List of Princes of Transylvania

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This is a list of the Princes of Transylvania

List of princes[edit]

Sixteenth century[edit]

Reign Portrait Prince Birth Marriage Death Notes Source
1570–1571
John Sigismund Zápolya
John Sigismund Zápolya 7 July 1540
Buda
son of
John I of Hungary
and
Isabella of Poland
died unmarried 14 March 1571
Gyulafehérvár
former elected king of Hungary (1540–1551, 1559–1570) [1][2]
1576–1586
Stephen Báthory
Stephen Báthory 27 Sept 1527
Szilágysomlyó
son of
Stephen (VIII) Báthory
and
Catherine Telegdi
Anna of Poland
(1576)
childless
12 December 1586
Grodno
former voivode of Transylvania (1571–1576);
also king of Poland (1576–1586)
[3][4][5]
1586–1597
Sigismund Báthory
Sigismund Báthory 1572
Várad
son of
Christopher Báthory
and
Erzsébet Bocskai
Maria Christina of Austria
(1595)
childless
27 March 1613
first reign;
Prince Stephen Báthory's nephew;
former voivode of Transylvania (1581–1586);
abdicated for the duchies of Opole and Ratibor
[3][6][7]
1597–1598
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor Transylvania is administered by imperial commissioners in the name of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor [8]
1598–1599
Sigismund Báthory
Sigismund Báthory 1572
Várad
son of
Christopher Báthory
and
Erzsébet Bocskai
Maria Christina of Austria
(1595)
childless
27 March 1613
second reign;
abdicated in favor of his cousin, Andrew Báthory
[6][8]
1599
Andrew Báthory
Andrew Báthory 1566
Szilágysomlyó
son of
Andrew Báthory
and
Margit Majláth
unmarried 3 November 1599
Csikszentdomokos (Sândominic)
nephew of Prince Stephen Báthory, cousin of Prince Sigismund Báthory;
former Cardinal;
killed by Székelys after his defeat by Voivode Michael the Brave of Wallachia in the battle of Sellemberk
[9][10]
1599–1600
Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave Transylvania is administered by Voivode Michael the Brave of Wallachia, recognized by the Diet as imperial governor of Emperor Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor. In addition, Michael the Brave occupied Moldavia in 1600, and styled himself "By the grace of God, ruler of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia" between 6 June 1600 and December 1600. In his correspondence with Emperor Rudolf II, he always styled himself locum tenens of the emperor. [11][12][13]

Seventeenth century[edit]

