List of birds of Puerto Rico
This is a categorized list of the bird species recorded in the archipelago of Puerto Rico which consists of the main island of Puerto Rico, two island municipalities off the east coast (Vieques and Culebra), three uninhabited islands off the west coast (Mona, Monito, and Desecheo) and more than 125 smaller cays and islands. The avifauna of Puerto Rico includes a total of 349 species, of which 166 (47.56%) are accidental, 42 (12.03%) are introduced by humans and 16 (4.58%) are endemic. Around 120 of these species breed in Puerto Rico while the majority of the others overwinter in the archipelago. This list does not include extinct species.
- 1 Taxonomy
- 2 Grebes
- 3 Shearwaters and petrels
- 4 Storm petrels
- 5 Tropicbirds
- 6 Pelicans
- 7 Boobies
- 8 Cormorants
- 9 Frigatebirds
- 10 Bitterns, herons, and egrets
- 11 Ibises and spoonbills
- 12 Flamingos
- 13 Ducks, geese, and swans
- 14 New World vultures
- 15 Osprey
- 16 Hawks, kites, and eagles
- 17 Falcons
- 18 New World quails
- 19 Junglefowls and pheasants
- 20 Guineafowls
- 21 Limpkin
- 22 Rails, gallinules, and coots
- 23 Jacanas
- 24 Oystercatchers
- 25 Stilts and avocets
- 26 Lapwings and plovers
- 27 Sandpipers, curlews, stints, godwits, snipes, and phalaropes
- 28 Skuas and jaegers
- 29 Gulls, terns and skimmers
- 30 Pigeons and doves
- 31 Cockatoos
- 32 Budgerigars, parakeets and parrots
- 33 Cuckoos
- 34 Barn owls
- 35 Typical owls
- 36 Potoos
- 37 Nightjars
- 38 Swifts
- 39 Hummingbirds
- 40 Water kingfisher
- 41 Todies
- 42 Woodpeckers and sapsuckers
- 43 Tyrant flycatchers
- 44 Swallows and martins
- 45 Waxwings
- 46 Mockingbirds and thrashers
- 47 Thrushes
- 48 Old World flycatchers
- 49 Crows
- 50 Starlings
- 51 Weavers
- 52 Estrildid finches
- 53 Whydahs
- 54 Vireos
- 55 New World warblers
- 56 Bananaquit
- 57 Tanagers
- 58 American sparrows, towhees, juncos, and longspurs
- 59 Cardinals, saltators, and grosbeaks
- 60 Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and orioles
- 61 Fringilline finches, cardueline finches, and allies
- 62 Sparrows
- 63 See also
- 64 References
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, accidental and extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Puerto Rico.
The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are common occurring, native species.
- (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the archipelago of Puerto Rico.
- (E) Endemic A species endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico.
- (Ex) Extirpated A species that no longer occurs in the archipelago Puerto Rico although populations exist elsewhere.
- (I) Introduced A species introduced to the archipelago of Puerto Rico as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.
Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
Shearwaters and petrels
The Procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, and a long outer functional primary.
- Black-capped petrel, Pterodroma hasitata (A)
- Trindade petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana (A)
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea (A)
- Greater shearwater, Puffinus gravis (A)
- Sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus (A)
- Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus (A)
- Barolo shearwater, Puffinus baroli (A)
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri
The Storm petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.
Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.
The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage coloration is varied with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being quite colourful.
- Double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus (A)
- Neotropic cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A)
Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens
Bitterns, herons, and egrets
The Ardeidae family contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Unlike other long necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted.
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens (A)
- Tricolored heron, Egretta tricolor
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea
- Western reef-heron, Egretta gularis (A)
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta (A)
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green heron, Butorides virescens
- Black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned night-heron, Nyctanassa violacea
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus (A)
Ibises and spoonbills
The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and, rather surprisingly, given their size and weight, very capable soarers.
- White ibis, Eudocimus albus (A)
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus (A)
- Roseate spoonbill, Platalea ajaja (A)
Flamingos (genus Phoenicopterus monotypic in family Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious wading birds, usually 3–5 feet in height, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down.
