List of Presidents of the United States by date of death
This is a complete list of United States Presidents by date of death. There are currently four living former Presidents (George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, George W. Bush and Bill Clinton, in order from oldest to youngest), as well as the current President Barack Obama.
- 1 List
- 2 Facts
- 2.1 Died in office
- 2.2 Died on the same day in the same year
- 2.3 Died same year but not the same month
- 2.4 Died on the same day not in the same year
- 2.5 Died on the same month
- 2.6 Died earliest and latest in the calendar year
- 2.7 Died one year, buried the next
- 2.8 Most and fewest deaths by month
- 2.9 Most former presidents to die during a single presidential administration
- 2.10 Presidential couples who died during a single administration or term
- 2.11 Vice Presidents and first ladies who died during these presidential administrations
- 2.12 Survived by a parent
- 2.13 Widowed
- 2.14 The Curse of Tippecanoe
- 2.15 Longevity
- 2.16 State funerals
- 2.17 Burial sites
- 2.18 Presidential re-interments
- 2.19 Died at the same age
- 2.20 Died before a predecessor/s
- 2.21 Former Presidents who died during their immediate successor's administration or term
- 2.22 Survived vice-president
- 2.23 List of Presidents who died during a later administration
- 3 Notes and references
- 4 External links
- OD = Order of Death
- OO = Order of Office
- OB = Order of Birth
- a indicates the president died in office
- b indicates the president was assassinated
Died in office
- William Henry Harrison (1841, pneumonia and pleurisy from undisclosed illness)
- Zachary Taylor (1850, gastroenteritis)
- Abraham Lincoln (1865, assassinated)
- James Garfield (1881, assassinated)
- William McKinley (1901, assassinated)
- Warren G. Harding (1923, suspected heart attack)
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1945, cerebral hemorrhage)
- John F. Kennedy (1963, assassinated)
Note: Of the presidents listed above, Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln and William McKinley are the only ones to have a former president die during their administrations and prior to their subsequent deaths; James Polk died on Zachary Taylor's 103rd day in office, John Tyler and Martin Van Buren died during Abraham Lincoln's administration and Benjamin Harrison died 187 days before the assassination of William McKinley. William Henry Harrison, James Garfield and Warren G. Harding did not have a former president, vice president or First Lady die during their administrations. All these Presidents were survived by at least one predecessor, though William McKinley and Franklin Roosevelt are the only ones with only one living predecessor at the time of their deaths (Grover Cleveland and Herbert Hoover respectively).
Of the four presidents who were assassinated, John F. Kennedy is the only one to die on the same day he was attacked.
Died on the same day in the same year
- John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.
Died same year but not the same month
- John Tyler and Martin Van Buren both died in 1862 on January 18 and July 24 respectively
- Benjamin Harrison and William McKinley both died in 1901 on March 13 and September 14 respectively
Died on the same day not in the same year
- Millard Fillmore in 1874 and William Howard Taft in 1930 both died on March 8
Died on the same month
- Four presidents each died on the fourth or eighth day of a month.
Died earliest and latest in the calendar year
- Calvin Coolidge died on January 5, 1933, the earliest in the calendar year a president has died.
- Gerald Ford died on December 26, 2006 at 6:45 PM, the latest in the calendar year a president has died. Harry Truman also died on December 26 (exactly 34 years earlier, in 1972); he died earlier in the day, at 7:47AM.
Died one year, buried the next
- Gerald Ford is the only president to die in one year (December 26, 2006) and be buried in the next (January 3, 2007).
Most and fewest deaths by month
- Seven presidents – John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, Zachary Taylor, Martin van Buren, Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant – have died during the month of July.
- Only one president – Warren G. Harding – has died in the month of August.
- None have died during May.
- Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated
Most former presidents to die during a single presidential administration
- Three presidents died during the Grant administration (Franklin Pierce, Millard Fillmore, and Andrew Johnson).
- Three during the Nixon administration (Dwight Eisenhower, Harry S. Truman, and Lyndon Johnson).
