List of Presidents of Colombia

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"Presidents of Colombia", "Presidents of the New Granada", "Presidents of the Granadine Confederation", and "Colombian Presidents" redirect here.
The House of Nariño, the president's official residence and centre of the administration

The following is a List of Presidents of Colombia. Under the Colombian Constitution of 1991, the President of Colombia is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Colombia. As chief of the executive branch and head of the national government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in Colombia by influence and recognition. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the Military Forces of Colombia. The president is directly elected to a four-year term in a popular election. Since the passing of the Legislative Act 2 of 2004, no person may be elected President more than twice.[1] Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President assumes the office. The President must be at least 30 years of age and a "natural born" citizen of Colombia.

Lists of presidents[edit]

Republic of Colombia (1819–1831)[edit]

This list includes those persons who were sworn into or forcibly took the office of President of the Republic of Colombia following the passing of the Colombian Constitution of 1832, which took effect on 30 August 1821.

The Republic of Colombia of 1821–1831 is now commonly referred to as the Gran Colombia to differentiate it from the present-day Republic of Colombia. Gran Colombia was the union of the territories that comprised the Viceroyalty of the New Granada under the uti possidetis principle, and it included the political entities that had formed in the New Granada after the initial wars of independence of 1810 against the Kingdom of Spain under King Joseph I; those included the Second Republic of Venezuela, the United Provinces of New Granada, the Presidency of Quito, and the Royal Audiencia of Panama.

The Office of the Presidency goes back to the Congress of Angostura. This quasi-constituent assembly was formed to lay the ground work for a self-ruled governing administration after independence. The Constituent Assembly was formed by regional leaders that represented areas under rebel control; these areas did not include parts of what is now Colombia, as those areas were still under Spanish control, but aimed to legislate on its behalf. Congress elected an interim-executive officer and vested this figure with the title of President. Chosen to be first President of Colombia, was General Simón Bolívar y Palacios, leader of the revolutionary forces, who up to that point was titled "Supreme Chief" for his role in the revolution. The following day, Congress elected Francisco Antonio Zea Díaz, first Vice President of Colombia. Bolívar was subsequently re-elected interim President by the Angostura Assembly on 17 December 1819 after Colombia was conquered following the Battle of Boyacá, and elected again in 1821 in a permanent interim basis, pending national elections, by the Congress of Cúcuta, another constituent assembly mandated by the Angostura Assembly, and this time with elected officials representing the Colombian territories, during this time, and until 1826, the executive power was entrusted to the Vice President Francisco de Paula Santander y Omaña, while Bolívar was away in battle fighting to liberate Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru. Bolívar was formally elected in a national election in 1826 for a period of four years, but on 27 August 1828, Bolívar declared martial law and assumed dictatorship style powers after the Congress of Ocaña failed to pass a new constitution. Bolívar eventually relinquished power in 1830, and Congress elected Joaquín de Mosquera y Arboleda as his successor, but was shortly deposed by General Rafael Urdaneta y Faría who hoped Bolívar would once again re-take power, but Bolívar not only declined the Presidency, but also shortly died, leaving Urdaneta with no mandate for power. Urdaneta ceded executive-power to the Vice President Domingo Caycedo y Sanz de Santamaría, as Congress had impeached Mosquera for his failure to prevent the coup; during this time, and until 1832 the Presidency remained vacant as there was no law for succession of power. In 1832, former Vice President Santander was elected by Congress as President of Gran Colombia, and it would be the last, since the territories of Venezuela and Ecuador broke away, which prompted the drafting of a new constitution.

Flag of the Gran Colombia (1819-1820).svgRepublic of ColombiaCoat of arms of Gran Colombia (1819).svg
No.
[n 1]
President Took office Left office Party Term
[n 1]
Vice President Acting Presidents[n 2]
1 Bolivar Arturo Michelena.jpg Simón
Bolívar y Palacios

[2]
15 February 1819 4 May 1830
[n 3]
no party (1819) Francisco Antonio
Zea Díaz

(16 February 1819–21 March 1820)[n 3]
Francisco de Paula Santander y Omaña
(13 December 1821–14 November 1826)
Estanislao Vergara y Santamaría
(10 November 1829–10 December 1829)
1
(1819)
Juan Germán
Roscio Nieves

(21 March 1820–10 March 1820)[n 4]
vacant
(10 March 1820–1 April 1820)
Antonio
Nariño y Álvarez

(1 April 1820–6 June 1820)[n 3]
José María
del Castillo y Rada

(6 June 1820–3 October 1821)
2
(1821)
Francisco de Paula
Santander y Omaña

(3 October 1821–27 August 1828)
3
(1826)
Francisco de Paula
Santander y Omaña

(3 October 1821–27 August 1828)
vacant
(27 August 1828– 4 May 1830)
2 Joaquín Mosquera lithograph.jpg Joaquín
de Mosquera y Arboleda

[3]
4 May 1830 4 September 1830 no party 4
(1830)
Domingo
Caycedo y Sanz de Santamaría

