List of Presidents of the Republic of China

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To avoid confusion, all the names on this list follow the Eastern order convention (family name first, given name second) for consistency.
Presidential Office of the ROC Beiyang Government in Beijing (1912–1928).
Presidential Office of the ROC Nationalist Government in Nanjing (1928–1949).
Presidential Office of the ROC Government in Taiwan (1949–current).

This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present). The Republic of China's President is called 總統 (zǒngtǒng), and from 1912 to 1928, 大總統 (dàzǒngtǒng).

Timeline of Presidents[edit]

Ma Ying-jeou Chen Shui-bian Lee Teng-hui Chiang Ching-kuo Yen Chia-kan Chiang Kai-shek Li Zongren Chiang Kai-shek Lin Sen Chiang Kai-shek Tan Yankai Zhang Zuolin V.K. Wellington Koo Du Xigui Yan Huiqing Hu Weide Duan Qirui Huang Fu Cao Kun Gao Lingwei Li Yuanhong Zhou Ziqi Xu Shichang Feng Guozhang Li Yuanhong Yuan Shikai Sun Yat-sen

The list[edit]

      Non-Partisan       Tongmenghui       Beiyang clique, etc.       Progressive       Kuomintang (Nationalist)       Democratic Progressive

Presidents of the Provisional Government[edit]

  • period: 1 January 1912 – 10 October 1913
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Vice President
1 Sunyatsen1.jpg Sun Yat-sen
孫文
Sūn Wén
(1866–1925)
1 January 1912 10 March 1912 Tongmenghui Li Yuanhong
1911
The first President of the Provisional Government
2 YuanShika Colour.jpg Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Yuán Shìkǎi
(1859–1916)
10 March 1912 10 October 1913 Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
1912
The second President of the Provisional Government

Presidents of the Beiyang Government[edit]

  • period: 10 October 1913 – 2 June 1928
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Vice President
1 Yuan shikai.jpg Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Yuán Shìkǎi
(1859–1916)
10 October 1913 6 June 1916[1] Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
1913
Died in office.
2 Li Yuan-hung Colour.jpg Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
Lí Yuánhóng
(1864–1928)
7 June 1916 17 July 1917[2] Progressive Party Feng Guozhang
As Vice-President under Yuan Shikai, Li became the president after Yuan's death.
3 Feng Kuo-chang.jpg Feng Guozhang
馮國璋
Féng Guózhāng
(1859–1919)
17 July 1917 10 October 1918 Zhili clique vacant
Due to Manchu Restoration, Li Yuanhong fled the presidential palace and appointed Vice President Feng Guozhang as Acting President.
4 Xu shichang Colour.jpg Xu Shichang
徐世昌
Xú Shìchāng
(1855–1939)
10 October 1918 2 June 1922 Anhui clique vacant
1918
Zhou Ziqi.jpg Zhou Ziqi
周自齊
Zhōu Zìqí
(1871–1923)
2 June 1922 11 June 1922 Communications Clique vacant
5 Li Yuanhong.jpg Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
Lí Yuánhóng
(1864–1928)
11 June 1922 13 June 1923 Research Clique vacant
Kao Lin-wei Colour.jpg Gao Lingwei
高凌霨
Gāo Língwèi
(1868–1939)
14 June 1923 10 October 1923 Non-partisan vacant
6 Cao Kun.jpg Cao Kun
曹錕
Cáo Kūn
(1862–1938)
10 October 1923 2 November 1924 Zhili clique vacant
1923
Huang Fu Colour.jpg Huang Fu
黃郛
Huáng Fú
(1883–1936)
2 November 1924 24 November 1924 Non-partisan vacant
7 Tuan Chi-jui.jpg Duan Qirui
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì
(1865–1936)
24 November 1924 20 April 1926 Anhui clique vacant
Duan was the Provisional Chief Executive instead of President.
Hu Weide.jpg Hu Weide
胡惟德
Hú Wéidé
(1863–1933)
20 April 1926 13 May 1926 Non-partisan vacant
Yan Huiqing.jpg Yan Huiqing
(W.W. Yan)

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng
(1877–1950)
13 May 1926 22 June 1926 Non-partisan vacant
Du Xigui.jpg Du Xigui
杜錫珪
Dù Xīguī
(1875–1933)
22 June 1926 1 October 1926 Zhili clique vacant
Wellington-Koo-Colour.jpg Koo Vi-kyuin
(V.K. Wellington Koo)

顧維鈞
Gù Wéijūn
(1887–1985)
1 October 1926 17 June 1927 Non-partisan vacant
Zhang Zuolin3.jpg Zhang Zuolin
張作霖
Zhāng Zuòlín
(1875–1928)
18 June 1927 2 June 1928 Fengtian clique vacant
Zhang was the Generalissimo of the Beiyang Military Government instead of President.

