List of Portuguese words of Germanic origin

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This is a list of Portuguese words that come from Germanic languages. It is divided into words that come from English, Frankish, Langobardic, Middle Dutch, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Swedish, and Visigothic and finally, words which come from Germanic with the specific source unknown.

Some of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other languages. Some of these words have alternate etymologies and may also appear on a list of Portuguese words from a different language. Some words contain non-Germanic elements. Any form with an asterisk (*) is unattested and therefore hypothetical.

Dutch[edit]

  • bombordo= port side of a ship: from French babord "portside", from Dutch bakboord "left side of a ship", literally "back side of a ship" (from the fact that most ships were steered from the starboard side), from bak "back, behind", (from Germanic (*)bakam) + boord "board, side of a ship", see borde below (in Germanic section). Also see estibordo' "starboard" below in the Germanic section
  • berbequim= carpenter's brace: from regional French veberquin (French vilebrequin), from Dutch wimmelken, from wimmel "auger, drill, carpenter's brace" + -ken, a diminutive suffix, see maniquí below in Middle Dutch section.

English[edit]

Frankish[edit]

  • agüentar= to endure, bear, resist: from Italian agguantare "to retain, take hold of" (originally "to detain with gauntlets"), from a- + guanto "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want (see guante below) + verbal suffix -are (suffix changed to -ar in Spanish).
  • alojar= to lodge, to house, to provide hospitality: from Catalan allotjar, from llotja from Old French loge, see lonja below.
  • bordar= to embroider: from Frankish (*)bruzdon (source of Old French brouder, brosder and French broder), from Germanic (*)bruzd- "point, needle", from the IE root (*)bhrs-dh-, from (*)bhrs-, from (*)bhar-, "point, nail."
  • destacar= to detach troops: from French détachar (influenced by Spanish atacar), from Old French destachier "to unattach", from des- "apart, away" + atachier, a variation of estachier, from estaca, from Frankish stakka, see estaca below in Germanic section.
  • destacar= to stand out, to emphasize: from Italian staccare "to separate", from Old French destacher, destachier, see destacar above.
  • estandarte= a military standard: from Old French estandart, probably from Frankish (*)standhard "standard that marks a meeting place", (implicit sense: "that which stands firmly"), from (*)standan "to stand", (from Germanic (*)standan, from the IE root (*)sta- "to stand" [1]) + (*)hard "hard, firm", see ardid below in Germanic section.
  • guante= glove, gauntlet: from Catalan guant "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want "gauntlet." [2]
  • loja= market, building where merchants and sellers gather: from regional Catalan llonja (Modern Catalan llotja), from Old French logo "dwelling, shelter", from Frankish (*)laubja "covering, enclosure", from Germanic (*)laubja "shelter" (implicit sense "roof made of bark"), from the IE root (*)leup- "to peel."

German[edit]

  • acordeon = accordion from akkordeon
  • apfelstrudel = apple strudel from Apfelstrudel
  • Báltico = baltic from Baltisch
  • benzina = benzine from benzin
  • burgomestre = (City)mayor from Bürgermeister
  • chic or chique = Chic from Schick
  • chope = draft beer from shoppen
  • chucrute = coleslaw from sauerkraut
  • cobalto = cobalt from Kobold
  • estilístico = stylistic from Stylistik
  • faustebol = faustball
  • kaput, caputar = broken from kaputt
  • kitsch = kitsch from Kitsch
  • land = subdivision of a country, e.g. Germany, or Austria
  • Leitmotiv = leitmotiv from Leitmotiv
  • LSD (alucinogénio) = LSD from Lysergsäurediethylamid
  • metapsicológico, metapsicologia = metapsychology from Metapsychologie (S. Freud)
  • plancton = plancton from Plankton
  • poltergeist = poltergeist from Poltergeist
  • pragmatismo = pragmatism from Pragmatismus
  • propedêutico = introductory from Propädeutik
  • protoplasma = protoplasm from Protoplasma
  • Quartzo = quartz from Quarz
  • Rösti (culinária) = rösti from Rösti (Swiss Swiss dish of grated potatoes formed into a small flat cake and fried)
  • sabre = sabre from Sabel
  • social-democrata = social democrat from Sozialdemokrat
  • valsa = waltz from Walzer, walzen
  • vampiro = vampire from Vampir
  • Vermouth or Vermute = vermouth from Vermut (drink)
  • Zinco = zinc from Zink

