List of Roman auxiliary regiments

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The Roman empire in 125 CE, in the time of emperor Hadrian, showing the Roman provinces and legions deployed

This article lists auxilia, non-legionary auxiliary regiments of the imperial Roman army, attested in the epigraphic record, by Roman province of deployment during the reign of emperor Hadrian (r. 117–138 CE).



The index of regimental names explains the origin of the names, most of which are based on the names of the subject tribes or cities of the empire where they were originally recruited. (As time went by, they became staffed by recruits from anywhere, especially from the province where they were deployed.)


Types of regiment[edit]

During most of the Principate era, until 212 CE, auxiliary regiments, called auxilia by the Romans, were formations kept separate from the legions, who were recruited from Roman citizens only. Auxilia were mostly recruited from the peregrini, the vast majority of subjects in the Roman empire who did not hold Roman citizenship. (in 212 CE, all the inhabitants of the empire were granted Roman citizenship).

There were three basic types of auxiliary regiment:

  • alae, which contained only cavalry and consisted nominally of 480 soldiers
  • cohortes peditatae or simply cohortes, which contained only infantry and consisted nominally of 480 soldiers
  • cohortes equitatae, which contained infantry with an attached cavalry contingent and consisted nominally of 600 soldiers, of which 480 were infantry and 120 were cavalry

A number of regiments, of all three types, were designated sagittariorum (sagitt), indicating that their members were equipped as archers. After about 80 CE, about 12 percent of regiments were enlarged from the quingenarie size and designated milliarie, which nominally consisted of 1000 soldiers, but in reality consisted of 720 soldiers, 800 soldiers, and 1040 soldiers respectively.

Contents of tables[edit]

Table I below lists auxiliary regiments during Hadrian's rule, for which there is the most comprehensive evidence. The table does not show regiments that were attested to in the 1st century but that, according to Holder, were dissolved by 117 CE, nor those that were probably founded after 138 CE. The precise number of regiments that existed during Hadrian's rule is disputed.[a] The regiments are listed by the Roman province where they were deployed c. 130 CE.

Ethnic composition of regiments[edit]

The rule of the first emperor, Augustus, (30 BCE–14 CE) saw the foundation of the majority of the regiments attested in Hadrian's time. In the earlier part of this period, regiments were raised from and named after individual tribes, for example Campagonum, Trevirorum and Bessorum. Later, units were raised from and named after broad national groups, for example Hispanorum, Gallorum, and Thracum.

There is very little evidence concerning the organisation and policies of auxiliary recruitment. The ethnic origins of auxiliary recruits are attested in only a tiny fraction of cases. For example, the cohors II Gallorum veterana equitata must have recruited a calculated 8,000 soldiers over its probable lifespan of about 250 years but the origins of only two rankers are known.[b] Conclusions about auxiliary recruitment drawn by scholars from the available evidence is regarded as tentative.

According to Holder, during the Julio-Claudian dynasty (14–68 CE), regimental ethnic identity was preserved to some extent, with evidence of continued recruitment from the original people. By the time of Hadrian, however, a regiment's name, in most cases, probably represented the ethnic origin of few, if any, of its members. This is because during the Flavian dynasty (69–96 CE), as a matter of deliberate policy, most regiments were deployed in provinces far from their original home and drew the majority of their recruits from local natives and the rest from all parts of the empire. In most cases, therefore, a regiment's name had become an identification tag devoid of ethnic significance. A regiment deployed long-term in the same province would thus, over time, acquire the ethnic character of its host population.

There are exceptions to this rule:

  • A minority of regiments remained stationed in their original home province, e.g., cohors I Delmatarum mill eq, still attested in Dalmatia in 130 CE.
  • Regiments founded a relatively short period before 130 CE, for example cohors I Aelia Dacorum which was stationed in Roman Britain in 130 CE would probably still have contained mostly Dacian recruits at this time, as it had been established by Hadrian only about a decade earlier.
  • Some specialised regiments, such as Syrian archers and the elite Batavi show some evidence of continued preferential recruitment from their original province.

