List of Presidents of the United States by military service

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The United States Constitution names the President of the United States the commander in chief of the U.S. armed forces. Previous service in the military is not a pre-requisite for the position of president. As of the 2012 presidential election, no member of the U.S. Marine Corps or U.S. Coast Guard has yet been elected President. The most frequent military experience is Army/Army Reserve with 15 presidents, followed by State Militias at 9, Navy/Naval Reserve at 6 and the Continental Army with 2 presidents serving.

Eight past presidents served during World War II, while seven served in the military during the American Civil War.

The following list outlines the military service of each president before becoming the commander in chief.

President Service Rank Active Service
Barack Obama None None None
George W. Bush Texas Air National Guard First Lieutenant Stateside service during Vietnam War (1968–1973).
Bill Clinton None None Signed an agreement to join Reserve Officer Training Corps at University of Arkansas during Vietnam War, but subsequently withdrew and entered the draft. Was not drafted and did not serve.
George H. W. Bush United States Naval Reserve Lieutenant World War II (1942–1945) Distinguished Flying Cross.
Ronald Reagan United States Army Reserve, United States Army Air Corps Captain Stateside service during World War II (1942–1945); Army Reserve (1937–1942) See also: List of United States Presidents by military rank and Ronald Reagan for more information on military service.
Jimmy Carter United States Navy Lieutenant World War II at the United States Naval Academy Sea duty and stateside service 1946-1953 during the Korean War.
Gerald Ford United States Naval Reserve Lieutenant Commander World War II (1942–1945; combat on USS Monterey, discharged in 1946).
Richard Nixon United States Naval Reserve Commander World War II (1942–1945) Earned two Service Stars.
Lyndon B. Johnson United States Naval Reserve Commander[1] World War II received Silver Star medal after observation mission in which aircraft he was on came under Japanese attack.
John F. Kennedy United States Navy Lieutenant World War II received Navy and Marine Corps Medal and Purple Heart
Dwight D. Eisenhower United States Army General of the Army Stateside service during World War I. Served as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during World War II (1942–1945). Visited troops in Korea in December 1952. Entire active-duty career spanned from 1915 until 1969 (excepting his two terms as president and Commander-in-Chief).
Harry S. Truman[2] Missouri Army National Guard
United States Army, United States Army Reserve
Colonel Stateside National Guard service in Missouri (1905-1911); World War I (1917–1918); transferred to Army Reserve and retired in 1953.
Franklin D. Roosevelt None None None; Assistant Secretary of the Navy in World War I. Attempted to resign in order to enter uniformed service, but resignation not accepted. Visited France as part of Navy Department duties to observe military activities first hand.
Herbert Hoover None None None; helped guide US Marines in 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion.
Calvin Coolidge None None None
Warren G. Harding None None None
Woodrow Wilson None None None
William Howard Taft None None None; United States Secretary of War 1904-1908. Enlisted in Connecticut Home Guard for World War I.
Theodore Roosevelt United States Army Colonel Spanish–American War – only U.S. President to receive the Medal of Honor (awarded posthumously in 2001). Also a Navy Civilian, as Assistant Secretary of the Navy[3]
William McKinley United States Army Brevet Major American Civil War. Served in the 23rd Ohio Infantry under future President Rutherford B. Hayes; fought in the Battle of South Mountain, The Battle of Antietam, and in the Valley Campaigns of 1864.
Benjamin Harrison United States Army Brigadier General American Civil War; Commanded an Infantry Brigade at the battles of Resaca, New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peachtree Creek and Atlanta; also Commanded a Brigade during Sherman's March to the Sea.
Grover Cleveland None None Paid George Benninsky $150 to take his place after Cleveland was drafted during Civil War under Conscription Act of 1863.
Chester A. Arthur New York State Militia Brigadier General Served as Quartermaster General before and during the American Civil War (1858–1865).
James Garfield United States Army Major General American Civil War (1861–1863; commanded an Ohio Infantry Brigade at the Battles of Shiloh and Corinth; served as Chief of Staff for General William Rosecrans at the Battle of Chickamauga; left the army to serve in the United States House of Representatives).
Rutherford B. Hayes United States Army Major General American Civil War. Served in the 23rd Ohio Infantry and commanded future President William McKinley; wounded at the Battle of South Mountain; also served at the Battle of Antietam and in the Valley Campaigns of 1864.
Ulysses S. Grant United States Army General of the Army Mexican-American War and American Civil War; served 1843-1854 and 1861-1868.
Andrew Johnson United States Army Brigadier General Served in Tennessee Militia in 1830s. American Civil War; served as Military Governor of Tennessee in 1862.
Abraham Lincoln Illinois State Militia Captain Black Hawk War (served three months in 1832); see Abraham Lincoln in the Black Hawk War.
James Buchanan Pennsylvania State Militia Private War of 1812
Franklin Pierce United States Army Brigadier General New Hampshire Militia, 1831-1846; Mexican-American War; commanded Infantry Brigade at Battle of Contreras (where his leg was injured), Battle of Churubusco, and the Assault on Mexico City.
Millard Fillmore New York State Militia Major Served in New York Militia in 1820s and 1830s; Organized Union Continentals home guard unit in Buffalo, New York during American Civil War
Zachary Taylor United States Army Major General War of 1812, Black Hawk War, Second Seminole War, Mexican-American War; entire career spanned from 1808 until 1848.
James K. Polk Tennessee State Militia Colonel Joined cavalry unit in Tennessee Militia as a Captain. Subsequently appointed a Colonel on the staff of Governor William Carroll. Did not see war service.
John Tyler United States Army Captain War of 1812
William Henry Harrison United States Army Major General Northwest Indian War, War of 1812
Martin Van Buren None None None; as State Senator during War of 1812 worked to pass war measures, including bills to expand New York militia and increase soldier pay. Prosecutor of William Hull at court-martial after surrender of Detroit.
Andrew Jackson Tennessee State Militia, United States Army Major General American Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Creek War, First Seminole War
John Quincy Adams None None None; however he was a witness to Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775 and reportedly was a non-participant in a Naval Battle between a British ship and a US ship he was on with his father during the American Revolution.
James Monroe Continental Army Major American Revolutionary War; wounded at the Battle of Trenton; depicted holding the American flag behind General George Washington in the famous painting Washington Crossing the Delaware.
James Madison Virginia militia Colonel American Revolutionary War, did not see action.
Thomas Jefferson Virginia militia Colonel Commander of Albemarle County Militia at start of American Revolution, did not see action
John Adams None None Adams served as chairman of the Continental Congress's Board of War (1776–1777), making him the simultaneous equivalent of today's Secretary of Defense and Chairman of Senate Armed Services Committee; was a semi-participant in a naval engagement between a British and US ship during the American Revolution.
George Washington Virginia militia, Virginia Regiment, Continental Army, United States Army General of the Armies French and Indian War, American Revolutionary War.

Presidential trivia lists[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ President Lyndon B. Johnson's Military Service Lyndon Baines Johnson Library & Museum
  2. ^ "Military Personnel File of Harry S. Truman". Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  3. ^ http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl7.html