- George W. Bush is the ninth president to have multiple former presidents die during an administration (Ronald Reagan and Gerald Ford).
- Martin Van Buren and John Tyler died during Abraham Lincoln's administration
- Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died during the latter's son John Quincy Adams's administration.
- Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams died during the administration of James Polk.
- James Madison and James Monroe died during Andrew Jackson's administration.
- William Howard Taft and Calvin Coolidge died during Herbert Hoover's administration.
Presidential couples who died during a single administration or term
- James and Elizabeth Kortright Monroe both died during Andrew Jackson's first term.
- Margaret Taylor died before Millard Fillmore finished her late husband Zachary's only term.
- Andrew and Eliza McCardle Johnson both died during Ulysses S. Grant's second term.
- Rutherford and Lucy Webb Hayes both died during Benjamin Harrison's only term.
- Florence Harding died before Calvin Coolidge finished her late husband Warren's only term.
- Richard and Pat Nixon both died during Bill Clinton's first term.
- Ronald Reagan and Jane Wyman, though they had been divorced for more than 50 years, both died during George W. Bush's administration.
Vice Presidents and first ladies who died during these presidential administrations
- Betty Ford died during Barack Obama's administration.
- Lady Bird Johnson died during George W. Bush's administration.
- Spiro T. Agnew and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis died during Bill Clinton's first term.
- Bess Truman died during Ronald Reagan's first term.
- Mamie Eisenhower, Nelson Rockefeller and Hubert Humphrey died during Jimmy Carter's administration.
- Henry Wallace and John Nance Garner died during Lyndon Johnson's administration.
- Eleanor Roosevelt died during John F. Kennedy's administration,
- Daniel D. Tompkins died during the administration of John Quincy Adams.
- Aaron Burr, Elizabeth Monroe and Martha Jefferson Randolph died during Andrew Jackson's administration.
- Charles Fairbanks, Levi P. Morton, Lucretia Garfield and Adlai Stevenson I died during the administration of Woodrow Wilson.
- John Calhoun and Dolley Madison died during the administration of Zachary Taylor.
- Charles Curtis, Lou Hoover and Helen Taft died during the administration of Franklin Roosevelt.
- Charles Dawes, Frances Folsom Cleveland Preston and Edith Roosevelt died during the administration of Harry Truman.
- Eliza Johnson and John Cabell Breckinridge died during the administration of Ulysses Grant.
- Anna Harrison, Jane Pierce, and George M. Dallas died during the administration of Abraham Lincoln.
- Richard Johnson died during the administration of Millard Fillmore
- Hannibal Hamlin, Sarah Polk, Julia Tyler, and Lucy Webb Hayes died during the administration of Benjamin Harrison
- William A. Wheeler died during the first administration of Grover Cleveland
- No Vice President or First Lady died during his second administration.
- Thomas Marshall and Florence Harding died during the administration of Calvin Coolidge
- Alben Barkley and Grace Coolidge died during the administration of Dwight Eisenhower
- Martha Washington died during the administration of Thomas Jefferson
- Louisa Adams and Margaret Taylor died during the administration of Millard Fillmore
- Julia Grant, Ida Saxton McKinley and Harriet Lane died during the administration of Theodore Roosevelt
- Mary Lincoln and Schuyler Colfax died during the administration of Chester Arthur
Survived by a parent
- James K. Polk was survived by his mother Jane Polk. Of the four Presidents to be survived by a parent, Polk is the only one who was out of office at the time of his death.
- James A. Garfield was survived by his mother Eliza Ballou Garfield.
- Warren G. Harding was survived by his father Dr. George Tryon Harding.
- John F. Kennedy is the only president to have both of his parents, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. and Rose Kennedy, survive him as well as the only president to have predeceased a grandparent. His grandmother, Mary Josephine Hannon Fitzgerald, died in 1964 at the age of 98.