Reign Portrait Prince Birth Marriage Death Notes Source
1600–1601
Giorgio Basta
Giorgio Basta Transylvania is administered by General Giorgio Basta in the name of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor [11]
1601
Sigismund Báthory
Sigismund Báthory 1572
Várad (Oradea)
son of
Christopher Báthory
and
Erzsébet Bocskai
Maria Christina of Austria
(1595)
childless
27 March 1613
third reign;
fled abroad following his defeat by General Giorgio Basta and Michael the Brave in the battle of Goroszló
[6][14]
1601–1602 Transylvania is administered by General Giorgio Basta in the name of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor [15]
1602
Sigismund Báthory
Sigismund Báthory 1572
Várad (Oradea)
son of
Christopher Báthory
and
Erzsébet Bocskai
Maria Christina of Austria
(1595)
childless
27 March 1613
fourth reign;
abdicated
[6][15]
1602–1603 Transylvania is administered by General Giorgio Basta in the name of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor [15]
1603
Mózes Székely
Mózes Székely c. 1553
Lövéte (Lueta)
son of
János Székely
unknown (1st marriage)
Anna Kornis (2nd marriage)
(c. 1585)
1 child
17 July 1603
by Brassó
backed by the Ottoman governor of the vilajet of Temesvár defeats Giorgio Basta;
having received the ahidnâme from Sultan Mehmed III, declared prince by a "Diet at military camp"
killed in the battle of Brassó fighting against Voivode Radu Şerban of Wallachia and his Székely allies
[15][16]
July 1603–September 1603
Radu Şerban
Radu Şerban Transylvania was ruled by Radu Şerban of Wallachia who held the title of voivode [17]
September 1603–1604 Transylvania is administered by General Giorgio Basta in the name of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor [18]
1605–1606
Stephen Bocskai
Stephen Bocskai 1 January 1557
Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca)
son of
George Bocskai
and
Krisztina Sulyok
Kata Hagymássy
(1583)
childless
29 December 1606
Kassa
maternal uncle of Prince Sigismund Báthory;
elected prince of Hungary (1605–1606)
[19][20]
1607–1608
Sigismund Rákóczi
Sigismund Rákóczi 1544
Felsővadász
son of
János Rákócsi
and
Sára Némethy
Judit Bekény (1st marriage)
(1587)
1 child
Anna Gerendi (2nd marriage)
(1592)
3 children
Borbála Telegdy (3rd marriage)
(1596)
childless
5 December 1608
Felsővadász
baron (1588);
abdicated in favor of Gabriel Báthory
father of George I Rákóczi
[21][22]
1608–1613
Gabriel Báthory
Gabriel Báthory 15 August 1589
Várad (Oradea)
son of
Stephen Báthori
and
Zsuzsanna Bebek
Anna Palocsai-Horváth
(1607)
childless
27 October 1613
Várad (Oradea)
his father is a nephew of Prince Stephen Báthori, himself is Prince Andrew Báthory's nephew;
also voivode of Wallachia (1611);
expelled by Ottoman troops assisting Gabriel Bethlen;
murdered by Hajdu assassins
[23][24]
1613–1629
Gabriel Bethlen
Gabriel Bethlen 15 November 1580
Marosillye
son of
Farkas Bethlen
and
Druzsina Lázár
Zsuzsanna Károlyi (1st marriage)
(1605)
3 children (all died)
Catherine of Brandenburg
(1626)
childless
15 November 1629
Gyulafehérvár
elected by Ottoman assistance;
also elected king of Hungary (1620–1621);
according to the Peace of Nikolsburg of 1621 also duke of Opole and Ratibor in Silesia (1621–1629);
according to the same peace, 7 counties (Abaúj, Bereg, Borsod, Szabolcs, Szatmár, Ugocsa, and Zemplén)[citation needed] are joined to the principality for his lifetime
[25][26]
1629–1630
Catherine of Brandenburg
Catherine of Brandenburg 28 May 1604
Brandenburg an der Havel[verification needed]
daughter of
John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg
and
Anna of Prussia
Gabriel Bethlen (1st marriage)
(1626)
childless
Francis Charles of Saxe-Lauenburg
(1639)
27 August 1649
Schöningen
Prince Gabriel Bethlen's widow;
her right to success his husband confirmed in his life (1626) by the Diet;