List of auxilia in the reign of Hadrian[edit]

List of auxilia non-ethnic regimental names by province of deployment[edit]

Britannia[edit]

Britannia
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
Agrippina Miniata
I Hispanorum Asturum
II Asturum
Augusta Gallorum Petriana c.R.[c]
Augusta Gallorum Proculeiana
Picentiana Gallorum
II Gallorum Sebosiana
Gallorum et Thracum classiana
I Pannoniorum Sabiniana
I Pannoniorum Tampiana
I Thracum
I Tungrorum
Hispanorum Vettonum
Augusta Vocontiorum
I Aquitanorum
II Asturum eq
IV Breucorum
I Augusta Bracarum
III Bracaraugustanorum
I Baetasiorum c.R.
I Batavorum eq
I Celtiberorum
I Aelia classica
I Ulpia Cugernorum c.R.
I Aelia Dacorum[c]
I Delmatarum
II Delmatarum
IV Delmatarum
I Frisiavonum
II Gallorum veterana eq
IV Gallorum eq
V Gallorum
VI Gallorum
I Hispanorum eq
I Aelia Hispanorum eq[c]
I Lingonum eq
II Lingonum eq
III Lingonum eq
IV Lingonum eq
I Menapiorum
I Morinorum
I nauticarum
I Augusta Nerviana Germanorum eq[c]
I Nerviorum
II Nerviorum
III Nerviorum
IV Nerviorum
II Pannoniorum
V Raetorum
I Sunucorum
I Thracum
II Thracum veterana
VII Thracum
I Tungrorum[c]
II Tungrorum c.L. eq[c]
I Vangionum eq[c]
I Vardulorum c.R. eq[c]
II Vasconum c.R.
I Hamiorum sagitt[c]

Germania Inferior[edit]

Germania Inferior
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Afrorum veterana
Longiniana Gallorum
Gallorum et Thracum classiana
Moesica felix
I Noricorum c.R.
Sulpicia c.R.
I Thracum
II Asturum
III Breucorum
VI Breucorum
VI Brittonum
I civium Romanorum eq
II civium Romanorum eq
I classica
II Hispanorum
I Flavia Hispanorum eq
VI ingenuorum c.R.[c]
I Latobicorum et Varcianorum
I Lucensium
I Pannoniorum et Delmatarum eq
I Raetorum eq c.R.
VI Raetorum
IV Thracum eq
II Varcianorum eq
XV voluntariorum c.R.

Germania Superior[edit]

Germania Superior
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Gallorum Indiana
I Scubulorum
I Aquitanorum veterana
III Aquitanorum eq c.R.
IV Aquitanorum eq c.R.
I Asturum equitata eq
I Biturigum
Augusta Cyrenaica eq
II Augusta Cyrenaica
I Flavia Damascenorum[c]
III Delmatarum eq
V Delmatarum
I Germanorum c.R.
I Helvetiorum
II Hispanorum eq
Ituraeorum c.R.
I Ligurum et Hispanorum c.R.
II Raetorum c.R.
VII Raetorum eq
IV Vindelicorum
XXIV voluntariorum c.R.
XXVI voluntariorum c.R.
XXX voluntariorum c.R.
XXXII voluntariorum c.R.

Raetia/Noricum[edit]

Raetia/Noricum
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Hispanorum Auriana
I Commagenorum
II Flavia[c]
I Flavia gemina c.R.
I Flavia singularium
II Aquitanorum eq c.R.
I Asturum
II Batavorum[c]
IX Batavorum eq[c]
V Bracaraugustanorum
I Breucorum c.R.
V Breucorum c.R. eq
III Britannorum
I Aelia Brittonum[c]
I Raetorum
II Raetorum
II Thracum
III Thracum c.R.
III Thracum veterana
IV Tungrorum veterana

I Flavia Canathenorum sagitt[c]

Pannonia[edit]