(4 May 1830–4 September 1830)
Domingo Caycedo y Sanz de Santamaría
(4 May 1830–15 June 1830)
(2 August 1830–18 August 1830)
3 Rafael urdaneta.jpg Rafael
Urdaneta y Faría

[4]
4 September 1830
[n 5]
30 April 1831 no party suspended
(4 September 1830–30 April)
vacant 30 April 1831 10 March 1832 no party Domingo
Caycedo y Sanz de Santamaría

(30 April 1831–21 November 1831)
José María
Obando del Campo

(21 November–10 March 1832)
4 Santander by Acevedo Bernal.jpg Francisco de Paula
Santander y Omaña

[5]
10 March 1832 1 April 1837 no party 5
(1832)
José Ignacio
de Márquez Barreto

(10 March 1832–1 April 1833)
José Ignacio de Márquez Barreto
(10 March 1832–7 October 1832)

Republic of New Granada (1832–1858)[edit]

This list includes those persons who were sworn into or forcibly took the office of President of the Republic of New Granada following the passing of the Colombian Constitution of 1832, which took effect on 26 November 2012.

There were 8 people in office serving a presidency each. All were popularly elected under an electoral college system except one, José María Melo y Ortiz who took power by mounting a coup d'état. Francisco de Paula Santander y Omaña, the first president, served initially on a provisional basis but in 1833 began a regular four-year term as President of the Republic of New Granada, to which he was popularly elected. Santander spent the longest time in office with 5 years and 22 days. José María Obando del Campo spent the shortest time in office with just 1 year and 6 days before being deposed.

The President and the Vice President were elected separately two years apart for a period of four years each, resulting in a president having two vice presidents given normal circumstances. The Colombian Constitution of 1832, just like its predecessor, did not provide for a way to fill a vacancy in the presidency or the vicepresidency until the next electoral period, because of this the presidency was vacant between 1854 and 1857 when Melo, who had deposed President Obando in a coup, handed power to the previous administration; Obando would have taken back the presidency, but he had been impeached by Congress and hence there was no President to take power. During this time Vice President José de Obaldía y Orejuela served as Acting President until the end of his term, at which point the newly elected Vice President Manuel María Mallarino Ibargüen served as Acting President for the remainder of the term Obando had been elected for until 1857 when Mariano Ospina Rodríguez was elected. The Vice Presidency was also vacant between 1837 and 1839, when Vice President José Ignacio de Márquez Barreto was elected President and the post remained vacant until the next vice presidencial election in 1939.

Parties

      Conservative       Liberal       Military rule

Flag of New Granada.svgRepublic of New GranadaCoat of arms of New Granada.svg
No.
[n 1]
President Took office Left office Party Term
[n 1]
Vice President Acting Presidents[n 2]
1 Santander by Acevedo Bernal.jpg Francisco de Paula
Santander y Omaña

(1792–1840)
[6]
10 March 1832 1 April 1837 no party (1832) José Ignacio
de Márquez Barreto

(10 March 1832–1 April 1833)
José Ignacio de Márquez Barreto
(10 March 1832–7 October 1832)
1
(1833)
Joaquín Mariano
Mosquera y Arboleda

(1 April 1833–1 April 1835)
José Ignacio
de Márquez Barreto

(1 April 1835–1 April 1837)
2 José Ignacio de Márquez.jpg José Ignacio
de Márquez Barreto

(1793–1880)
[7]
1 April 1837 1 April 1841 no party
(Ministerials)
2
(1837)
vacant
(1 April 1837–1 April 1839)
Domingo
Caycedo y Sanz de Santamaría

(1 April 1839–1 April 1843)
3 Pedro Alcántara Herrán.jpg Pedro Alcántara
Herrán Martínez

(1800–1872)
[8]
1 April 1841 1 April 1845 no party
(Ministerials)
3
(1841)
Juan de Dios Aranzazu González
(5 July 1841–19 May 1842)
Joaquín José
Gori y Álvarez de Castro

(1 April 1843–1 April 1847)
4 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano
de Mosquera y Arboleda

(1798–1878)
[9]
1 April 1845 1 April 1849 no party
(Ministerials)
4
(1845)
Rufino Cuervo y Barreto
(14 August 1847–14 December 1847)
Rufino
Cuervo y Barreto

(1 April 1847–1 April 1851)
5 General José Hilario López.jpg José Hilario
López Valdéz

(1798–1869)
[10]
1 April 1849 1 April 1853 Liberal 5
(1849)
José
de Obaldía y Orejuela

(1 April 1851–1 April 1855)
6 José María Obando by Espinosa.jpg José María
Obando del Campo

(1795–1861)
[11]
1 April 1853 17 April 1854 Liberal 6
(1853)
7 Jose Maria Melo 1.jpg José María
Melo y Ortiz

(1800–1860)
[12]
17 April 1854
[n 5]
4 December 1854 no party (Military) Francisco Antonio Obregón Muñoz
(20 May 1854–2 June 1854)
vacant 4 December 1854 1 April 1857 José de Obaldía y Orejuela
(5 August 1854–1 April 1855)
Manuel María Mallarino Ibargüen
(1 April 1855–1 April 1857)
Manuel María
Mallarino Ibargüen

(1 April 1855–1 April 1859)
8 Mariano Ospina Rodríguez.jpg Mariano
Ospina Rodríguez

(1805–1885)
[13]
1 April 1857 1 April 1861 Conservative 7
(1857)
[n 6]

Granadine Confederation (1858–1863)[edit]

This list includes those persons who were sworn into, succeeded to, or forcibly took office as President of the Granadine Confederation following the passing of the Colombian Constitution of 1858, which took effect on 22 May 1858.