Latin words in Portuguese of Germanic origin[edit]

  • bisonte (from L bisont-,bison from Gmc, akin to OHG wisant, aurochs)
  • feudal (from Latin feodum, feudum of Gmc origin, akin to OE feoh, cattle, property)
  • filtro; filtrar= "filter; to filter" from ML filtrum felt from Gmc, akin to OE felt, felt
  • instalar (from ML installare from stallum of Gmc origin, akin to OHG stal, stall)
  • sabão= "soap" from Latin sapon-, sapo, soap from Gmc

Langobardic[edit]

Middle Dutch[edit]

Middle High German[edit]

Middle Low German[edit]

Old English[edit]

Old High German[edit]

  • banca= bench: see banco= bench below
  • banco= bench: from Old High German banc "bench, board"
  • banco= bank: from French banque "bank", from Italian banca "bench, money changer's table", from Old High German banc, see banco= bench above

Old Norse[edit]

  • bife= steak, beefsteak: from English beefsteak, from beef (ultimately from Latin bōs, bovis "cow", from the IE root (*)gwou- "ox, bull, cow" [11]) + steak, from Middle English steyke, from Old Norse steik "piece of meat cooked on a spit", from Germanic (*)stik-, see estaca below in the Germanic section.

Old Swedish[edit]

Visigothic[edit]

  • agasalhar= perhaps from Latin *ad-gasaliare, from Visigothic *gasalja (partner, colleague)
  • guarda= guard, bodyguard, protection: from Visigothic wardja "a guard", from Germanic wardaz, from the IE root (*)wor-to-, see guardar below in Germanic section.
  • guardião= guardian: from Visgothic wardjan accusative of wardja, see guardia above.
  • atacar= to attack: Old Italian attaccare "to fasten, join, unite, attack (implicit sense: to join in a battle)", changed from (*)estacar (by influence of a-, common verbal prefix) "to fasten, join", from Visigothic stakka "a stick, stake", from Germanic (*)stak-, see estaca in Germanic section.
  • gavião= hawk,from Visigothic *gabila, akin to German Gabel 'fork'.

Germanic[edit]

Derivatives: gaiteiro '(bag)piper', gaita 'penis, or swearword akin to "cock"'(colloquial), gaita-de-foles, gaita-de beiços, 'different types or names for bagpipes, gaitar 'to sob or to fail an exam' (colloquail).
Derivatives: agrupar 'to group, to organise into a section', agrupado 'part of a group', agrupamento 'act of grouping, a team'.
  • guardar= to guard, watch over, keep, observe (a custom): from Germanic (*)wardōn "to look after, take care of", from the IE root (*)wor-to-, "to watch", from (*)wor-, (*)wer- "to see, watch, perceive" [22]
  • oboé= an oboe: from French hautbois from haut (ultimately from Latin altus "high") + bois "wood", see bosque above.
  • sala= a room: from Germanic sal- "room, house", from the IE root (*)sol- "hamlet, human settlement."
  • salão= main room of a house (see sala above) + -on, augmentive suffix.
  • trampa= a trap: possibly from Germanic, from the same derivation as trampolín (see below) and atrapar (see above).
  • trampolim= a trampoline: from Italian trampolino "trampoline" (implicit sense: game of agility on stilts), from trampoli, plural of a Germanic word (*)tramp- (such as German trampeln and Old High German trampen, both meaning "to tread, trample"), from the IE root (*)dreb-, from
  • vanguarda= vanguard: from Old Spanish avanguardia, from Catalan avantguarda from avant "before, advance", (from Latin ab- + ante "before") + guarda "guard", from Germanic wardaz, see guardia above in Visigothic section.

Names[edit]

Forenames[edit]

Germanic prenames are very common, particularly among males in Portugal and Brazil.