Pannonia (Superior and Inferior)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Hispanorum Aravacorum
I Flavia Britannica c.R.[c]
I Brittonum c.R.
I Cananefatium
I civium Romanorum
I Augusta Ituraeorum
I Praetoria singularium c.R.
I Thracum victrix
II Augusta Thracum

I Ulpia contariorum[c][d]
I Thracum veterana sagitt
III Augusta Thracum sagitt
I Alpinorum eq
I Alpinorum peditata
II Alpinorum eq
II Asturum et Callaecorum eq
III Batavorum eq[c]
VII Breucorum c.R. eq
I Brittonum
V Callaecorum Lucensium eq
I Campanorum voluntariorum c.R.
II Augusta Dacorum eq[c]
I Lusitanorum Cyrenaica
III Lusitanorum
I Montanorum eq
I Noricorum eq
I Ulpia Pannoniorum eq[c]
I Thracum c.R.
I Thracum Germanica
I Thracum Syriaca equitata eq
II Augusta Thracum eq

I Aelia Caesariensis sagitt[c]
I Aelia Gaesatorum sagitt[c]

Moesia Superior[edit]

Moesia Superior
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Claudia nova miscellanea
Gallorum Flaviana
III Brittonum veterana eq
III campestris c.R.
V Gallorum eq
V Gallorum et Pannoniorum
V Hispanorum eq
I Pannoniorum veterana eq
I Antiochensium sagitt
I Cretum eq sagitt

Moesia Inferior[edit]

Moesia Inferior
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Hispanorum Aravacorum
I Vespasiana Dardanorum
I Flavia Gaetulorum
Gallorum Atectorigiana
I Claudia Gallorum Capitoniana

I Gallorum et Pannoniorum cataphractaria[d]
I Bracarorum c.R.
II Bracaraugustanorum eq
II Flavia Brittonum eq
I Lepidiana c.R.
II Lucensium
I Lusitanorum
II Mattiacorum eq[c]
I Flavia Numidarum eq
I Sugambrorum tironum
I Claudia Sugambrorum veterana eq
I Thracum Syriaca

II Chalcidenorum sagitt
I Cilicum eq sagitt[c]

Dacia[edit]

Dacia (inc. Dacia Superior, Inferior and Porolissensis)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
I Asturum

I Batavorum[c]
I Bosporanorum[c]
I Hispanorum Campagonum
I Gallorum et Bosporanorum
II Gallorum et Pannoniorum
I Hispanorum
II Pannoniorum
II Pannoniorum veterana
I Tungrorum Frontoniana

I Flavia Commagenorum sagitt
numerus equitum Illyricorum

I Afrorum c.R. eq
I Batavorum eq c.R. p.f.[c]
II Flavia Bessorum
I Bracaraugustanorum
I Britannica c.R. eq[c]
II Britannorum c.R.[c]
I Flavia Brittonum eq[c]
I Ulpia Brittonum
I Augusta Brittonum Nerviana
II Augusta Brittonum Nerviana
I Cananefatium
I Flavia Commagenorum
II Flavia Commagenorum
IV Baetica

I Cypria c.R.
II Gallorum
II Gallorum Dacica
II Gallorum Macedonica eq
II Gallorum Pannonica
III Gallorum
I Hispanorum
I Hispanorum veterana eq
I Flavia Ulpia Hispanorum c.R. eq
II Hispanorum scutata c.R.
IV Hispanorum eq
V Lingonum

I Aurelia Antonina Hemesenorum
II Flavia Numidarum
VIII Raetorum eq c.R.
VI Thracum eq
Ubiorum eq
I Ubiorum
I Vindelicorum c.R. eq[c]

I Augusta Ituraerorum sagitt
I Thracum sagitt
I Tyriorum sagitt

Cappadocia[edit]