The Constitution of 1858 abolished the Office of the Vice Presidency. The line of succession was modified by the introduction of the figures of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Presidential Designates, who were elected annually by Congress amongst its members, but held no office or duties other than providing a succession to the presidency in the event of the President's temporal or permanent absence.

There were only 3 people in office who served a presidency each. Mariano Ospina Rodríguez initially took office in 1857 as the 8th and last President of the Republic of New Granada. In 1861 Julio Arboleda Pombo became the first person to be elected President of the Granadine Confederation under the new electoral college system set up by the new constitution, however during this time the country was going through a civil war and Congress was closed down. Furthermore, according to the new constitution the president had to take office before Congress; since this couldn't happen, Pombo could not take office and did not become the president. When Ospina's term ended on 1 April 1861, with no congress to swear in the elected president, the power would have been transferred to one of the Presidential Designates, however with Congress closed down no designates were elected for that year, and with no designates to succeed Ospina, the presidency was handed out to the next person in the line of succession which was the Inspector General, Bartolomé Calvo Díaz. Calvo's presidential tenure was short; within three months of holding the post, General Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda, leader of the Liberal forces, marched into Bogotá deposing Calvo in a coup d'état.

Giving the great animosity between Conservatives and Liberals at the time of the 1860-62 civil war, another thing that marked this period in regards to the presidency was that there were multiple attempts to undermine the government in power by laying claims on the presidency using various arguments. The first one of these was the Liberal General Juan José Nieto Gil, who claimed the presidency by disregarding the legitimacy of Ospina and claiming power in virtue of being the 2nd Presidential Designate; he finally ceded power to his fellow Liberal General, Mosquera, when he took power in Bogotá. Mosquera had also claimants to the presidency in opposition to him. Julio Arboleda Pombo who was elected president but could not take office was appointed Inspector General by President Calvo when he was in power, thus when Mosquera captured him, Arboleda claimed the presidency as the next in theline of succession to Calvo, even though that by this time the government and city had fallen, and the Conservative administration had fled the capital. After Arboleda was also captured by Mosquera a few days after Calvo was taken prisoner, the Secretary of Finance, Ignacio Gutiérrez Vergara, succeeded Arboleda to the claimed presidency as next in the line of succession being the oldest government secretary of the previous administration. When Gutiérrez was captured by Mosquera, the next in line of succession by age was the Secretary of Government and War, General Leonardo Canal González. As pretender to presidency, he moved the capital of the nation to Pasto, where he led the Conservative Government in exile. In 1862 Canal left to fight the Liberal forces and left Manuel del Río y de Narváez, his Secretary of Government and War, as Acting President of the government-in-exile. This struggle for power all came to an end in 1863 when del Río finally capitulated to Mosquera presenting the surrender of the government-in-exile and recognising the presidency of Mosquera bringing the civil war to an end.

Parties

      Conservative       Liberal

Flag of New Granada.svgGranadine ConfederationCoat of arms of New Granada.svg
No.
[n 1]
President Took office Left office Party Term
[n 1]
Vice President Acting Presidents[n 2] Acting in Rebellion
1 Mariano Ospina Rodríguez.jpg Mariano
Ospina Rodríguez

(1805–1885)
[13]
1 April 1857 1 April 1861 Conservative (1857) [n 6] Juan José Nieto Gil
(25 January 1861–18 July 1861)
2 Bartolomé Calvo.jpg Bartolomé
Calvo Díaz

(1815–1889)
[14]
1 April 1861 18 July 1861 Conservative 1
(1861)
[n 6]
3 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano
de Mosquera y Arboleda

(1798–1878)
[9]
18 July 1861
[n 5]
4 February 1863 Liberal [n 6] Andrés Cerón Serrano
(February 1862–February 1862)
Julio Arboleda Pombo
(10 July 1861–18 July 1861)
Ignacio Gutiérrez Vergara
(18 July 1861–18 January 1862)
Leonardo Canal González
(18 July 1861–6 November 1862)
Manuel del Río y de Narváez
(6 November 1862–13 January 1863)

United States of Colombia (1863–1886)[edit]

This list includes those persons who were sworn into, succeeded to, or forcibly took office as President of the United States of Colombia following the passing of the Colombian Constitution of 1863, which took effect on 8 May 1863.

There were 11 people in office, and 14 presidencies as three presidents served two non-consecutive terms each and are counted chronologically twice, they are: Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda, Manuel Murillo Toro, and Rafael Núñez Moledo, the last two having actually been elected twice. Out of the 11 individuals in office, 9 were elected, one succeeded to the presidency (José Eusebio Otálora Martínez), and one took the presidency by mounting a coup d'état (Santos Acosta Castillo). Only one president died in office from natural causes (Francisco Javier Zaldúa y Racines).

Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda, the first president of the United States of Colombia, had actually started his tenure in 1861 (he became the 3rd and last President of the Granadine Confederation with a coup). In this capacity he was appointed by the National Constituent Assembly of 1863 to continue serving while the assembly drafted, passed, signed, and implemented a new constitution. The first elected president of the United States of Colombia was Manuel Murillo Toro, elected in 1864 for a constitutional two-year term. The longest serving president was Rafael Núñez Moledo with 10 years, 5 months, and 17 days, of which only 2 years, 4 months, and 5 days were actually served as the elected President of the United States of Colombia, but still longer than anyone else. Francisco Javier Zaldúa y Racines spent the shortest time in office with just 8 months, and 20 days in 1882.

The Colombian Constitution of 1858 had effectively abolished the Office of the Vice Presidency, and introduced a new line of succession system featuring the figures of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Presidential Designates. These designates were elected annually by Congress amongst its members, but held no office or duties other than providing a succession for the President in the event of the President's temporal or permanent absence. Both changes to Vice Presidency and Presidential Designates were kept by the Colombian Constitution of 1863. This system of succession was implemented in 1882 when President Zaldúa died in office and the 3rd Presidential Designate, Clímaco Calderón Reyes, became Acting President while the 1st Presidential Designate, Rafael Núñez Moledo, took office, however Núñez turned down the presidency and therefore the 2nd Presidential Designate, José Eusebio Otálora Martínez, succeeded Zaldúa to presidency.

Parties

      Conservative       Liberal

Flag of Colombia.svgUnited States of ColombiaCoat of arms of United States of Colombia.svg
No. President Took office Left office Party Term Vice President[n 7] Acting Presidents
1 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano
de Mosquera y Arboleda

(1798–1878)
[9]
14 May 1863 1 April 1864 Liberal
(Radical)
(1860) Juan Agustín de Uricoechea y Rocha
(29 January 1864–28 February 1864)
2 Manuel Murillo Toro by Brady.jpg Manuel
Murillo Toro

(1816–1880)
[15]
1 April 1864 1 April 1866 Liberal
(Radical)
1
(1864)
3 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano
de Mosquera y Arboleda

(1798–1878)
[9]
1 April 1866 23 May 1867 Liberal
(Moderate)
2
(1866)
José María Rojas Garrido
(1 April 1866–22 May 1866)
4 Manuel María de los Santos Acosta.jpg Santos
Acosta Castillo

(1828–1901)
[16]
23 May 1867
[n 5]
1 April 1868 Liberal
(Radical)
5 Santos Gutiérrez 1.jpg Santos
Gutiérrez Prieto

(1820–1872)
[17]
1 April 1868 1 April 1870 Liberal
(Radical)
3
(1868)
Salvador Camacho Roldán
(21 December 1868–2 January 1869)
6 Eustorgio Salgar 1.jpg Eustorgio
Salgar Moreno

(1831–1885)
[18]
1 April 1870 1 April 1872 Liberal
(Radical)
4
(1870)
7 Manuel Murillo Toro by Brady.jpg Manuel
Murillo Toro

(1816–1880)
[19]
1 April 1872 1 April 1874 Liberal
(Radical)
5
(1872)
8 Santiago Pérez.jpg Santiago
Pérez de Manosalbas

(1830–1900)
[20]
1 April 1874 1 April 1876 Liberal
(Radical)
6
(1874)
9 Aquileo Parra.jpg Aquileo
Parra Gómez

(1825–1900)
[21]
1 April 1876 1 April 1878 Liberal
(Radical)
7
(1876)
José Sergio Camargo Pinzón
(19 May 1877–14 August 1877)
Manuel María Ramírez Fortoul
(22 December 1877–24 December 1877)
10 Julián Trujillo Largacha.jpg Julián
Trujillo Largacha

(1828–1883)
[22]
1 April 1878 1 April 1880 Liberal
(Radical)
8
(1878)
11 Rafael Núñez Moledo.jpg Rafael
Núñez Moledo

(1825–1894)
[23]
1 April 1880 1 April 1882 Liberal
(Independent)
9
(1880)
12 Francisco Javier Zaldúa 1.jpg Francisco Javier
Zaldúa y Racines

(1811–1882)
[24]
1 April 1882 21 December 1882
[n 4]
Liberal
(Independent)
10
(1882)
13 José Eusebio Otálora 1.jpg José Eusebio
Otálora Martínez

(1826–1884)
[25]
21 December 1882 1 April 1884 Liberal
(Independent)
Clímaco Calderón Reyes
(21 December 1882– 22 December 1882)
14 Rafael Núñez Moledo.jpg Rafael
Núñez Moledo

(1825–1894)
[23]
1 April 1884 1 April 1886 Liberal
(Independent)
11
(1884)
Ezequiel Hurtado Hurtado
(1 April 1884– 11 August 1884)
José María Campo Serrano
(1 April 1886– 7 August 1886)

putos This list includes those persons who were sworn into, succeeded to, or forcibly took office as President of the present-day Republic of Colombia following the passing of the Colombian Constitution of 1886, which took effect on 6 August 1886. For Colombian leaders before this, see the above lists.

