List of Roman auxiliary regiments

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This article lists the Roman auxiliary regiments of the Imperial Roman army attested in the epigraphic record, by province of deployment in the reign of the emperor Hadrian (r. 117-38), the period with the most abundant evidence. For the history, organisation and equipment of these regiments, see Auxilia.

In addition, an index of regimental names is provided that explains the origin of the names, most of which are based on the names of the subject tribes or cities of the empire where they were originally recruited. (As time went by, they became staffed by recruits from anywhere, especially from the province where they were deployed.)

Sources[edit]

The sources used for this article are the most comprehensive and up-to-date general surveys on this subject, namely:

  • Holder, Paul: Auxiliary Deployment in the Reign of Hadrian (2003)
  • Spaul, John: COHORS 2 (2000)
  • Spaul, John: ALA (1994)

Introduction[edit]

Types of regiment[edit]

During the Principate era until AD 212, auxiliary regiments, called auxilia by the Romans, were formations kept separate from the legions, who were recruited from Roman citizens only. Auxilia were mostly recruited from the peregrini, i.e. subjects of the Roman empire who did not hold Roman citizenship: the vast majority of the empire's inhabitants in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD (in 212 AD, all the inhabitants of the empire were granted Roman citizenship).

There were three basic types of auxiliary regiment: alae (lit: "wings"), which contained cavalry only (official strength: 480 men); cohortes ("cohorts"), which contained infantry only (480); and cohortes equitatae, which were infantry cohorts with a cavalry contingent attached (600 men, of which 480 infantry and 120 cavalry). A number of regiments, of all three types, were designated sagittariorum, indicating that their members were equipped as archers. After ca. AD 80, a minority of regiments (ca. 12%) were enlarged and designated milliariae, nominally 1000-strong, but in reality containing 720, 800 and 1,040 effectives respectively.

Contents of tables[edit]

Table I below lists auxiliary regiments during the rule of the emperor Hadrian (AD 117-38), for which there is the most comprehensive evidence. The table does not show regiments that were attested to in the 1st century but that, according to Holder, were dissolved by 117, nor those that were probably founded after 138. The precise number of regiments that existed at this time is disputed (e.g., 327 per Spaul; 367 per Holder). This discrepancy is due to the existence of several units with the same serial number and name, but attested in various provinces: were they different units, or the same unit moved around? In the table, Holder's estimate has been followed. In addition, 14 units attested until ca. 100, which Holder considers likely but not certain to have survived into Hadrian's reign are also included to present all possible units (making a total of 381 units). The regiments are listed by the Roman province where they were deployed in ca. 130.

Table II is a glossary of regimental names, the majority of which were ethnic, i.e., derived from the name of the native tribe or city-state of the empire where the regiment was originally raised. The table gives the tribe's name, territory and language-group.

Ethnic composition of regiments[edit]

The rule of the founder-emperor Augustus (30 BC - AD 14) saw the foundation of the majority of the regiments attested in Hadrian's time. In the earlier part of this period, regiments were raised from, and named after, individual tribes e.g. Campagonum, Trevirorum and Bessorum. Later, units were raised from and named after broad national groups e.g. Hispanorum, Gallorum, Thracum.

There is very little evidence concerning the organisation and policies of auxiliary recruitment. The ethnic origins of auxiliary recruits are attested in only a tiny fraction of cases. For example, the Cohors II Gallorum veterana equitata must have recruited ca. 8,000 effectives over its probable lifespan of ca. 250 years (assuming an average performed service of 15 years). But the origins of only 2 rankers are known. Conclusions about auxiliary recruitment drawn by scholars from the available evidence must therefore be regarded as tentative.

According to Holder, during the Julio-Claudian era (14-68), a regiment's ethnic identity was preserved to some extent, with evidence of continued recruitment from the original people. By the time of Hadrian, however, a regiment's name, in most cases, probably represented the ethnic origin of few, if any, of its members. This is because in the Flavian era (69-96), as a matter of deliberate policy, most regiments were deployed in provinces far from their original home and drew the majority of their recruits from local natives and the rest from all parts of the empire. In most cases, therefore, a regiment's name had become an identification tag devoid of ethnic significance. A regiment deployed long-term in the same province would thus, over time, acquire the ethnic character of its host population.

There are exceptions to this rule:

  • A minority of regiments remained stationed in their original home province, e.g., cohors I Delmatarum mill eq, still attested in Dalmatia in 130.
  • Regiments founded a relatively short period before 130, e.g., the cohors I Aelia Dacorum stationed in Britain in 130 would probably still have contained mostly Dacian recruits at this time, as it had been established by Hadrian only about a decade earlier.
  • Some specialised regiments (e.g., Syrian archers) and the elite Batavi show some evidence of continued preferential recruitment from their original province.

TABLE I: Regiments attested in the reign of Hadrian[edit]

The Roman empire in 125 AD, in the time of emperor Hadrian, showing the provinces and legions deployed

To access the table of auxiliary regiments for the province of your interest, click on the relevant note.

