List of Presidents of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state governing the country. According to the Philippine government, the office has been held by politicians who were inaugurated as President of the Philippines following the ratification of a constitution that explicitly declared the existence of the Philippines.
For leaders of the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, see Datu. For leaders during the Spanish colonial period and prior to the ratification of the 1935 constitution, see Governor-General of the Philippines.
The King of Spain was the head of state during the Spanish era (1565–1898) and the President of the United States was the head of state during the American era (1898–1946). Note that the presidents under the Commonwealth of the Philippines were under United States sovereignty, and that the president of the Second Republic is considered to have been running a puppet government of the Japanese during World War II although this puppet government of José P. Laurel during the Japanese occupation was officially considered independent by the Japanese. Thus the Philippines had three Presidents during that war - one de facto and two de jure, and two at the same time.
Emilio Aguinaldo was president of the short-lived Malolos Republic between 1899 and 1901. Although the republic never received foreign recognition, Filipinos consider Aguinaldo to be their first president.
The colors in the following chart indicate the political party or coalition of each President at Election Day or at the time of ascendancy.
The following color-coding is applied to the table and the timeline below:
List of presidents
|#||President||Took office||Left office||Party||Vice President||Term||Era|
|January 23, 1899[L 1]||April 1, 1901[L 2]||Independent
(Formerly Katipunan,[L 3] Magdalo faction)
Due to the leadership of the US Civil Governors of the Philippine Islands from July 4, 1901 to November 15, 1935.
|2||Manuel L. Quezon
|November 15, 1935||August 1, 1944[L 4]||Nacionalista||Sergio Osmeña||1||Commonwealth|
|3||José P. Laurel
|October 14, 1943||August 17, 1945[L 5]||KALIBAPI[L 6]
(Caretaker government under Japanese occupation)
(The 1943 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
|August 1, 1944||May 28, 1946||Nacionalista||vacant||2||Commonwealth
|May 28, 1946||April 15, 1948[L 7]||Liberal||Elpidio Quirino||3|
|April 17, 1948||December 30, 1953||vacant|
|December 30, 1953||March 17, 1957[L 8]||Nacionalista||Carlos P. Garcia||5|
|8||Carlos P. Garcia
|March 18, 1957||December 30, 1961||vacant|
|December 30, 1961||December 30, 1965||Liberal||Emmanuel Pelaez||7|
|December 30, 1965||February 25, 1986[L 9]||Nacionalista||Fernando Lopez||8|
|Kilusang Bagong Lipunan||vacant||Second Dictatorship
"The New Society"
|February 25, 1986[L 10]||June 30, 1992||PDP-LABAN / UNIDO||Salvador Laurel|
|12||Fidel V. Ramos
|June 30, 1992||June 30, 1998||Lakas–NUCD–UMDP||Joseph E. Estrada||12|
|June 30, 1998||January 20, 2001[L 11]||LAMMP||Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo||13|
|January 20, 2001||June 30, 2010||Lakas–CMD / KAMPI||vacant|
|Teofisto Guingona, Jr.|
|Lakas Kampi CMD
(Under Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan coalition)
|Noli de Castro||14|
|15||Benigno Aquino III
|June 30, 2010||Incumbent (Elections in 2016)||Liberal||Jejomar Binay||15|
- Term began with the inauguration of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.
- Term ended when Aguinaldo pledged allegiance to the United States after his capture at Palanan, Isabela.
- Founded by Andrés Bonifacio and others on July 7, 1892; converted into a revolutionary government by Bonifacio on August 24, 1986; as a government, officially replaced by the Tejeros revolutionary government on March 22, 1897 - though some sectors refused cooperation; as an organization, officially abolished by Emilio Aguinaldo on July 15, 1898
- Died due to tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York.
- Term ended with his dissolving the Philippine Republic in the wake of the surrender of Japanese forces to the Americans at World War II.
- Originally a Nacionalista, but was elected by the National Assembly under Japanese control. All parties were merged under Japanese auspices to form Kalibapi, to which all officials belonged.
- Died due to a heart attack at Clark Air Base.
- Died on a plane crash at Mount Manunggal, Cebu.
- Deposed in the 1986 People Power Revolution.
- Assumed presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986 snap election.
- Deposed after the Supreme Court declared Estrada as resigned, and the office of the presidency as vacant as a result, after the 2001 EDSA Revolution.
- Vice Presidents who succeeded to the Presidency
- Sergio Osmeña succeeded on 1 August 1944 after the death of Manuel L. Quezon
- Elpidio Quirino succeeded on April 17, 1948 after the death of Manuel Roxas
- Carlos P. Garcia succeeded on March 17, 1957 after the death of Ramón Magsaysay
- Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeded on January 20, 2001 after the Supreme Court declared that the seat of presidency was vacant, saying that Joseph Estrada had constructively resigned his post.
- Vice Presidents who have been elected to the Presidency
- Presidents who have been re-elected
- The 1935 constitution provided that no person shall serve as President for more than eight consecutive years. The 1973 constitution did not place restrictions on presidential re-election. The 1987 constitution provided that the President shall not be eligible for any re-election, and that no person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time. President Arroyo succeeded to the presidency on January 20, 2001 and, after having served as President for less than four years and having been elected to the office of President in the May, 2004 elections, was sworn into a full six-year term on June 30, 2004.
- Presidents who were elected while serving the remaining term of a predecessor
- Longest serving President: Ferdinand Marcos, 7,362 days
- Shortest serving President: Sergio Osmeña, 665 days
Unofficial Presidents of the Philippines
Historians and other figures have identified the following people as having held the presidency of a government intended to represent the Philippines, but their terms of office are not counted by the Philippine government as part of the presidential succession.
- Quezon III, Manuel (February 2, 2001). "For trivia freaks". Today.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1..
- Article VII, 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Chan Robles Law Library.
- Article VII, 1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines., Chan Robles Law Library.
- Article VII, 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines., Chan Robles Law Library.
- President of the Philippines
- Vice President of the Philippines
- Prime Minister of the Philippines (presently defunct)
- Seal of the President of the Philippines
- List of current heads of state and government
- Office of the President of the Philippines
- The Presidential Museum and Library
- Philippine Heads of State Timeline at www.worldstatesmen.org
- The Philippine Presidency Project