There have been 31 people in office, and 32 presidencies as Alfonso López Pumarejo served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 14th and 16th president. Out of the 31 individuals in office, 26 were elected President, three succeeded to the presidency (Miguel Antonio Caro Tobar, Ramón González Valencia, and Jorge Holguín Mallarino), two took the presidency by mounting a coup d'état (José Manuel Marroquín Ricaurte and Gustavo Rojas Pinilla against Manuel Antonio Sanclemente Sanclemente and Laureano Gómez Castro respectively), two permanently resigned from office (Rafael Reyes Prieto, and Marco Fidel Suárez), and one died in office of natural causes (Rafael Núñez Moledo).

Rafael Núñez Moledo, the first president, was actually inaugurated in 1884 as the 14th and last President of the United States of Colombia for a two-year constitutional term; in this capacity he was appointed by the National Constituent Assembly of 1885 to serve a new six-year term while the assembly drafted, passed, signed, and implemented a new constitution; at the end of this term he was elected in 1892 for his first constitutional six-year term as President of Colombia. Núñez spent the longest time in office with 10 years, 5 months, and 17 days, but having only spent 2 years, 1 month, and 11 days as the elected President of Colombia before his death. The longest serving elected president was Álvaro Uribe Vélez with 8 years between 2002 and 2010 having been re-elected for a second term in 2006. Ramón González Valencia spent the shortest time in office with just 1 year between 1909 and 1910 when he was elected by Congress to finish the term that President Rafael Reyes Prieto had resigned to. The shortest serving elected president was Manuel Antonio Sanclemente Sanclemente with 1 year, 11 months, and 24 days before he was deposed. Carlos Eugenio Restrepo Restrepo, was the first president to serve under the new four-year constitutional term after the Constitutional Reform of 1910 when he was appointed President by that year's National Constituent Assembly; the first elected president to serve the four-year constitutional term would be his successor, José Vicente Concha Ferreira elected in 1914. Eduardo Santos Montejo was the first to be elected by men of all classes in 1938 after all land-ownership and literacy restrictions were repealed by the Constitutional Reform of 1936. Alberto Lleras Camargo in 1958 became the first president elected after women gained voting rights after the Constitutional Reform of 1954.

The Office of the Vice Presidency was abolished after the Constitutional Reform of 1905 and was only re-introduced after the passing of the Colombian Constitution of 1991 which remains in place. Article 127 of the Colombian Constitution of 1886 only allowed for re-election of the President in a non-immediate form; this was changed by the Constitutional Reform of 2005 allowing for immediate re-elections for a maximum of two terms.

Under the Colombian Constitution of 1991, the President of Colombia is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Colombia. As chief of the executive branch and head of the national government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in Colombia as measure by influence and recognition. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the military of Colombia. The president is directly elected to a four-year term in a popular election. Since the passing of the Legislative Act 2 of 2004, no person may be elected President more than twice.[26] Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President assumes the office. The President must be at least 30 years of age and a "natural born" citizen of Colombia.

Parties

      National       Conservative       Liberal       Republican Union       Military rule       Colombia First       National Unity

Flag of Colombia.svgRepublic of ColombiaEscudo de Colombia.svg
No.
[n 1]
President Took office Left office Party Term
[n 1]
Vice President Acting Presidents[n 2]
1 Rafael Núñez Moledo.jpg Rafael
Núñez Moledo

(1825–1894)
[23]
1 April 1886
[n 8]
18 September 1894
[n 8][n 4]
National (1885) Eliseo
Payán Hurtado

(7 August 1886–7 August 1892)
José María Campo Serrano
(7 August 1886–5 January 1887)
Eliseo Payán Hurtado
(5 January 1887–4 June 1887)
(12 December 1887–8 February 1888)
Carlos Holguín Mallarino
(7 August 1888–7 August 1892)
Antonio Basilio Cuervo Urisarri
(16 January 18933–17 January 1893)
Miguel Antonio Caro Tobar
(7 August 1892–18 September 1894)
1
(1892)
Miguel Antonio
Caro Tobar

(7 August 1892–18 September 1894)
2 Miguel Antonio Caro 2.jpg Miguel Antonio
Caro Tobar

(1845–1909)
[27]
18 September 1894 7 August 1898 National vacant
(18 September 1894–1 August 1898)
[n 9]
Guillermo Quintero Calderón
(12 March 1896– 17 March 1896)
3 Manuel Antonio Sanclemente.jpg Manuel Antonio
Sanclemente Sanclemente

(1814–1902)
[28]
7 August 1898 31 July 1900 National 2
(1898)
José Manuel
Marroquín Ricaurte

(7 August 1898–31 July 1900)
4 Xilografia de José Manuel Marroquín.jpg José Manuel
Marroquín Ricaurte

(1827–1908)
[29]
31 July 1900
[n 5]
7 August 1904 Conservative vacant
(31 July 1900–7 August 1904)
[n 9]
5 Rafael Reyes.jpg Rafael
Reyes Prieto