usually referred to as "prince" instead of "princess";
abdicated
[27][28][29]
1630
Stephen Bethlen
Stephen Bethlen 1584
son of
Farkas Bethlen
and
Druzsina Lázár
Krisztina Csáky (1st marriage)
3 children[verification needed]
Katalin Károlyi
3 children[verification needed]
10 January 1648
Ecsed
Prince Gabriel Bethlen's brother; elected by the Diet, but later opposed by George I Rákóczi [30][31]
1630–1648
George I Rákóczi
George I Rákóczi 8 June 1593
Szerencs
son of
Sigismund Rákóczi
and
Anna Gerendi
Zsuzsanna Lorántffy
(1616)
4 children
11 October 1648
Gyulafehérvár
Prince Sigismund Rákóczi's son [32]
1648–1657
George II Rákóczi
George II Rákóczi 30 January 1621
Sárospatak
son of
George I Rákóczi
and
Zsuzsanna Lorántffy
Zsófia Báthori
(1643)
2 children
7 June 1660
Várad (Oradea)
first reign;
Prince George I Rákóczi's son;
elected prince by the Diet in his father's life (1642) in recognition of his right to succession;
deposed by the Ottoman Grand Vizier Mehmed Köprülü
[33][34]
(not installed)
Francis I Rákóczi
Francis I Rákóczi 24 February 1645
Gyulafehérvár
son of
George II Rákóczi
and
Zsófia Báthori
Countess Ilona Zrínyi
(1666)
4 children
8 July 1676
Zboró
elected prince by the Diet in his father's life (1652) in recognition of his right to succession;
never installed because of his father's fall
[35]
1657–1658
Francis Rhédey
Francis Rhédey 1610
Várad (Oradea)
son of
Francis Rhédey
and
Kata Károlyi
Druzsina Bethlen
1 child
7 May 1667
Huszt
elected prince by the Diet against George II Rákóczi on the order of the Sublime Porte [36]
1658
George II Rákóczi
George II Rákóczi 30 January 1621
Sárospatak
son of
George I Rákóczi
and
Zsuzsanna Lorántffy
Zsófia Báthori
(1643)
2 children
7 June 1660
Várad (Oradea)
second reign;
elected again prince by the Diet;
expelled by Ottoman troops
[37]
1658–1659
Ákos Barcsay
Ákos Barcsay c. 1610
son of
Sándor Barcsay
and
Erzse Palatics
Erzsébet Szalánczy (1st marriage)
childless
Izabella Bánffy
(1660)
childless
July 1661
Kozmatelke
first reign;
appointed by the Sublime Porte, then elected by the Diet against George II Rákóczi;
while visiting the Ottoman governor of the vilajet of Temesvár, his opponent returned to the principality
[38]
1659–1660
George II Rákóczi
George II Rákóczi 30 January 1621
Sárospatak
son of
George I Rákóczi
and
Zsuzsanna Lorántffy
Zsófia Báthori
(1643)
2 children
7 June 1660
Várad (Oradea)
third reign;
elected again prince by the Diet;
defeated in a battle at Szászfenes
[39]
1660
Ákos Barcsay
Ákos Barcsay c. 1610
son of
Sándor Barcsay
and
Erzse Palatics
Erzsébet Szalánczy (1st marriage)
childless
Izabella Bánffy
(1660)
childless
July 1661
Kozmatelke
second reign;
reinstalled by the Sublime Porte;
abdicated
[40]
1661–1662
John Kemény
John Kemény 14 December 1607
Magyarbükkös
son of
Balthasar Kemény
and
Zsófia Tornyi
Zsuzsa Kállai (1st marriage)
(1632)
1 child[verification needed]
Anna Lónyay
(1659)
1 child[verification needed]
22 January 1662
Nagyszőllős
[41]
1661–1690
Michael I Apafi
Michael I Apafi 3 November 1632
Ebesfalva
son of
George Apafi
and
Borbála Petki
Anna Bornemissza
(1650)
9 children
15 April 1690
Fogaras
[42]
1690–1696 or 1701
Michael II Apafi
Michael II Apafi 13 October 1676
Gyulafehérvár
son of
Michael I Apafi
and
Anna Bornemissza
Countess Kata Bethlen
(1694)
childless
1 February 1713
Vienna
Prince Michael I Apafi's son; elected prince by the Diet in his father's life (1681) in recognition of his right to succession;
never installed, since he was taken in 1696 by force to Vienna because of his marriage without the previous approval of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor;
abdicated of his title in 1701
[43]
1690
Emeric Thököly
Emeric Thököly 25 September 1657
Késmárk
son of
Count Stephen Thököly
and
Mária Gyulaffi
Countess Ilona Zrínyi
(1683)
2 children
13 February 1705
İzmit
[44]