Cappadocia
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Ulpia Auriana
I Augusta gemina colonorum
I Ulpia Dacorum
II Gallorum
I Parthorum veterana
Apula c.R.
I Bosporanorum
I Claudia eq
II Claudia
I Hamiorum c.R.[c]
I Italica voluntariorum c.R.[c]
milliaria c.R. eq[c]
I Numidarum
II Ulpia Petreorum eq[c]
III Ulpia Petreorum eq[c]
I Raetorum eq
IV Raetorum eq

III Augusta Cyrenaica sagitt

Syria[edit]

Syria (inc. Judaea, Arabia Petraea)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
I Flavia Agrippiana
II Flavia Agrippiana
Gaetulorum veterana
I Phrygum
VII Phrygum
I Ulpia singularium
I Thracum Herculanea
Augusta Xoitana

I Ulpia dromedariorum[c]
Gallorum et Thracum Antiana sagitt
III Bracarum
IV Bracarugustanorum
III Callaecorum Bracarum
IV Callaecorum Lucensium
II Cantabrorum
II classica
I Ulpia Dacorum
III Dacorum
I Damascena Armeniaca
II equitum eq
II Ulpia equitatum eq
I Flavia
I Gaetulorum
I Ulpia Galatarum
II Ulpia Galatarum
VII Gallorum eq
V gemella c.R.
VI Hispanorum
II Ligurum et Corsorum
I Lucensium
I Augusta Lusitanorum
I Montanorum
I Augusta Pannoniorum
II Ulpia Paphlagonum
III Ulpia Paphlagonum eq
IV Ulpia Petreorum
V Ulpia Petreorum eq
VI Ulpia Petreorum
I Sebastena[c]
I Thracum[c]
III Augusta Thracum
II Thracum Syriaca
III Thracum Syriaca
IV Thracum Syriaca

I Ascalonitanorum sagitt
I Flavia Chalcidenorum eq sagitt
I Damascenorum sagitt
II Italica voluntariorum c.R. sagitt[c]
I Ulpia Petreorum eq sagitt
I Ulpia c.R. sagitt
I Augusta Thracum eq sagitt

Aegyptus[edit]

Aegyptus
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Apriana
Augusta Syriaca
Commagenorum
Gallorum veterana
I Thracum Macedonica
Vocontiorum
I Ulpia Afrorum eq
I Flavia Cilicum eq
II Ituraeorum
III Ituraeorum
I Aug. praetoria Lusitanorum eq
I Macedonica eq
I Pannoniorum
I Thebaeorum eq
II Thebaeorum
scutata c.R.

I Apamenorum eq sagitt

Mauretania[edit]

Mauretania (inc. Africa, Numidia, Caesariensis, Tingitana
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
III Asturum
I Augusta c.R.
I Augusta Gallorum
I Gallorum Tauriana victrix
Gemelliana c.R.
I Flavia Numidica
I Augusta Nerviana[c]
I Pannoniorum
II Augusta Thracum

I Hamiorum sagitt
Parthorum sagitt
I Syrorum sagitt
II Syrorum sagitt
I Flavia Afrorum
II Flavia Afrorum
I Asturum et Callaecorum
III Asturum c.R. eq
II Breucorum
II Brittonum eq
I Chalcidenorum eq
VI Commagenorum eq
I Corsorum c.R.
V Delmatarum c.R.
Aelia expedita
I Flavia eq
III Gallorum felix
IV Gallorum c.R.
II Hamiorum
I Flavia Hispanorum
II Hispanorum c.R. eq[c]
I Ituraeorum c.R.
I Lemavorum c.R.
VII Lusitanorum eq
I Flavia Musulamiorum eq
I Nurritanorum
II Sardorum
IV Sugambrorum
IV Tungrorum[c]

I Syrorum sagitt
II Syrorum eq sagitt[c]

Other locations[edit]

Internal provinces & unknown locations
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Flavia Hispanorum (HISP) III Alpinorum eq (DLM)
I Aelia Athoitarum (THR)
I Ausetanorum (HISP?)
I Flavia Bessorum (MCD)
Callaecorum (?)
I Celtiberorum eq (HISP)
I Cisipadensium c.R. (THR)
Dacorum (?)
I Gallica c.R. eq (HISP)
I Delmatarum mill eq (DLM)
I Ligurum[c] (AS?)
maritima (BAE)
Maurorum et Afrorum (?)
I Musulamiorum[c] (LYC)
VI praetoria (BYT)
III sagittariorum (?)
I/II nova tironum (HISP)
VIII voluntariorum (DLM)
XXV voluntariorum (HISP?)