(1849–1921)
[30]
7 August 1904 27 July 1909
[n 3]
Conservative 3
(1904)
Ramón
González Valencia

(7 August 1904–10 March 1905)
[n 3][n 10]
Diego Euclides de Angulo Lemos
(16 March 1908– 16 April 1908)
Jorge Holguín Mallarino
(27 July 1909–4 August 1909)
[n 10]
6 Ramon G. Valencia.jpg Ramón
González Valencia

(1851–1928)
[31]
7 August 1909 7 August 1910 Conservative [n 10]
7 Carlos Eugenio Restrepo Restrepo.jpg Carlos Eugenio
Restrepo Restrepo

(1867–1937)
[32]
7 August 1910 7 August 1914
[n 11]
Republican Union
[n 12]
4
(1910)
[n 10]
8 Jose Vicente Concha.jpg José Vicente
Concha Ferreira

(1867–1929)
[33]
7 August 1914 7 August 1918 Conservative 5
(1914)
[n 10]
9 Marco Fidel Suárez.jpg Marco Fidel
Suárez

(1855–1927)
[34]
7 August 1918 11 November 1921
[n 3]
Conservative 6
(1918)
[n 10]
10 Jorgehoguin1.png Jorge
Holguín Mallarino

(1848–1928)
[35]
11 November 1921 7 August 1922 Conservative [n 10]
11 Pedro Nel Ospina.jpg Pedro Nel
Ospina Vázquez

(1858–1927)
[36]
7 August 1922 7 August 1926 Conservative 7
(1922)
[n 10]
12 Miguel Abadía Méndez.jpg Miguel
Abadía Méndez

(1867–1947)
[37]
7 August 1926 7 August 1930 Conservative 8
(1926)
[n 10]
13 Enriqueolayaherrera1.png Enrique
Olaya Herrera

(1880–1937)
[38]
7 August 1930 7 August 1934 Liberal 9
(1930)
[n 10]
14 LopezPumarejo.jpg Alfonso
López Pumarejo

(1886–1959)
[39]
7 August 1934 7 August 1938 Liberal 10
(1934)
[n 10]
15 Fi 1178 Santos, Eduardo.jpg Eduardo
Santos Montejo

(1888–1974)
[40]
7 August 1938 7 August 1942 Liberal 11
(1938)
[n 10]
16 LopezPumarejo.jpg Alfonso
López Pumarejo

(1886–1959)

[39]
7 August 1942 7 August 1946 Liberal 12
(1942)
[n 10] Carlos Lozano y Lozano
(9 October 1942–19 October 1942)
Darío Echandía Olaya
(16 May 1944–10 July 1944)
Alberto Lleras Camargo
(7 August 1945–7 August 1946)
17 Mariano Ospina Pérez.jpg Mariano
Ospina Pérez

(1891–1976)
[41]
7 August 1946 7 August 1950 Conservative 13
(1946)
[n 10]
18 Laureano Gómez (c. 1925-1926).jpg Laureano
Gómez Castro

(1889–1965)
[42]
7 August 1950 13 June 1953 Conservative 14
(1949)
[n 10] Roberto Urdaneta Arbeláez
(5 November 1951–13 June 1953)
19 Gral. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla.jpg Gustavo
Rojas Pinilla

(1900–1975)
[43]
13 June 1953
[n 5]
10 May 1957
[n 3]
no party (Military) [n 10] Gabriel París Gordillo
(30 July 1955–3 August 1955)

(1954)
Military Junta 10 May 1957 7 August 1958 no party (Military) [n 10] Gabriel París Gordillo
Rafael Navas Pardo
Deogracias Fonseca Espinosa
Rubén Piedrahíta Arango
Luis Ernesto Ordóñez Castillo
20 Colpres proyecto.png Alberto
Lleras Camargo

(1906–1990)
[44]
7 August 1958 7 August 1962 Liberal
[n 13]
15
(1958)
[n 10]
21 Colpres proyecto.png Guillermo León
Valencia Muñoz

(1909–1971)
[45]
7 August 1962 7 August 1966 Conservative
[n 13]
16
(1962)
[n 10] José Antonio Montalvo Berbeo
(6 August 1963–8 August 1963)
22 Lleras Restrepo.jpg Carlos
Lleras Restrepo

(1908–1994)
[46]
7 August 1966 7 August 1970 Liberal
[n 13]
17
(1966)
[n 10]
23 Misael Pastrana.JPG Misael
Pastrana Borrero

(1923–1997)
[47]
7 August 1970 7 August 1974 Conservative
[n 13]
18
(1970)
[n 10] Rafael Azuero Manchola
(21 July 1973–24 July 1973)
24 Alfonso Lopez Michelsen.jpg Alfonso
López Michelsen

(1913–2007)
[48]
7 August 1974 7 August 1978 Liberal 19
(1974)
[n 10] Indalecio Liévano Aguirre
(20 September 1975–24 September 1975)
25 Julio César Turbay.jpg Julio César
Turbay Ayala

