List of Prime Ministers of India
The Prime Minister of India is the political leader of the country and the principal head of government of the Republic of India. As addressed to in the Constitution of India, the prime minister is the chief of government, chief advisor to the president, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament. The office holder is responsible for nominating all other members of the government, chairing cabinet meetings. The office of Prime Minister was created immediately after the establishment of India, according to the Indian Independence Act, in 1947.[a] There have been 13 and one acting prime ministers since 1947. From Indian National Congress; six, Janata Dal; three and one from Janata Party, Janata Party (Secular), Samajwadi Janata Party, Bharatiya Janata Party leaders have served at the post.
Jawaharlal Nehru was appointed as the first Prime Minister of independent India by the Governor General in 1947. He served at the post till 27 May 1964 when he died in office, making him the longest serving Prime Minister of the country. Gulzarilal Nanda succeed him as the acting Prime Minister and served until elections. Lal Bahadur Shastri was selected as the second Prime Minister of the country on 9 June 1964 and the place was taken by Nanda as an acting Prime Minister again, when he died. Indira Gandhi assumed the office as the third Prime Minister on 24 January 1966 and served till 24 March 1977, making her the first female Prime Minister of India. Morarji Desai, the first Janata Party leader[b] and Charan Singh the first Janata Party (Secular)[c] leader served at the post chronologically until Gandhi was reelected for the post on 14 January 1980. She served at the position till 31 October 1984 when she was assassinated,[d] making her the country's second longest serving and the world's second longest serving female Prime Minister.
Rajiv Gandhi, son of the late Indira, succeeded his mother as the sixth prime minister on 31 October 1984. V. P. Singh, the first Janata Dal leader[e] and Chandra Shekhar, the first Samajwadi Janata Party[f][g] then occupied the post until the election of P. V. Narasimha Rao of the Indian National Congress in 1991. He was succeeded by Atal Bihari Vajpayee; the first Bharatiya Janata Party[h] leader to take the position 16 May 1996, however the government fell after 13 days as BJP was unable to get the support from other parties. H. D. Deve Gowda and Inder Kumar Gujral, both from Janata Dal served at the post chronologically forming the United Front until reelection of Vajpayee in 1998 who formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government for the first time. The government collapsed after thirteen months resulting in fresh polls in which Vajpayee was reelected for the third time. He served at the post till 22 May 2004 when Indian National Congress again came to power with Dr. Manmohan Singh assuming the post as the 13th Prime Minister, forming the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government for the first time.[i] Singh continued as prime minister following the 2009 general elections, and governs with the support of the UPA.
Party of Prime Minister:
- No.: Incumbent number
- CM: Council of Ministers
- † Assassinated or died in office
- § Returned to office after a previous term
- RES Resigned
- NC Resigned following a no-confidence motion
Prime Ministers 
|CM||Term of office||Elections
MP for Phulpur
|1952 (1st)||Indian National Congress|||
|Indo-Pakistani War of 1947; created Planning Commission of India and initiated Five-year plan to increase government investment in agriculture and industry; launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural production; oversaw widespread poverty and unemployment, even with improvements in agriculture and infrastructure; oversaw establishment of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institutes of Technology and Indian Institutes of Management; criminalised caste discrimination and increased the legal rights and social freedoms of women; pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement; Sino-Indian War; signed the Indus Waters Treaty; granted asylum to the Dalai Lama; oversaw liberation of Goa.|
MP for Sabarkantha
|– (3rd)||Indian National Congress|||
|Served as caretaker Prime Minister until the election of Lal Bahadur Shastri.|
|2||Lal Bahadur Shastri
MP for Allahabad
|– (3rd)||Indian National Congress|||
|Indo-Pakistani War of 1965; pushed for Green Revolution in India and Operation Flood; The National Dairy Development Board was formed; died from a heart attack at a summit in Tashkent.|
MP for Sabarkantha
|– (3rd)||Indian National Congress|||
|Served as caretaker Prime Minister once again, until Indira Gandhi was chosen as the new leader.|
MP for Rae Bareli
| – (3rd)
|Indian National Congress|||
|Nationalized banks; won the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which resulted in the formation of Bangladesh; signed the Shimla Agreement; tested the first nuclear weapon with Smiling Buddha; initiated Green Revolution in India; imposed state of emergency 1975–1977.|
MP for Surat
|1977 (6th)||Janata Party|||
|Improved relations with Pakistan, China and the United States; softened its relationship with the Soviet Union; launched Sixth Five-Year Plan, aiming to boost agricultural production and rural industries; the plan proved unsuccessful leading to resurging inflation, fuel shortages, unemployment and poverty; lost many MPs from Janata Party, including his rival Charan Singh, which led to his resignation.|