Chairmen of the Nationalist Government[edit]

  • period: 7 February 1928 – 20 May 1948

The head of state of the Nationalist Government (國民政府) in this period (political tutelage,  訓政時期).

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Vice President
1 Tan Yankai.png Tan Yankai
譚延闓
Tán Yánkǎi
(1880–1930)
7 February 1928 10 October 1928 Kuomintang vacant
2 Chiang Kai-shek.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
10 October 1928 15 December 1931 Kuomintang vacant
3 Lin Sen.jpg Lin Sen
林森
Lín Sēn
(1868–1943)
15 December 1931 1 August 1943 Kuomintang vacant
Died in office.
4 Chiang Kai-shek.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
1 August 1943 20 May 1948 Kuomintang vacant

Presidents after the 1947 Constitution[edit]

  • period: 20 May 1948 – 20 May 1996
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Vice President
1 Chiang Kai-shek.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
20 May 1948 21 January 1949 Kuomintang Li Zongren
1948
Resigned following a succession of defeats by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.
Lizhongren.jpg Li Zongren
李宗仁
Lǐ Zōngrén
(1890–1969)
21 January 1949 1 March 1950 Kuomintang vacant
Acting President on Chiang Kai-shek's resignation. Had an antagonistic relationship with Chiang. After the fall of Guangdong, Li flew to New York and denounced Chiang.
1 Chiang Kai-shek.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
1 March 1950 5 April 1975 Kuomintang Li Zongren (1950–1954)
Chen Cheng[3] (1954–1965)
vacant (1965–1966)
Yen Chia-kan (1966–1975)
1954, 1960, 1966, 1972
Defeated on the mainland; moved the government to Taipei. Died in office.
2 Yan Jiagan.jpg Yen Chia-kan
(C.K. Yen)

嚴家淦
Yán Jiāgàn
(1905–1993)
6 April 1975 20 May 1978 Kuomintang vacant
Premier (1963–1972). As Vice-President under Chiang Kai-shek, Yan succeeded to the Presidency on Chiang's death and completed Chiang's term.
3 Chiang Ching-kuo 1948.jpg Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
Jiǎng Jīngguó
(1910–1988)
20 May 1978 13 January 1988 Kuomintang Hsieh Tung-min (1978–1984)
Lee Teng-hui (1984–1988)
1978, 1984
Son of Chiang Kai-shek. Launched the Ten Major Construction Projects. Ended martial law. Died in office.
4 Lee Teng-hui 2004-cropped.jpg Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī
(1923– )
13 January 1988 20 May 1996 Kuomintang vacant (1988–1990)
Li Yuan-zu (1990–1996)
1990
As Vice-President under Chiang Ching-kuo, Yan succeeded to the Presidency on Chiang's death and completed his term. First native Taiwanese President. Oversaw democratic reforms.

Presidents after the introduction of Direct Election[edit]

  • period: 20 May 1996 – present
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office
Electoral mandates
Political Party Vice President
4 Lee Teng-hui 2004-cropped.jpg Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī
(1923– )
20 May 1996 20 May 2000 Kuomintang Lien Chan
1996 5,813,699 (54.0%)
Mayor of Taipei (1978–1981), Governor of Taiwan (1981–1984), Vice President (1984–1988). First president elected by direct election.
5 陳水扁2005.jpeg Chen Shui-bian
陳水扁
Chén Shuǐbiǎn
(1950– )
20 May 2000 20 May 2008 Democratic Progressive Party Annette Lu
2000 4,977,737 (39.3%)
2004 6,446,900 (50.11%)
Member of the Legislative Yuan for Taipei 1st District (1990–1994), Mayor of Taipei (1994–1998). First Pan-Green and pro-Taiwan independence president.
6 Yingjeou Ma Cropped.jpg Ma Ying-jeou
馬英九
Mǎ Yīngjiǔ
(1950– )
20 May 2008 Incumbent Kuomintang Vincent Siew (2008–2012)
Wu Den-yih (2012– )
2008 7,658,724 (58.45%)
2012 6,891,139 (51.60%)
Minister of Justice (1993–1996), Mayor of Taipei (1998–2006).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Restored the monarchy from 12 December 1915 to 22 March 1916.
  2. ^ Zhang Xun restored Qing Empire from 1 July to 12 July in 1917.
  3. ^ Chen Cheng, Died on 5 March 1965.