(1916–2005)
[49]
7 August 1978 7 August 1982 Liberal 20
(1978)
[n 10] Víctor Mosquera Chaux
(3 February 1981–11 February 1981)
26 Belisario Betancur.jpg Belisario
Betancur Cuartas

(b. 1923)
[50][51]
7 August 1982 7 August 1986 Conservative 21
(1982)
[n 10]
27 Virgilio Barco.png Virgilio
Barco Vargas

(1921–1997)
[52][53]
7 August 1986 7 August 1990 Liberal 22
(1986)
[n 10]
28 César Gaviria, World Economic Forum on Latin America 2009 (cropped).jpg César
Gaviria Trujillo

(b. 1947)
[54][55]
7 August 1990 7 August 1994 Liberal 23
(1990)
[n 10]
29 ESamperP.jpg Ernesto
Samper Pizano

(b. 1950)
[56][57]
7 August 1994 7 August 1998 Liberal 24
(1994)
Humberto
de la Calle Lombana

(7 August 1994–19 September 1997)
[n 10][n 3]
Carlos Lemos Simmonds
(11 January 1998–21 January 1998)
Carlos
Lemos Simmonds

(19 September 1997–7 August 1998)
30 Andrespastranaarango.png Andrés
Pastrana Arango

(b. 1954)
[58][59]
7 August 1998 7 August 2002 Conservative 25
(1998)
Gustavo Adolfo
Bell Lemus

(7 August 1998–7 August 2002)
31 Álvaro Uribe (cropped).jpg Álvaro
Uribe Vélez

(b. 1952)
[60][61]
7 August 2002 7 August 2010
[n 14]
Colombia First 26
(2002)
Francisco
Santos Calderón

(7 August 2002–7 August 2010)
27
(2006)
32 Juan Manue Santos and Lula.jpg Juan Manuel
Santos Calderón

(b. 1951)
[62][63]
7 August 2010 Incumbent National Unity 28
(2010)
Angelino
Garzón

(7 August 2010–present)
29
(2014)

Living former presidents[edit]

As of July 2013, there are five living former presidents:

President Years in office Date of birth
Belisario Betancur Cuartas 1982–1986 (1923-02-04) 4 February 1923 (age 91)
César Gaviria Trujillo 1990–1994 (1947-03-31) 31 March 1947 (age 67)
Ernesto Samper Pizano 1994–1998 (1950-08-03) 3 August 1950 (age 64)
Andrés Pastrana Arango 1998–2002 (1954-08-17) 17 August 1954 (age 60)
Álvaro Uribe Vélez 2002–2010 (1952-07-04) 4 July 1952 (age 62)