List of auxilia ethnic regimental names[edit]

List of auxilia ethnic regimental names
Regimental
name
Original
tribe/city
Roman
province
Original
territory
now in
Native
language
Further information
Afrorum Afri Africa Tunisia Berber
Alpinorum Salassi Alpes Tres Val d'Aosta, NW Italy Ligurian Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Antiochensium Antiochenses Syria Antakya, Turkey Aramaic
Aquitanorum Aquitani Gallia Aquitania Aquitaine, SW France Aquitanian
Apamenorum Apameni Syria Apamea, Syria Aramaic
Aravacorum Arevaci Hispania Tarraconensis Burgos pr Spain Celtiberian
Aresacorum Aresaci Germania Inferior ? Germanic
Ascalonitanorum Ascalonitani Judaea Ascalon, Israel Aramaic
Asturum Astures Hispania T. Asturias, N Spain Celtiberian
Athoitarum Autariatae Dalmatia Bosnia Illyrian
Ausetanorum Ausetani Hispania T. N Barcelona pr Spain Iberian
Baetasiorum Baetasii Germania Inferior S Netherlands W Germanic
Batavorum Batavi Germania Inferior Betuwe, E Netherlands W Germanic
Bessorum Bessi Thracia Mid Bulgaria Thracian
Biturigum Bituriges Gallia Lugdunensis Berry, C France Gaulish
Bosporanorum Bosporani Regnum Bospori Crimea, S. Russia Greek/Sarmatian
Bracarorum
Bracarum
Bracaraugustanorum
Bracari Hispania T. Minho, Portugal Gallaecian
Breucorum Breuci Dalmatia N Bosnia Illyrian
Brittonum
Britannorum
Brittones
(Britanni)
Britannia N Britain Brythonic
Callaecorum Gallaeci Hispania T. Galicia, NW Spain Gallaecian
Campagonum Campagones Hispania T. N Spain Celtiberian (C)
Campanorum (Roman cit) Italia Campania, Italy Latin
Canathenorum Canatheni Syria Canatha, Syria Aramaic
Cannanefatium Cananefates Germania Inferior S Holland, Netherlands W Germanic
Cantabrorum Cantabri Hispania T. Cantabria N Spain Celtiberian
Celtiberorum Celtiberi Hispania T. Guadalajara, Spain Celtiberian
Chalcidenorum Chalcideni Bithynia Chalcedon, Turkey Greek
Cilicum Cilices Cilicia Icel/Adana pr Turkey Lydian
Cisipadensium (Roman citizens) Italia (Aemilia region) Emilia-Romagna, Italy Latin
Commagenorum Commagene Cappadocia Gaziantep pr Turkey Greek
Corsorum Corsi Sardinia N Sardinia, Italy Sardinian
Cretum Cretes Creta Crete, Greece Greek
Cugernorum Cugerni Germania Inferior NW Rhineland, Germany W Germanic
Dardanorum Dardani Macedonia S Serbia/Kosovo Illyrian
Dacorum Daci Dacia Romania Dacian
Damascenorum Damasceni Syria Damascus, Syria Aramaic
Delmatarum Dalmatae Dalmatia Dalmacja, Croatia Illyrian
Frisiavonum Frisiavones Germania Inferior N Brabant S Neth W Germanic
Gaesatorum Gaesati Gallia Belgica Alsace, Fr Gaulish
Gaetulorum Gaetuli Mauretania Algeria Berber
Galatarum Galatae Galatia Ankara pr C Turkey Galatian
Gallorum Gauls Gallia Lugdunensis NE France Gaulish
Hamiorum Hama Syria Hama, Syria Aramaic
Helvetiorum Helvetii Belgica SW Switzerland Gaulish
Hemesenorum Emesa Syria Homs, Syria Aramaic
Hispanorum Hispani Hispania T. N Spain Celtiberian
Illyricorum Illyrici Dalmatia Bosnia Illyrian
Ituraeorum Ituraei Syria S Lebanon Aramaic