- John Adams died in 1826. His wife Abigail Adams died in 1818
- Thomas Jefferson also died in 1826. His wife Martha Jefferson died in 1782
- James Monroe died in 1831. His wife Elizabeth Monroe died in 1830
- Andrew Jackson died in 1845. His wife Rachel Jackson died in 1828
- Martin Van Buren died in 1862. His wife Hannah Van Buren died in 1819.
- Franklin Pierce died in 1869. His wife Jane Pierce died in 1863.
- Chester A. Arthur died in 1886. His wife Ellen Arthur died in 1880
- Rutherford B. Hayes died in 1893. His wife Lucy Hayes died in 1889
- Herbert Hoover died in 1964. His wife Lou Hoover died in 1944
- Richard Nixon died in 1994. His wife Pat Nixon died in 1993
Letitia Christian Tyler, Abigail Fillmore, Caroline Harrison and Ellen Wilson died before husbands John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Benjamin Harrison and Woodrow Wilson, Tyler, Harrison and Wilson dying during their husbands' presidencies, and Fillmore died less than a month after her husband left office. However these Presidents remarried to Julia Tyler, Caroline C. Fillmore, Mary Dimmick Harrison and Edith Galt Wilson
The Curse of Tippecanoe
The Curse of Tippecanoe is attributed to Tenskwatawa, or The Prophet, the brother of the famous Shawnee leader, Tecumseh. The Prophet is said to have cursed William Henry Harrison while on his deathbed. He cursed not only Harrison, but the office of the President. The Prophet said Harrison would be elected President, but would die soon after taking office, and every twenty years after Harrison a President will die in office. From 1841 to 1963, all U.S. Presidents who had been elected in a year ending in 0 died in office. These seven Presidents were:
- 1840 – William Henry Harrison, who died in 1841 during his first term;
- 1860 – Abraham Lincoln, who was assassinated in 1865 during his second term;
- 1880 – James A. Garfield, who was assassinated in 1881 during his first term;
- 1900 – William McKinley, who was assassinated in 1901 during his second term;
- 1920 – Warren G. Harding, who died in 1923 during his first term;
- 1940 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who died in 1945 during his fourth term;
- 1960 – John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated in 1963 during his first term.
- 1980 – Ronald Reagan, initially elected in 1980, narrowly survived an assassination attempt in 1981 during the first of his two terms.
- 2000 – George W. Bush, initially elected in 2000, served two full terms without dying. Nevertheless, there were three assassination attempts.
- Of all the Presidents who have died in office, Zachary Taylor was the only one not elected in a 0 year. He was elected in 1848, but died in a year ending in 0 (1850). He was also a Whig like Harrison; the only Whig presidents elected both died in office.
- Abraham Lincoln – Funeral and burial of Abraham Lincoln
- James A. Garfield
- William McKinley
- Warren G. Harding
- William Howard Taft
- John F. Kennedy – State funeral of John F. Kennedy
- Herbert Hoover
- Dwight D. Eisenhower
- Lyndon B. Johnson
- Ronald Reagan – Death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan
- Gerald Ford – Death and state funeral of Gerald Ford
- Eighteen states (California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Vermont), as well as the District of Columbia, lay claim to Presidential burial sites.
- More Presidents (7) are buried in Virginia than any other state.
- The only President buried in the District of Columbia is Woodrow Wilson, who was interred in the National Cathedral.
- Additionally, there are three sites – United First Parish Church, Quincy, Massachusetts, Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia, and Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia – which are home to two Presidents. John Adams and his son John Quincy Adams are entombed in the crypt of the United First Parish Church. William Howard Taft and John F. Kennedy are buried in Arlington National Cemetery. John Tyler and James Monroe are both buried in Hollywood Cemetery (although Monroe was originally interred in New York City, the place of his death).
- Because the State of Virginia was part of the Confederate States of America at the time of his passing in 1862, John Tyler could be considered the only President not only to have died outside U. S. soil, but also to have been buried there. Additionally, Tyler was the only U.S. President to have a Confederate flag draped over his coffin.