MP for Baghpat
|– (6th)||Janata Party (Secular)
with Indian National Congress
|Initiated high level diplomatic relations with Israel; lost support of Congress, which led to his resignation without even a single session of Lok Sabha.|
MP for Rae Bareli
|1980 (7th)||Indian National Congress (Indira)|||
|Operation Blue Star, which subsequently led to her assassination.|
MP for Amethi
|1984 (8th)||Indian National Congress|||
|1984 anti-Sikh riots; significantly reduced License Raj; expanded telecommunications in India; signed the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord; Bofors scandal; nullified the Supreme Court's judgement on Shah Bano case; removed locks illegally on disputed Babri Mosque structure which would later be demolished; Diplomatic Ties with Palestine Established|
|7||V. P. Singh
MP for Fatehpur
|1989 (9th)||Janata Dal
|Negotiated kidnapping of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed's daughter by Kashmiri sepratists; visited Golden Temple to ask for forgiveness for Operation Blue Star; withdrew IPKF from Sri Lanka; initiated fixed quota/reservation for all public sector jobs as per recommendation from Mandal Commission; Ram Janmabhoomi agitation and subsequent loss of vote of no confidence because of it.|
MP for Ballia
|– (9th)||Samajwadi Janata Party
with Indian National Congress
|Resigned due to accusations of spying on former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, and subsequent withdrawal of Congress' support; Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi.|
|9||P. V. Narasimha Rao
MP for Nandyal
|1991 (10th)||Indian National Congress|||
|Initiated Economic liberalisation in India; SEBI Act 1992; formation of National Stock Exchange of India; 1993 Bombay bombings; Diplomatic Ties with Israel Established; introduced TADA; Demolition of Babri Masjid.|
|10||Atal Bihari Vajpayee
MP for Lucknow
|1996* (11th)||Bharatiya Janata Party|||
|*Hung parliament. Was in power for only 13 days, after BJP could not gather enough support from other parties to form a majority.|
|11||H. D. Deve Gowda
MP (Rajya Sabha) for Karnataka
|1996* (11th)||Janata Dal
|*Hung parliament. After a failed attempt of forming a BJP government, Congress refused to form a government and instead supported a minority United Front coalition led by Janata Dal. President of China Jiang Zemin begins the first visit by a Chinese head of state to India; initiates President's rule in Gujarat.|
|12||Inder Kumar Gujral
MP (Rajya Sabha) for Bihar
|– (11th)||Janata Dal
|Fodder scam; Jain Commission.|
|(10)||Atal Bihari Vajpayee
MP for Lucknow
|1998 (12th)||Bharatiya Janata Party
(National Democratic Alliance)
|Pokhran nuclear tests; Kargil War; Kargil coffin scam; National Highway Development Project; Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana; POTA; Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan; 2001 Indian Parliament attack and Operation Parakram; Indian Airlines Flight 814 hijack; 2002 Gujarat violence; National Technical Research Organisation.|
|13||Dr. Manmohan Singh
MP (Rajya Sabha) for Assam
|Incumbent||2004 (14th)||Indian National Congress
(United Progressive Alliance)
|Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement; won the 2008 Lok Sabha vote of confidence; US $ 1 Trillion Economy milestone reached; Economic crisis of 2008; National Rural Employment Guarantee Act; Right to Information Act; National Rural Health Mission; Unique ID Project (Aadhar); 2008 Mumbai attacks and subsequent Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act; Creation of National Investigation Agency to focus on terrorism related cases; 2G spectrum scam; Right to Education Act; Anna Hazare's Jan Lokpal agitation; Coalgate; Direct Benefit Transfer; Delhi gang rape and subsequent Sexual Harassment Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal Act; Choppergate.|
See also 
- The post of the Prime Minister of Pakistan was also created simultaneously.
- He was also the first leader from a party other than Indian National Congress to be selected for the post
- in coalition with Indian National Congress
- The assassination was considered to be a revenge of the Operation Blue Star.
- He also formed independent India's first multi-party government
- The party was formed by merging two parties; Janata Dal (Secular) and Janata Party.
- Supported by Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party; the only government which was supported by both the parties.
- Bharatiya Janta Party is currently one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress
- Dr. Manmohan Singh was elected as the Prime Minister, however, Sonia Gandhi serves as the chairperson of the UPA.
- There was some earlier debate as to whether Nanda was a Prime Minister or merely an acting Prime Minister, but constitutional experts and historians now agree that he should be regarded as the second Prime Minister of India and his title should not be qualified by the term "acting" (the Constitution does not have a position of acting Prime Minister). By contrast, the constitution does provide for an acting President, who discharges the duties of a President.
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