The most recent death of a former president was that of Alfonso López Michelsen (1974–1978) on 11 July 2007; he was 94 years old.[64]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, Rafael Núñez Moledo served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 5th president Rafael Reyes Prieto, Ramón González Valencia became the 6th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Reyes's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Alfonso López Pumarejo was both the 14th president and the 16th president, his two terms having been non-consecutive.
  2. ^ a b c d A period during which a vice-president, a designate, or a caretaker temporarily becomes Acting President under Article 193 of the 1991 Constitution, or before it, under Articles 124 and 125 of the 1886 Constitution, is not a presidency, because the president constitutionally remains in office during such a period.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Resigned.
  4. ^ a b c Died in office of natural causes.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Took power by coup d'état.
  6. ^ a b c d The Constitution of 1858 abolished the Office of the Vice President, the line of succession was modified placing the Government Ministers from oldest to youngest to succeed the President in the event of the President´s temporal or permanent absence. instead replacing it with that of the designation of a
  7. ^ The Constitution of 1858 had abolished the Office of the Vice President, this decision was upheld by the Constitution of 1863, but the line of succession was modified differently by the introduction of the figures of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Presidential Designates, who were elected annually by Congress amongst its members, but held no office or duties other than providing a succession for the President in the event of the President's temporal or permanent absence.
  8. ^ a b President Núñez had actually taken office on 1 April 1884 for a two year term as stipulated by Article 79 of the 1863 Constitution. In 1886 he was appointed by the National Constituent Council to serve a new six year term starting on 7 August 1886 as stipulated by Article A of the new 1886 Constitution that created the present-day Republic of Colombia. In 1892 he started his first elected term as president, the previous term having been an appointment to safeguard the passing and implementation of the new constitution and therefore was not in conflict with Article 127 of the 1886 Constitution that prohibited the immediate re-election of a president.
  9. ^ a b Prior to the abolishment of the Office of Vice President in 1905, Article 131 of the 1886 Constitution did not allow for a vacancy in the Vice Presidency to be filled until the end of the constitutionally elected term.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa The Office of the Vice President was officially abolished by the 1905 National Constituent Assembly on 28 March 1905, and it was only reinstituted after the ratification of the new 1991 Constitution with Vice President de la Calle taking office after the following presidential elections in 1994.
  11. ^ The 1910 National Constituent Assembly amended Article 114 of the 1886 Constitution changing the length of a presidential term from that of six years to one of four years.
  12. ^ Although nominally head of the newly created Republican Union party, Restrepo was a long time member of the Conservative Party.
  13. ^ a b c d Between 1958 to 1974 the presidency, under the National Front alternation plan, was held in an alternating manner by members of the two traditional parties; Liberals and Conservatives.
  14. ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez is the first president to have been legally allowed to seek an immediate second term by the 2nd Legislative Act of 2004 that amended Article 197 of the 1991 Constitution. Before that, the 1886 Constitution allowed presidents to seek a second term only in non-consecutive periods.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Colombia, Congress of (27 December 2004). "Acto Legislativo 2 de 2004" [Legislative Act 2 of 2004]. Diario Oficial (in Spanish) (Bogotá: National Printing Office) (45.775). ISSN 0122-2112. OCLC 500057889. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  2. ^ "Biography of Rafael Núñez Moledo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  3. ^ "Biography of Rafael Núñez Moledo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "Biography of Rafael Urdaneta" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  5. ^ "Biography of Francisco de Paula Santander" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  6. ^ "Biography of Francisco de Paula Santander" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  7. ^ "Biography of José Ignacio de Márquez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "Biography of Pedro Alcántara Herrán" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Biography of Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  10. ^ "Biography of José Hilario López" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  11. ^ "Biography of José María Obando del Campo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  12. ^ "Biography of José María Melo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  13. ^ a b "Mariano Ospina Rodríguez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  14. ^ "Biography of Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  15. ^ "Biography of Manuel Murillo Toro" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  16. ^ "Biography of Santos Acosta Castillo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  17. ^ "Biography of Santos Gutiérrez Prieto" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  18. ^ "Biography of Eustorgio Salgar Moreno" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  19. ^ "Biography of Manuel Murillo Toro" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  20. ^ "Biography of Santiago Pérez de Manosalbas" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  21. ^ "Biography of Santiago Aquileo Parra Gómez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  22. ^ "Biography of Julián Trujillo Largacha" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  23. ^ a b c "Biography of Rafael Núñez Moledo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  24. ^ "Biography of Francisco Javier Zaldúa y Racines" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  25. ^ "Biography of José Eusebio Otálora Martínez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  26. ^ Colombia, Congress of (27 December 2004). "Acto Legislativo 2 de 2004" [Legislative Act 2 of 2004]. Diario Oficial (in Spanish) (Bogotá: National Printing Office) (45.775). ISSN 0122-2112. OCLC 500057889. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  27. ^ "Biography of Miguel Antonio Caro Tovar" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  28. ^ "Biography of Manuel Antonio Sanclemente Sanclemente" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  29. ^ "Biography of José Manuel Marroquín" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  30. ^ "Biography of Rafael Reyes Prieto" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  31. ^ "Biography of Ramón González Valencia" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  32. ^ "Biography of Carlos Eugenio Restrepo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  33. ^ "Biography of José Vicente Concha" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  34. ^ "Biography of Marco Fidel Suárez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  35. ^ "Biography of Jorge Holguín Jaramillo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  36. ^ "Biography of Pedro Nel Ospina Vázquez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  37. ^ "Biography of Miguel Abadía Méndez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  38. ^ "Biography of Enrique Olaya Herrera" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  39. ^ a b "Biography of Alfonso López Pumarejo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  40. ^ "Biography of Eduardo Santos Montejo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  41. ^ "Biography of Mariano Ospina Pérez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  42. ^ "Biography of Laureano Gómez Castro" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  43. ^ "Biography of Gustavo Rojas Pinilla" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  44. ^ "Biography of Alberto Lleras Camargo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  45. ^ "Biography of Guillermo León Valencia Muñoz" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  46. ^ "Biography of Carlos Lleras Restrepo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  47. ^ "Biography of Misael Pastrana Borrero" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  48. ^ "Biography of Alfonso López Michelsen" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  49. ^ "Biography of Julio César Turbay Ayala" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  50. ^ "Biography of Belisario Betancur Cuartas" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  51. ^ "Biography of Belisario Betancur Cuartas" (in Spanish). Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  52. ^ "Biography of Virgilio Barco Vargas" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  53. ^ "Biography of Virgilio Barco Vargas" (in Spanish). Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  54. ^ "Biography of César Gaviria Trujillo" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  55. ^ "Biography of César Gaviria Trujillo" (in Spanish). Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  56. ^ "Biography of Ernesto Samper Pizano" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  57. ^ "Biography of Ernesto Samper Pizano" (in Spanish). Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  58. ^ "Biography of Andrés Pastrana Arango" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  59. ^ "Biography of Andrés Pastrana Arango" (in Spanish). Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  60. ^ "Biography of Álvaro Uribe Vélez" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  61. ^ "Biography of Álvaro Uribe Vélez" (in Spanish). Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  62. ^ "Biography of Juan Manuel Santos Calderón" (in Spanish). wsp.presidencia.gov.co. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  63. ^ "Biography of Juan Manuel Santos Calderón" (in Spanish). Barcelona: CIDOB Foundation. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  64. ^ Associated Press (13 July 2007). "Alfonso López Michelsen Dies at 94; Led Colombia in Unstable 1970s". The New York Times (New York, NY). ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]