- George Washington was interred in the "old tomb" at Mount Vernon in 1799. In 1831 he was moved to the current tomb that was built to specifications laid out in his will.
- John Adams was buried at Hancock Cemetery in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1826 and then moved across the street to the basement of the United First Parish Church in 1828.
- James Monroe was interred in New York in 1831 and Virginia in 1858.
- John Quincy Adams was temporarily interred in Washington, D.C. before being moved to Hancock Cemetery in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1848. In 1852 he was moved across the street to the basement of the United First Parish Church.
- William Henry Harrison was temporarily interred in Washington D.C. in April 1841 before his final interment in Ohio in June 1841.
- James Knox Polk was first interred at the City Cemetery in Nashville, Tennessee in 1849. In 1850 his widow had him moved to Polk Place. His remains were again moved to the Tennessee State Capitol building in 1893.
- Zachary Taylor, after being temporarily interred in Washington, D.C., was interred in Louisville, Kentucky in 1850 and re-interred at the same place in 1991 after an autopsy.
- Abraham Lincoln was interred at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois in 1865 and re-interred at the same cemetery, yet in a more protective vault in 1901.
- Ulysses S. Grant was interred at Riverside Park in New York City in 1885 and in the General Grant National Memorial (better known as Grant's Tomb) overlooking the Hudson River in 1897.
- Rutherford B. Hayes was interred in Oakwood Cemetery in 1893 and Spiegel Grove estate in 1915, both in Fremont, Ohio.
- James Garfield was interred at the mausoleum in Cleveland, Ohio's Lake View Cemetery in 1881. He was moved to the Garfield Monument when it was completed in 1890.
- William McKinley was interred in West Lawn Cemetery in 1901 and McKinley National Memorial in 1907, both in Canton, Ohio.
- Woodrow Wilson was interred at the Bethlehem Chapel in the Washington National Cathedral in 1924. He was then moved to the Woodrow Wilson Bay in the cathedral nave in 1956.
- Warren G. Harding was interred in Marion Cemetery in 1923 and Harding Memorial in 1927, both in Marion, Ohio.
- John Kennedy was interred at Arlington National Cemetery during the public funeral on November 25, 1963. He was moved to the current location in the cemetery on March 14, 1967.
Died at the same age
- Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan both died at 93.
- John Adams and Herbert Hoover both died at 90.
- Andrew Jackson and Dwight D. Eisenhower both died at 78.
- John Tyler and Grover Cleveland both died at 71.
- George Washington, Benjamin Harrison and Woodrow Wilson all three died at 67.
- Franklin Pierce and Lyndon B. Johnson both died at 64.
- Ulysses Grant and Franklin D. Roosevelt both died at 63.
- Theodore Roosevelt and Calvin Coolidge both died at 60.
- Chester A. Arthur and Warren G. Harding both died at 57.
None of these Presidents survived their last birthday in their life for the same number of days.
Died before a predecessor/s
- 2nd President John Adams, who died at 6:00 PM on July 4, 1826, survived his successor, 3rd President Thomas Jefferson, who died earlier on the same day at 1:00 PM, for five hours.
- 4th President James Madison, who died on June 28, 1836, survived his successor, 5th President James Monroe, who died on July 4, 1831, for 4 years, 360 days.
- 6th President John Quincy Adams, who died on February 23, 1848, survived his two successors, 9th President William Henry Harrison, who died on April 4, 1841 and 7th President Andrew Jackson, who died on June 8, 1845, for 6 years, 325 days and 2 years, 260 days respectively.
- 7th President Andrew Jackson, who died on June 8, 1845, survived his successor, 9th President William Henry Harrison, who died on April 4, 1841, for 4 years, 65 days.
- 8th President Martin van Buren, who died on July 24, 1862, survived his four successors, 9th President William Henry Harrison, who died on April 4, 1841, 11th President James K. Polk, who died on June 15, 1849, 12th President Zachary Taylor, who died on July 9, 1850 and 10th President John Tyler, who died on January 18, 1862, for 21 years, 111 days, 13 years, 39 days, 12 years, 15 days and 187 days respectively.