Latobicorum Latobici Pannonia C Bosnia Illyrian
Lemavorum Lemavi Hispania T. Galicia, Spain Celtiberian
Ligurum Ligures Italia (Liguria) Liguria, Italy Ligurian Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Lingonum Lingones Belgica Langres, NE France Gaulish
Lucensium Lucenses Hispania T. cLugo Galicia, Portugal Gallaecian
Lusitanorum Lusitani Lusitania Portugal Celtiberian
Mattiacorum Mattiaci Germania Sup Rhineland Pfalz, Germany W Germanic
Maurorum Mauri Mauretania Algeria Berber
Menapiorum Menapii Belgica W Flanders, Belgium Gaulish
Morinorum Morini Belgica Pas-de-Calais, France Gaulish
Montanorum Montani Pannonia Julian Alps, Slovenia Raetian Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Musulamiorum Musulamii Mauretania E Algeria Berber
Nerviorum Nervii Belgica Flandres, France Gaulish
Noricorum Taurisci Noricum Mid Austria (C) Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Numidarum Numidae Numidia NE Algeria Berber
Nurritanorum Nurritani Sardinia cNuoro, N Sardinia, Italy Sardinian
Pannoniorum Pannonii Pannonia W Hungary Illyrian
Parthorum Parthi Cappadocia E Turkey Parthian
Petreorum Nabataei Arabia Pet. cPetra, Jordan Arabic
Phrygum Phryges Galatia Eskisehir, W Turkey Phrygian
Raetorum Raeti Raetia S Germany/Switzerland Raetian (X/C) Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Sardorum Sardi Sardinia S Sardinia, Italty Sardinian
Scubulorum Scubuli Macedonia cSkopje, Macedonia Illyrian
Sequanorum Sequani Belgica Franche-Comté, France Gaulish
Sugambrorum Sicambri Germania Inferior NW Rhineland, Germany W Germanic
Sunucorum Sunici Germania Inferior E Netherlands W Germanic
Syrorum Syri Syria Syria Aramaic
Thebaeorum Thebaei Aegyptus Thebes, Egypt Egyptian
Trachonitarum ? Syria? ? (X/S)
Thracum Thraces Thracia Bulgaria Thracian
Trevirorum Treveri Belgica cTrier, Germany Gaulish
Tungrorum Tungri Belgica cTongeren (Tongres), Belgium Gaulish
Tyriorum Tyrii Syria Tyre, S Lebanon Phoenician
Ubiorum Ubii Germania Inferior NW Rhineland, Germany W Germanic
Vangionum Vangiones Germania Sup Mainz/Worms, Germany W Germanic
Varcianorum Varciani Pannonia E Croatia Illyrian
Vardulorum Varduli Hispania T. Guipuzcoa, Spain Old Basque
Vasconum Vascones Hispania T. Navarra, Spain Old Basque
Vettonum Vettones Lusitania Salamanca pr Spain Celtiberian
Vindelicorum Vindelici Raetia Black Forest, Germany Celtic/German Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Vocontiorum Vocontii Gallia Lugdunensis Dauphiné, France Gaulish

Glossary[edit]

Some regiments were named after other people, for example ala Sulpicia after its first, or early, praefectus. In the Augustan era, commanders of auxiliary units were often Roman legionary centurions, or native chieftains. For example, ala Gallorum Atectorigiana was probably once commanded by a Gallic chieftain named Atectorix. Later, emperor Claudius restricted auxiliary commands to the lower aristocratic class of equites only.