  • Adalberto=
  • Adelaide=
  • Adelardo=
  • Adele=
  • Ademar=
  • Adolfo=
  • Afonso=
  • Agildo=
  • Agnaldo=
  • Alberto=
  • Aldo=
  • Alfredo=
  • Aloísio=
  • Astolfo=
  • Arnaldo=
  • Ataúlfo=
  • Austragésilo=
  • Balduíno=
  • Bernardo=
  • Clodoaldo=
  • Clodomir=
  • Clodovil=
  • Clotilde=
  • Clóvis=
  • Conrado=
  • Djalma=
  • Eberardo=
  • Edgar=
  • Edith=
  • Edmar=
  • Edmundo=
  • Edna=
  • Eduardo=
  • Eduvigis=
  • Edvaldo=
  • Elba=
  • Elder=
  • Elvira=
  • Elza=
  • Érico=
  • Ermenegildo=
  • Ermelindo=
  • Ernesto=
  • Etelvina=
  • Fernando=
  • Frederico=
  • Genival=
  • Geraldo=
  • Germano=
  • Gertrudes=
  • Gilberto=
  • Gildo=
  • Gilmar=
  • Giraldo=
  • Gisele=
  • Godiva=
  • Guido=
  • Guilherme=
  • Guiomar=
  • Gumercindo=
  • Gustavo= from Gundstaf
  • Haroldo=
  • Hedda=
  • Helga=
  • Heloísa=
  • Henrique=
  • Heriberto=
  • Hermínio=
  • Hilda=
  • Hildebrando=
  • Hugo=
  • Humberto=
  • Inga=
  • Ingrid=
  • Isnard=
  • Juscelino=
  • Lars=
  • Leonardo=
  • Leonildo=
  • Leonor=
  • Leopoldo=
  • Lindolfo=
  • Lorelei=
  • Lotário=
  • Luís=
  • Mafalda=
  • Manfred=
  • Matilde=
  • Nivaldo=
  • Norberto=
  • Odorico=
  • Olavo= from Norwegian Oleifr
  • Orlando=
  • Oscar=
  • Osmar=
  • Oswaldo
  • Otto=
  • Raimundo=
  • Raul=
  • Reginaldo=
  • Ricardo=
  • Roberto=
  • Rodrigo= from Germanic Hrodric/Hrēðrīc/Rørik/Hrœrekr (Roderick, Rodrick, Roderich; a compound of hrod ‘renown’ + ric ‘power(ful)’), from the Proto-Germanic *Hrōþirīk(i)az; it was borne by the last of the Visigoth kings and is one of the most common Lusophone personal names of Germanic origin.[[1]]
  • Rodolfo=
  • Rogério=
  • Rolando=
  • Romildo=
  • Ronaldo=
  • Ubaldo=
  • Ulrico=
  • Valkyria=
  • Wagner=
  • Waldemar=
  • Waldevino=
  • Waldir=
  • Waldo=
  • Walfredo=
  • Walter=
  • Wanda=
  • Wania=
  • Wilfried=
  • Wolfgang=

Surnames[edit]

  • Antunes= patronymic form of Antonio
  • Bernardes= patronymic form of Bernardo
  • Esteves= patronymic form of Estêvão
  • Fernandes= patronymic form of Fernando, archaic Fernão
  • Gonçalves= patronymic form of Gonçalo
  • Henriques= patronymic form of Henrique
  • Martins= patronymic form of Martim, Martinho
  • Moniz= patronymic form of archaic Moninho or Munio
  • Nunes= patronymic form of Nuno
  • Rodrigues= patronymic form of Rodrigo
  • Simões= patronymic form of Simão
  • Viegas= patronymic form of Egas

List[edit]

A[edit]

  • abandonar; abandono= "to abandon" ; "abandon"
  • atacar= "to attack"
  • abordar= "to attack (a problem)"

B[edit]