- Caribbean flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber (A)
Ducks, geese, and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are adapted to aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
- Fulvous whistling-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- West Indian whistling-duck, Dendrocygna arborea
- Black-bellied whistling-duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis (A)
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus (A)
- Snow goose, Chen caerulescens (A)
- Brant goose, Branta bernicla (A)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis (A)
- Domestic goose, Anser anser domesticus/Anser cygnoides
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa (A)
- Eurasian wigeon, Anas penelope (A)
- American wigeon, Anas americana (A)
- Gadwall, Anas strepera (A)
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca (A)
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (A)
- Domestic duck, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus
- American black duck, Anas rubripes (A)
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata (A)
- White-cheeked pintail, Anas bahamensis
- Garganey Anas querquedula (A)
- Blue-winged teal, Anas discors
- Cinnamon teal, Anas cyanoptera (A)
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria (A)
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris (A)
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis (A)
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola (A)
- Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus (A)
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator (A)
- Masked duck, Nomonyx dominica
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they located carcasses.
- Turkey vulture, Cathartes aura (I)
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites, and eagles
The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.
- Swallow-tailed kite, Elanoides forficatus (A)
- Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (A)
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus
- Common black-hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus (A)
- Ridgway's hawk, Buteo ridgwayi (A)
- Broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet.
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius
- Merlin, Falco columbarius (A)
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus (A)
New World quails
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
- Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus (I)
Junglefowls and pheasants
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings.
- Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus (I)
- Common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (I)
- Chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus (I)
- Wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo (I)
- Domesticated turkey, Meleagris gallopavo (I)
Guineafowls are a group of African seed-eating, ground-nesting birds resembling partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled gray plumage.
- Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris (I)
The limpkin is a large, odd bird with drably plumaged brown with a greyer head and neck.
- Limpkin, Aramus guarauna (Ex)
Rails, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers.
- Black rail, Laterallus jamaicensis (A)
- Clapper rail, Rallus crepitans
- Virginia rail, Rallus limicola (A)
- Sora, Porzana carolina (A)
- Yellow-breasted crake, Porzana flaviventer
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinica
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American coot, Fulica americana
- Caribbean coot, Fulica caribaea
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
- Northern jacana, Jacana spinosa (A)
The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Puerto Rico.
- American oystercatcher, Haematopus palliatus
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
Lapwings and plovers
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions.
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus (A)
- American golden-plover, Pluvialis dominica (A)
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Wilson's plover, Charadrius wilsonia
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus (A)
- Snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus
Sandpipers, curlews, stints, godwits, snipes, and phalaropes
The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus (A)
- Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica (A)
- Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa (A)
- Eskimo curlew, Numenius borealis (A) (This species is presumed to be extinct)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus (A)
- Long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (A)
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda (A)
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia (A)
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Spotted sandpiper, Tringa macularia
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis (A)
- Baird's sandpiper, Calidris bairdii (A)
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea (A)
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina (A)
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis (A)
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax (A)
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor (A)
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A)
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
- South polar skua, Stercorarius maccormicki (A)
- Great skua, Stercorarius skua (A)
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus (A)
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus (A)
Gulls, terns and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, terns, and skimmers. They are typically gray or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects of the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25–30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis
- Great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (A)
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus (A)
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus (A)
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (A)
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia (A)
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan (A)
- Little gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus (A)
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini (A)
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (A)
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica (A)
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia (A)
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maxima
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea (A)
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri (A)
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscata
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus (A)
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
- Black noddy, Anous minutus (A)
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger (A)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock dove, Columba livia (I)
- White-crowned pigeon, Columba leucocephala
- Scaly-naped pigeon, Columba squamosa
- Plain pigeon, Columba inornata
- Eurasian collared-dove, Streptopelia decaocto (I)
- African collared-dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea (I)
- Diamond dove, Geopelia cuneata (I)
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura
- Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita
- White-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica
- Common ground-dove, Columbina passerina
- Key West quail-dove, Geotrygon chrysia
- Bridled quail-dove, Geotrygon mystacea (A)
- Ruddy quail-dove, Geotrygon montana
Cockatoos share many features with true parrots (Psittacidae family) including the characteristic curved beak shape and a zygodactyl foot, with two forward toes and two backwards toes. They differ, however in a number of characteristics, including the movable headcrest, and their lack of the Dyck texture feather composition, which gives many parrots their iridescent colours. Cockatoos are also, on average, larger than the true parrots.