Imperial dedications[edit]

Augusta
founded by emperor Augustus (r. 30 BCE–14 CE), or honoured with this title by any of his successors
Claudia
founded by, or honoured by, one of: Tiberius (r. 14–37 CE), Caligula (r. 37–41 CE), or Claudius (r. 41–54 CE), all of whom were members of the Claudii clan
Flavia
Vespasian (r. 69–79 CE) or one of his two sons and successors, Titus (r. 79–81 CE) or Domitian (r. 81–96 CE)
Ulpia
Trajan (r. 98–117 CE)
Aelia
Hadrian (r. 117–138 CE)
Aurelia
Marcus Aurelius (r. 161–180 CE)
Septimia
Septimius Severus (r. 197–211 CE)

In the 4th century, Valeria referred to emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305 CE) and Flavia to Constantine I (r. 312–337 CE) or some of his successors.

Raised during the Illyrian revolt[edit]

Names of regiments originally raised by emperor Augustus during the Illyrian revolt (6–9 CE) from Roman citizens unsuitable for service in legions, such as vagrants, convicted criminals, debtors, and emancipated slaves:

civium Romanorum
regiment originally composed of Roman citizens (including emancipated slaves)
ingenuorum
regiment originally composed of free-born (ingenui) Roman citizens
voluntariorum
regiment originally composed of volunteers (voluntarii), in reality slaves freed in return for military service during the Illyrian revolt [1]

After their initial recruitment of Roman citizens, these regiments recruited non-citizens (peregrini) like all other regiments.

Other non-ethnic regimental names[edit]

classica
the regiment was originally recruited, probably during the Illyrian revolt, from naval personnel (from classis = "fleet"), who were mostly non-citizens
nauticarum
from nautae= "sailors"
maritima
praetoria
originally a cohort of the Praetorian Guard in Rome. Apparently a detachment of the cohort was left behind at the end of an imperial campaign, presumably to form the core of a new auxiliary cohort, retaining the prestigious name
singularium
ala formed around members of the elite equites singulares Augusti (imperial horseguards), left behind to reinforce frontier at the end of an imperial campaign
contariorum
specialised regiment of lancers (contarii) from contus (a long lance)
dromedariorum
specialised regiment of camel-mounted troops for desert warfare

regimental epithets[edit]

Some regiment names included additional descriptors:

civium Romanorum (c.R.)
"of Roman citizens", honorific title awarded by the emperor to a regiment for valour. All current (but not future) members would be granted Roman citizenship, and the regiment would retain the title in perpetuity.
pia fidelis (p.f.)
veterana
uncertain meaning which may have been used to distinguish older unit from a newer unit with the same serial number and name
tironum
from tirones ("trainees")

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The number of units is 327 according to Spaul and 367 according to Holder. This discrepancy is due to the existence of several units with the same serial number and name, but attested in various provinces. It is not clear if they were different units or the same units moved around. In the table, Holder's estimate has been followed. In addition, 14 units attested until about 100 CE, which Holder considers likely but not certain to have survived into Hadrian's reign are also included to present all possible units (making a total of 381 units).
  2. ^ The calculation assumes an average performed service of 15 years
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au a regiment having twice the soldiers of a standard quingenaria unit
  4. ^ a b equites cataphractarii

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Complete Roman Army. London [u.a.]: Thames & Hudson. p. 64. ISBN 0-500-05124-0. 

Sources[edit]

The sources used for this article are the most comprehensive and up-to-date general surveys on this subject, namely:

  • Spaul, John E. H. (2000). Cohors² : the evidence for and a short history of the auxiliery infantry units of theImperial Roman army. BAR, International series 841. Oxford: Archaeopress. ISBN 9781841710464. 
  • Spaul, John E. H.; Cichorius, Conrad (1994). Ala² : the auxiliary cavalry units of the pre-Diocletianic imperial Roman army. Andover: Nectoreca Press. ISBN 9780952506201. 

External links[edit]