- 10th President John Tyler, who died on January 18, 1862, survived his two successors, 11th President James K. Polk, who died on June 15, 1849 and 12th President Zachary Taylor, who died on July 9, 1850, for 12 years, 217 days and 11 years, 193 days respectively.
- 13th President Millard Fillmore who died on March 8, 1874 survived his three successors, 14th President Franklin Pierce who died on October 8, 1869, 15th President James Buchanan who died on June 1, 1868, and 16th President Abraham Lincoln who was assassinated on April 15, 1865 for 4 years, 151 days, 5 years, 280 days and 8 years, 327 days respectively.
- 14th President Franklin Pierce who died on October 8, 1869 survived his two successors, 15th President James Buchanan, who died on June 1, 1868 and 16th President Abraham Lincoln, who was assassinated on April 15, 1865, for 1 year, 129 days and 4 years, 176 days respectively.
- 15th President James Buchanan, who died on June 1, 1868, survived his successor, 16th President Abraham Lincoln, who was assassinated on April 15, 1865, for 3 years, 47 days.
- 18th President Ulysses S. Grant, who died on July 23, 1885, survived his successor, 20th President James A. Garfield, who was assassinated on September 19, 1881, for 3 years, 307 days.
- 19th President Rutherford B. Hayes, who died on January 17, 1893, survived his two successors, 20th President James A. Garfield, who was assassinated on September 19, 1881 and Chester A. Arthur, who died on November 18, 1886, for 11 years, 120 days and 6 years, 60 days respectively.
- 22nd and 24th President Grover Cleveland, who died on June 24, 1908, survived his successors, 23rd President Benjamin Harrison, who died on March 13, 1901, and 25th President William McKinley, who was assassinated on September 14, 1901, for 7 years, 103 days and 6 years, 284 days respectively.
- 27th President William Howard Taft, who died on March 8, 1930, survived his two successors, 28th President Woodrow Wilson, who died on February 3, 1924 and 29th President Warren G. Harding, who died on August 2, 1923, for 6 years, 33 days and 6 years, 218 days respectively.
- 28th President Woodrow Wilson, who died on February 3, 1924, survived his successor, 29th President Warren G. Harding, who died on August 2, 1923, for 185 days.
- 31st President Herbert Hoover, who died on October 20, 1964, survived his two successors, 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died on April 12, 1945 and 35th President John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated on November 22, 1963, for 19 years, 191 days and 333 days respectively.
- 33rd President Harry S. Truman, who died on December 26, 1972, survived his two successors, 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who died on March 28, 1969 and 35th President John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated on November 22, 1963, for 3 years, 273 days and 9 years, 34 days respectively.
- 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who died on March 28, 1969, survived his successor, 35th President John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated on November 22, 1963, for 5 years, 126 days.
- 38th President Gerald Ford, who died on December 26, 2006, survived his successor, 40th President Ronald Reagan, who died on June 5, 2004, for 2 years, 204 days.
- 39th President Jimmy Carter, who is still alive, survives his successor, 40th President Ronald Reagan, who died on June 5, 2004, for 10 years, 47 days.