- Tanimbar corella (old name: Goffin's Cockatoo), Cacatua goffiniana (I)
- Sulphur-crested cockatoo, Cacatua galerita (I)
- White cockatoo, Cacatua alba (I)
Budgerigars, parakeets and parrots
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back.
- Budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (I)
- Red-masked parakeet, Aratinga erythrogenys (I)
- Hispaniolan parakeet, Aratinga chloroptera (A)
- Brown-throated parakeet, Aratinga pertinax (I)
- Orange-fronted parakeet, Aratinga canicularis (I)
- Nanday parakeet, Nandayus nenday (I)
- Monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus (I)
- Canary-winged parakeet Brotogeris versicolorus (I)
- Hispaniolan amazon, Amazona ventralis (I)
- Puerto Rican amazon, Amazona vittata (E)
- White-fronted amazon, Amazona albifrons (I)
- Red-crowned amazon, Amazona viridigenalis (I)
- Yellow-headed amazon, Amazona oratrix (I)
- Orange-winged amazon, Amazona amazonica (I)
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites.
- Black-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A)
- Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus
- Mangrove cuckoo, Coccyzus minor
- Puerto Rican lizard cuckoo, Saurothera vieilloti (E)
- Smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani
Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba (A)
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Northern potoo, Nyctibius jamaicensis (A)
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is cryptically coloured to resemble bark or leaves.
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor (A)
- Antillean nighthawk, Chordeiles gundlachii
- Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis (A)
- Puerto Rican nightjar, Antrostomus noctitherus (E)
- White-tailed nightjar, Caprimulgus cayennensis (A)
Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.
- Black swift, Cypseloides niger
- White-collared swift, Streptoprocne zonaris (A)
- Antillean palm-swift, Tachornis phoenicobia (A)
- Alpine swift, Tachymarptis melba (A)
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- Green-breasted mango, Anthracothorax prevostii (A)
- Antillean mango, Anthracothorax dominicus
- Green mango, Anthracothorax viridis (E)
- Purple-throated carib, Eulampis jugularis (A)
- Green-throated carib, Eulampis holosericeus
- Antillean crested hummingbird, Orthorhyncus cristatus
- Puerto Rican emerald, Chlorostilbon maugaeus (E)
- Vervain hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (A)
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris (A)
Water kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.
Todies are a group of small near passerine forest species of endemic to the Caribbean. These birds have colourful plumage and resembles kingfishers, but with flattened bills with serrated edges. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards.
- Puerto Rican tody, Todus mexicanus (E)
Woodpeckers and sapsuckers
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Puerto Rican woodpecker, Melanerpes portoricensis (E)
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius (A)
- Hairy woodpecker, Picoides villosus (A)
Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Caribbean elaenia, Elaenia martinica
- Hispaniolan pewee, Contopus hispaniolensis (A)
- Lesser Antillean pewee, Contopus latirostris
- Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus (A)
- Puerto Rican flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum (E)
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus (A)
- Gray kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
- Loggerhead kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
- Scissor-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus (A)
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Purple martin, Progne subis (A)
- Caribbean martin, Progne dominicensis
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor (A)
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis (A)
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A)
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterized by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
- Cedar waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum (A)
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.
- Gray catbird, Dumetella carolinensis (A)
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
- Pearly-eyed thrasher, Margarops fuscatus
The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus (A)
- Bicknell's thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A)
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina (A)
- Red-legged thrush, Turdus plumbeus
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe (A)
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree.