Eighteenth century[edit]

Reign Portrait Prince Birth Marriage Death Notes Source
1704–1711
Francis II Rákóczi
Francis II Rákóczi 27 March 1676
Borsi
son of
Francis I Rákóczi
and
Countess Ilona Zrínyi
Charlotte Amalie of Hessen-Rheinfels-Wanfried
(1694)
4 children
8 April 1735
Tekirdağ
Prince Francis I Rákóczi's son [45]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Markó 2000, p. 110.
  2. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 252., 259-260.
  3. ^ a b Szegedi 2009, p. 101.
  4. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 99-100.
  5. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 260., 264-265.
  6. ^ a b c d Markó 2000, pp. 101-102.
  7. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 263., 293-295.
  8. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 295.
  9. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 97-98.
  10. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 295-296.
  11. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 296.
  12. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 112-113.
  13. ^ Pop 2009, pp. 82-83.
  14. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 296-297.
  15. ^ a b c d Barta 1994, p. 297.
  16. ^ Markó 2000, p. 120.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Markó 2000, p. 97.
  19. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 104-105.
  20. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 293., 298-299.
  21. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 118-119.
  22. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 304-305.
  23. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 98-99.
  24. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 305-309.
  25. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 102-103.
  26. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 314-315., 321-324.
  27. ^ Markó 2000, p. 104.
  28. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 314-315., 325-326.
  29. ^ Deák 2009, pp. 82-83., 85., 88., 93.
  30. ^ Markó 2000, p. 104.
  31. ^ Barta 1994, p. 326.
  32. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 115-117.
  33. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 117-118.
  34. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 352., 356.
  35. ^ Markó 2000, p. 113.
  36. ^ Markó 2000, p. 119.
  37. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 117-118.
  38. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 96-97.
  39. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 117-118.
  40. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 96-97.
  41. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 110-111.
  42. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 94-95.
  43. ^ Markó 2000, p. 95.
  44. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 120-122.
  45. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 113-115.

References[edit]

  • (Hungarian) Bán, Péter (1989). Entry székely ispán in: Bán, Péter; Magyar történelmi fogalomtár, II. kötet: L–Zs ("Thesaurus of Terms of Hungarian History, Volume I: A–Zs"). Gondolat. ISBN 963-282-204-8.
  • Barta, Gábor (1994). The Emergence of the Principality and its First Crises (1526–1606). In: Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit; History of Transylvania; Akadémiai Kiadó; ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
  • Deák, Éva (2009). "Princeps non Principissa": Catherine of Brandenburg, Elected Prince of Transylvania (1630–1648). In: Cruz, Anne J.; Suzuki, Mihoko; The Rule of Women in Early Modern Europe; University of Illinois Press; ISBN 978-0-252-07616-9.
  • (Hungarian) Fallenbüchl, Zoltán (1988). Magyarország főméltóságai ("Great Officers of State in Hungary"). Maecenas Könyvkiadó. ISBN 963-02-5536-7.
  • Felezeu, Călin (2009). The International Political Background (1541–1699) and The Legal Status of the Principality of Transylvania in Its Relations with the Ottoman Porte. In: Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas; Magyari, András;
  • Georgescu, Vlad (1991). The Romanians: A History. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0-8142-0511-9.
  • Makkai, László (1994). The Emergence of the Estates (1172–1526). In: Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit; History of Transylvania; Akadémiai Kiadó; ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
  • (Hungarian) Markó, László (2000). A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig: Életrajzi Lexikon ("Great Officers of State in Hungary from King Saint Stephen to Our Days: A Biographical Encyclopedia"). Magyar Könyklub. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (1999). Romanians and Romania: A Brief History. Boulder (distributed by Columbia University Press). ISBN 0-88033-440-1.
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2005). Romanians in the 14th–16th Centuries: From the "Christian Republic" to the "Restoration of Dacia". In: Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan; History of Romania: Compendium; Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2009). Michael the Brave and Transylvania. In: Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas; Magyari, András; The History of Transylvania, Vol. II. (From 1541 to 1711); Romanian Academy, Center for Transylvanian Studies; ISBN 978-973-7784-43-8.
  • Szegedi, Edit (2009). The birth and evolution of the Principality of Transylvania (1541–1690). In: Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas; Magyari, András; The History of Transylvania, Vol. II. (From 1541 to 1711); Romanian Academy, Center for Transylvanian Studies; ISBN 978-973-7784-43-8.

External links[edit]