events/symposia/constitutions_bios.html
  151. ^ http://imagesofheaven.org/WalterCiszek.html
  152. ^ http://www.pchswi.org/archives/townships/earlypolishhist.html
  153. ^ http://www.italystl.com/ra/2027.htm
  154. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:2373488/An+Interview+with+Adam+Cardinal+Maida.html?refid=SEO
  155. ^ http://www.scientology.org/scnnews/miscavige.htm
  156. ^ http://www.dioceseofgaylord.org/inside/_170/index.phtml?artid=251
  157. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/henryk_arctowski.html
  158. ^ http://www.uranos.eu.org/biogr/bekkere.html
  159. ^ http://www.apea.us/tributes.htm
  160. ^ http://www.elonka.com/public/familytree/
  161. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9034161/Richard-P-Feynman
  162. ^ http://www.indiainfoline.com/phar/mile/1912.html
  163. ^ http://www.op97.k12.il.us/mcrc/contributors/polish.html
  164. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/roald_hoffmann.html
  165. ^ "Professor Leonid Hurwicz: Nobel Prize-winning economist". The Independent (London). 2008-07-17. 
  166. ^ http://www.c4cp.org
  167. ^ Profile of Hilary Koprowski
  168. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/alfred_korzybski.html
  169. ^ http://www.msu.edu/user/jarczakc/polesinus.html
  170. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/ralph_modjeski.html
  171. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:117223404/Dr~R~+Jan+Moor-Jankowski,+Underground+Veteran,+Patriot.html?refid=SEO
  172. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/bohdan_paczynski.html
  173. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/andrew_schally.html
  174. ^ http://www.sendzimir.org.pl/tadeusz.html
  175. ^ http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521802407
  176. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/stanislaw_ulam.html
  177. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/frank_wilczek.html
  178. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/aleksander_wolszczan.html
  179. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/marie_zakrzewska.html
  180. ^ http://www.fmag.unict.it/~polphil/PolPhil/Znan/Znanie.html
  181. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9001424
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  183. ^ http://12.100.23.254:8080/bj/projects/indians_world_series/2.htm
  184. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:2812949/Grudzielanek+An+All-Star.html?refid=SEO
  185. ^ http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/J/Jablonski_Ray.stm
  186. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/Kluszewski_t.html
  187. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:3988281/Tripucka,+Michaels,+Lopata+To+Be+Inducted+June+12th.html?refid=SEO
  188. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:79641075/Mr~R~+Mazeroski+is+Going+to+Cooperstown!.html?refid=SEO
  189. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:2342425/Bratkowski,+McCosky+and+Szymanski+to+be+Inducted+June+8.html?refid=SEO
  190. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:79641173/Mientkiewicz+is+Golden.html?refid=SEO
  191. ^ http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/M/Musial_Stan.stm
  192. ^ http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/sabr/tbi/N/Niekro_Phil.tbi.stm
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  194. ^ http://washington.nationals.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/team/broadcasters.jsp?c_id=was
  195. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:86871719/The+Polish+American+Journal+All-Time+Polish+American+Baseball+Team.html?refid=SEO
  196. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/Perranoski_r.html
  197. ^ http://www.pna-znp.org/content/soxnight/soxnight06.htm
  198. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/quinn_j.html
  199. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/reed_r.html
  200. ^ http://www.uwm.edu/Libraries/arch/polishho.htm
  201. ^ http://www.dobrowolski.com/joeandpam/famouspols/famouspols.html
  202. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/tanana_f_complete.html
  203. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:21936405/Trammell,+Kush+Join+Hall+Of+Fame+In+Silver+Anniversary+Year.html?refid=SEO
  204. ^ All-American Girls Professional Baseball League official website – Helen Walulik profile
  205. ^ http://nhs.needham.k12.ma.us/cur/kane98/kane_p3_immig/Poland/Polish.html
  206. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:95232419/Wisniewski,+Olczyk+and+Zisk+Enter+Hall+of+Fame.html?refid=SEO
  207. ^ http://www.yankeepotroast.org/archives/2004/06/polish_facts.html
  208. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/hurley_b_complete.html
  209. ^ a b [3]
  210. ^ http://www.hardcoreboxing.net/Smith5272006.htm
  211. ^ http://www.warsawvoice.pl/archiwum.phtml/12953/
  212. ^ http://www.cyberboxingzone.com/boxing/ketchel.htm
  213. ^ http://www.njboxinghof.org/cgi-bin/henryseehof.pl?295
  214. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/yarosz_t_complete.html
  215. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20091027084527/http://geocities.com/janet_lynn_2003/web/janet_profile_brennan.htm
  216. ^ Sebastian Janikowski Oakland Raiders Sebastian Janikowski
  217. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/kenn_m_complete.html
  218. ^ Featured in the book, Gridiron Greats: A Century of Polish-American Football by Ben Chestochowski
  219. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/michaels_l_complete.html
  220. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/modzelewski_d_complete.html
  221. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/Munchak_m_complete.html
  222. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/osmanski_b_complete.html
  223. ^ http://www.tonyromoonline.org/tony-romo-biography.php
  224. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/nomineeList.html
  225. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/tripucka_f_complete.html
  226. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/Wisniewski_s_complete.html
  227. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:79637010/Polish+American+Sports+Hall+of+Fame+Set+for+June+8.html?refid=SEO
  228. ^ http://penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=494635
  229. ^ http://polishsportshof.com/inductees/hockey/len-ceglarski/
  230. ^ http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/sports/story.html?id=73dd5955-d210-4cf3-a5c6-444c82a8f4c0&k=96860
  231. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1:86871727/Olczyk+is+Penguins+New+Coach,+NBA+Drafts+a+Pair+of+Poles.html?refid=SEO[dead link]
  232. ^ Interview with Pavelski at the official Sharks website
  233. ^ http://www.wizwear.org/
  234. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/gutowski_r_complete.html
  235. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/schemansky_n_complete.html
  236. ^ http://www.wwe.com/superstars/halloffame/ivanputski/profile/
  237. ^ Colatosti, Camille (October 2000). "Hamtramck, Michigan: A small city grapples with diversity and change". The Witness 83(10).
  238. ^ [4]
  239. ^ http://www.polishsportshof.com/bios/inductees.html
  240. ^ http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicadamski.html
  241. ^ Profile of Curtis Sliwa
  242. ^ Cooperman, Alan (2002-04-03). "No Longer a Lone Voice Crying". The Washington Post.