- White-necked crow, Corvus leucognaphalus (Ex)
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are medium-sized passerines with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
- Common hill myna, Gracula religiosa (I)
- Common myna, Acridotheres tristis (I)
- European starling, Sturnus vulgaris (I)
Weavers are a group of small passerine birds related to the finches. These are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills, most of which breed in sub-Saharan Africa, with fewer species in tropical Asia. Weavers get their name from the large woven nests many species make. They are gregarious birds which often breed colonially.
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern.
- Orange-cheeked waxbill, Estrilda melpoda (I)
- Black-rumped waxbill, Estrilda troglodytes (I)
- Red avadavat, Amandava amandava (I)
- Bronze mannikin, Lonchura cucullata (I)
- White-throated munia, Lonchura malabarica (I)
- Nutmeg mannikin, Lonchura punctulata (I)
- Society finch, Lonchura striata domestica (I)
- Black-headed munia, Lonchura malacca (I)
- Tricoloured munia, Lonchura malacca (I)
- Java sparrow, Padda oryzivora (I)
- Zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (I)
The Viduidae is a family of small passerine birds native to Africa that includes indigobirds and whydahs. All species are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finch species. Species usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage.
- Pin-tailed whydah, Vidua macroura (I)
The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills.
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus (A)
- Puerto Rican vireo, Vireo latimeri (E)
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons (A)
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus (A)
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus (A)
- Black-whiskered vireo, Vireo altiloquus
New World warblers
The New World warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera (A)
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera (A)
- Nashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla (A)
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica (A)
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia (A)
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata (A)
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens (A)
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca (A)
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica (A)
- Adelaide's warbler, Setophaga adelaidae (E)
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus (A)
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum (A)
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea (A)
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea (A)
- Elfin-woods warbler, Setophaga angelae (E)
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina (A)
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea (A)
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorum (A)
- Swainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (A)
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Louisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis (A)
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosa (A)
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia (A)
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla (A)
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis (A)
The bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct (hence the assignment Genus: Coereba Incertae sedis).
- Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar.
- Puerto Rican tanager, Nesospingus speculiferus (E)
- Puerto Rican spindalis, Spindalis portoricensis (E)
American sparrows, towhees, juncos, and longspurs
The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Yellow-faced grassquit, Tiaris olivacea
- Black-faced grassquit, Tiaris bicolor
- Puerto Rican bullfinch, Loxigilla portoricensis (E)
- Saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola (I)
- Red-crested cardinal, Paroaria coronata (I)
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii (A)
- White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis (A)
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis (A)
Cardinals, saltators, and grosbeaks
The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra (A)
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea (A)
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus (A)
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea (A)
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea (A)
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana (A)
Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and orioles
The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Yellow-shouldered blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus (E)
- Yellow-headed blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (A)
- Greater Antillean grackle, Quiscalus niger
- Shiny cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis
- Venezuelan troupial, Icterus icterus (I)
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula (A)
- Bullock's oriole, Icterus bullockii (A)
- Puerto Rican oriole, Icterus portoricensis (E)
- Audubon's oriole, Icterus graduacauda (A)
Fringilline finches, cardueline finches, and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Antillean euphonia, Euphonia musica
- Red siskin, Carduelis cucullata (I)
- Common canary, Serinus canaria (I)
- Domestic canary, Serinus canaria domestica (I)
- Yellow-fronted canary, Serinus mozambicus (I)
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I)
- List of birds
- List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico
- List of birds of North America
- List of birds of Vieques
- List, observations, locations, distribution maps, pictures and sounds of birds of Puerto Rico
- Roselaar, C.S.; J.P. Michels. ". Systematic notes on Asian birds. 48. Nomenclatural chaos untangled, resulting in the naming of the formally undescribed Cacatua species from the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Zool. Verh. Leiden 350: 183–196.
- Lepage, Denis. "Puerto Rico checklist". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved May 19, 2006.
- Oberle, Mark (2003). Las aves de Puerto Rico en fotografías. Editorial Humanitas. ISBN 0-9650104-2-2. (Spanish)
- Luis J. Villanueva-Rivera and Miguel A. Acevedo. "Puerto Rican birds". Retrieved May 19, 2006.
- Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists - Martin Collinson, British Birds vol 99 (June 2006), 306-323.