  • bala
  • balcão= "balcony"
  • bandeira
  • bandoleiro= "bandit"
  • banquete
  • barão
  • bébé or bebê(Brazil)= "baby"
  • bife= "beefsteak"
  • bigode= "moustache" (from German Bei Gott, "By God")
  • bisonte
  • branco; branca= "white"
  • bloco; bloquear= "block; to block"
  • bordar="to embroider"
  • bote= "boat"
  • bramar= "to bellow, roar"
  • brecha= "breach, opening"
  • brinde= "toast(with drinks)"
  • brio= "spirit", "brio" (Celtic???)
  • brisa= "breeze" (Old Spanish briza from East Frisian brisen, to blow fresh and strong)
  • brocha
  • brotar= "to sprout"
  • buganvília = "bougainvillea"
  • burguês= "bourgeoisie", "member of the middle class"
  • busca; buscar="search, find, look for"

C[edit]

D[edit]

E[edit]

  • edredão/edredom= "eiderdown"
  • emboscar= "to ambush"
  • embraiagem= "clutch"
  • enriquecer= "get rich"
  • estampar= "to stamp"
  • estampida=same as "estampido" bang, beat, blow (sound like a shot)
  • estandarte
  • este= "east"
  • estuco; estuque

F[edit]

  • feudal
  • feudo
  • flibusteiro
  • filme= movie, picture
  • filtro; filtrar
  • flutuar; frota; flotilha
  • folclore (from English Folklore)
  • fornido; fornecido
  • forragem
  • forrar
  • framboesa
  • francês
  • franco (candid)
  • franco (money)
  • franquear=free, no charge, no cost, for free,
  • frasco=bottle, urn, pot, vase, container
  • fresco=chilly, icy,freesing, cold
  • futebol=soccer

G[edit]

  • gabardine; gabardina
  • gaita
  • galante
  • galardão
  • galope
  • gado
  • ganhar
  • ganso; gansa
  • garagem
  • garantia
  • garbo
  • gardênia
  • garrote
  • gavião
  • gravar
  • gripe, gripa
  • grisalho
  • groselha
  • grupo
  • gadanha
  • guarida
  • guarnição
  • guerra, germ. warra, lat. bellum
  • guerrilha
  • gueto
  • guia= "a guide"
  • guiar
  • guilhotina
  • guião
  • grinalda
  • guisa
  • guisar

H[edit]

  • falar
  • heraldo

I[edit]

  • inglês
  • instalar

J[edit]

  • jardim

K[edit]

L[edit]

  • lastro
  • lata
  • lista
  • lote
  • lotaria
  • lua-de-mel (calque)

M[edit]

  • maleta
  • Malta
  • maqui(l)agem
  • marcar
  • marcha
  • marchar
  • marechal
  • marquês
  • marquesa
  • marta
  • mascote
  • mação
  • mastro

N[edit]

  • nórdico
  • normando
  • norte

O[edit]

  • oeste= "west"
  • orgulho = pride

P[edit]

  • palco
  • paquete
  • placa

Q[edit]

  • queque= "cake"
  • quinquilharia= "old junk", "cheap antiques shop"

R[edit]

  • rancho
  • raça= "race (lineage)" from Italian raza of Gmc origin, akin to OHG rīga, line; OE ræw, row
  • raspar
  • rata
  • ratão
  • refrescar
  • refutar (Gmc origin???)
  • reno
  • retaguarda
  • rico
  • rifa
  • rifle
  • riqueza
  • roubar
  • roubo
  • rum
  • roupa
  • rufião
  • rumba
  • russo

S[edit]

  • sala
  • salão
  • saxofone
  • sopa
  • sud- /sul
  • sueco
  • suíço

T[edit]

  • tacha
  • taco
  • tacão
  • talar
  • tampão
  • tapa
  • tapar
  • tarjeta
  • teta
  • teutônico
  • toalha
  • toldo
  • tope
  • trampa
  • trégua
  • trepar
  • trombone
  • trompa
  • trompeta
  • tropa
  • trotar
  • tungstênio (Tungsten)

U[edit]

  • ufano

V[edit]

  • vagão
  • valquíria
  • valsa
  • vadio
  • vandalismo
  • vândalo
  • varão
  • venda
  • vermute

W[edit]

  • wagneriano

X[edit]

Z[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4