Former Presidents who died during their immediate successor's administration or term
- George Washington died during John Adams' administration
- James K. Polk died on Zachary Taylor's 103rd day in office
- James Buchanan died before Andrew Johnson completed his successor Abraham Lincoln's second term
- Andrew Johnson died during Ulysses S. Grant's second term
- Chester A. Arthur died during Grover Cleveland's first administration
- Woodrow Wilson died before Calvin Coolidge completed his successor Warren Harding's only term
- Calvin Coolidge died during the end of Herbert Hoover's administration
- Lyndon Johnson died two days after Richard Nixon's second inauguration
Among these Presidents, all except James Polk were older than their direct successors. James K. Polk was 11 years younger than Zachary Taylor. Polk was also the only one among this list whose direct successor died in office and he still remains one of the two from Presidents who died during older successors' administration, the other being Theodore Roosevelt, who died during the second term of Woodrow Wilson, who was 2 years older. Also, Andrew Johnson was the only President whose wife also died during his direct successor's term. His wife Eliza McCardle Johnson, died on January 16, 1876, six months after her husband's death and one year before the end of Ulysses S. Grant's administration. Chester A. Arthur was the only one who died during the administration of Grover Cleveland, who was both his direct and indirect successor, as Cleveland was the only President who served two non-consecutive terms. George Washington was the only one whose direct successor was also his Vice President (John Adams served under him for 8 years).
- John Adams and his vice-president Thomas Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826, though Adams died at 6pm and Jefferson at 12:45pm.
- Thomas Jefferson survived second vice-president George Clinton, who died in office. Clinton also served as vice-president for James Madison, who also survived him.
- Martin Van Buren survived his vice-president Richard Mentor Johnson by more than 10 years.
- Franklin Pierce survived vice-president William R. King, who died in office.
- Ulysses S. Grant survived vice-present Henry Wilson,who died in office, by 10 years.
- Rutherford B. Hayes survived vice-president William A. Wheeler by 6 years.
- William McKinley's first vice-president Garret Hobart died in office on November 21, 1899, 22 months before McKinley was assassinated whilst in office.
- Theodore Roosevelt's vice-president Charles W. Fairbanks died on June 4, 1918. Roosevelt died on January 6, 1919, seven months after Fairbanks.
- William Howard Taft's vice-president James S. Sherman died on October 30, 1912, whilst Taft died on March 8, 1930, 17 years after Sherman.
- Herbert Hoover's vice-president Charles Curtis died on February 8, 1936. Hoover died on October 20, 1964, 28 years after Curtis.
- Harry S. Truman's vice-president Alben Barkley died on April 30, 1956. Truman died on December 26, 1972, over 16 years after Barkley.
- Gerald Ford's vice-president Nelson Rockefeller died on January 26, 1979. Ford died on December 26, 2006, over 27 years after Rockefeller.
List of Presidents who died during a later administration
- John Adams (March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801)
- George Washington died on December 14, 1799, at the age of 67
- John Quincy Adams (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829)
- Andrew Jackson (March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837)
- James K. Polk (March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849)
- Zachary Taylor (March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850)
- James K. Polk died on June 15, 1849 at the age of 53
- Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)
- Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)
- James Buchanan died on June 1, 1868 at the age of 77
- Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)
- Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889; First Term)
No President died during his second term
- Benjamin Harrison (March 4, 1889 – March 4, 1893)
- Rutherford B. Hayes died on January 17, 1893 at the age of 70
- William Mckinley (March 4, 1897 – September 19, 1901)
- Benjamin Harrison died on March 13, 1901 at the age of 75
- Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)
- Grover Cleveland died on June 24, 1908 at the age of 71
- Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)
- Theodore Roosevelt died on January 6, 1919 at the age of 60
- Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)
- Woodrow Wilson died on February 3, 1924 at the age of 67
- Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933)
- Lyndon B. Johnson (November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969)
- Herbert Hoover died on October 20, 1964 at the age of 90
- Richard Nixon (January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974)
- Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001)
- Richard Nixon died on April 22, 1994 at the age of 81
- George W. Bush (January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009)
- No presidents have died during Barack Obama's administration
Notes and references
Some times of death are approximate, and all are given in local times.
- The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents.
- Originally interred at the Gouverneur family vault, New York City on July 7, 1831. Monroe was reinterred in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, VA, July 5, 1858.
- Cause is disputed.
- Ford is the only president whose immediate burial following death is in a different year. Other presidents have been reinterred years after death, such as Monroe (see Note 3, above), Garfield, Hayes, and McKinley.
- Chilcote (2006-01-11). "Bush grenade attacker gets life". CNN. Retrieved 2007-01-03.