KEY:

c.R. = civium Romanorum ("of Roman citizens"): an honorific title
eq = equitata (i.e. contains a cavalry contingent)
sagitt = sagittariorum (archer unit)
unit in bold type = milliaria (double-strength) regiment

^Britannia

Table I(a): BRITANNIA
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
Agrippina Miniata
I Hispanorum Asturum
II Asturum
Augusta Gallorum Petriana c.R.
Augusta Gallorum Proculeiana
Picentiana Gallorum
II Gallorum Sebosiana
Gallorum et Thracum classiana
I Pannoniorum Sabiniana
I Pannoniorum Tampiana
I Thracum
I Tungrorum
Hispanorum Vettonum
Augusta Vocontiorum
I Aquitanorum
II Asturum eq
IV Breucorum
I Augusta Bracarum
III Bracaraugustanorum
I Baetasiorum c.R.
I Batavorum eq
I Celtiberorum
I Aelia classica
I Ulpia Cugernorum c.R.
I Aelia Dacorum
I Delmatarum
II Delmatarum
IV Delmatarum
I Frisiavonum
II Gallorum veterana eq
IV Gallorum eq
V Gallorum
VI Gallorum
I Hispanorum eq
I Aelia Hispanorum eq
I Lingonum eq
II Lingonum eq
III Lingonum eq
IV Lingonum eq
I Menapiorum
I Morinorum
I nauticarum
I Augusta Nerviana Germanorum eq
I Nerviorum
II Nerviorum
III Nerviorum
IV Nerviorum
II Pannoniorum
V Raetorum
I Sunucorum
I Thracum
II Thracum veterana
VII Thracum
I Tungrorum
II Tungrorum c.L. eq
I Vangionum eq
I Vardulorum c.R. eq
II Vasconum c.R.


I Hamiorum sagitt

^Germania Inf

Table I(b): GERMANIA INFERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Afrorum veterana
Longiniana Gallorum
Gallorum et Thracum classiana
Moesica felix
I Noricorum c.R.
Sulpicia c.R.
I Thracum
II Asturum
III Breucorum
VI Breucorum
VI Brittonum
I civium Romanorum eq
II civium Romanorum eq
I classica
II Hispanorum
I Flavia Hispanorum eq
VI ingenuorum c.R.
I Latobicorum et Varcianorum
I Lucensium
I Pannoniorum et Delmatarum eq
I Raetorum eq c.R.
VI Raetorum
IV Thracum eq
II Varcianorum eq
XV voluntariorum c.R.

^Germania Sup

Table I(c): GERMANIA SUPERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Gallorum Indiana
I Scubulorum
I Aquitanorum veterana
III Aquitanorum eq c.R.
IV Aquitanorum eq c.R.
I Asturum equitata eq
I Biturigum
Augusta Cyrenaica eq
II Augusta Cyrenaica
I Flavia Damascenorum
III Delmatarum eq
V Delmatarum
I Germanorum c.R.
I Helvetiorum
II Hispanorum eq
Ituraeorum c.R.
I Ligurum et Hispanorum c.R.
II Raetorum c.R.
VII Raetorum eq
IV Vindelicorum
XXIV voluntariorum c.R.
XXVI voluntariorum c.R.
XXX voluntariorum c.R.
XXXII voluntariorum c.R.

^Raetia

Table I(d): RAETIA/NORICUM
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Hispanorum Auriana
I Commagenorum
II Flavia
I Flavia gemina c.R.
I Flavia singularium
II Aquitanorum eq c.R.
I Asturum
II Batavorum
IX Batavorum eq
V Bracaraugustanorum
I Breucorum c.R.
V Breucorum c.R. eq
III Britannorum
I Aelia Brittonum
I Raetorum
II Raetorum
II Thracum
III Thracum c.R.
III Thracum veterana
IV Tungrorum veterana

I Flavia Canathenorum sagitt

^Pannonia

Table I(e): PANNONIA (Superior and Inferior)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Hispanorum Aravacorum
I Flavia Britannica c.R.
I Brittonum c.R.
I Cananefatium
I civium Romanorum
I Augusta Ituraeorum
I Praetoria singularium c.R.
I Thracum victrix
II Augusta Thracum

I Ulpia contariorum
I Thracum veterana sagitt
III Augusta Thracum sagitt
I Alpinorum eq
I Alpinorum peditata
II Alpinorum eq
II Asturum et Callaecorum eq
III Batavorum eq
VII Breucorum c.R. eq
I Brittonum
V Callaecorum Lucensium eq
I Campanorum voluntariorum c.R.
II Augusta Dacorum eq
I Lusitanorum Cyrenaica
III Lusitanorum
I Montanorum eq
I Noricorum eq
I Ulpia Pannoniorum eq
I Thracum c.R.
I Thracum Germanica
I Thracum Syriaca equitata eq
II Augusta Thracum eq

I Aelia Caesariensis sagitt
I Aelia Gaesatorum sagitt

^Moesia Sup

Table I(f): MOESIA SUPERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Claudia nova miscellanea
Gallorum Flaviana
III Brittonum veterana eq
III campestris c.R.
V Gallorum eq
V Gallorum et Pannoniorum
V Hispanorum eq
I Pannoniorum veterana eq
I Antiochensium sagitt
I Cretum eq sagitt

^Moesia Inf

Table I(g): MOESIA INFERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Hispanorum Aravacorum
I Vespasiana Dardanorum
I Flavia Gaetulorum
Gallorum Atectorigiana
I Claudia Gallorum Capitoniana

I Gallorum et Pannoniorum cataphractaria
I Bracarorum c.R.
II Bracaraugustanorum eq
II Flavia Brittonum eq
I Lepidiana c.R.
II Lucensium
I Lusitanorum
II Mattiacorum eq
I Flavia Numidarum eq
I Sugambrorum tironum
I Claudia Sugambrorum veterana eq
I Thracum Syriaca

II Chalcidenorum sagitt
I Cilicum eq sagitt

^Dacia

Table I(h): DACIA (inc. Dacia Superior, Inferior and Porolissensis)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
I Asturum

I Batavorum
I Bosporanorum
I Hispanorum Campagonum
I Gallorum et Bosporanorum
II Gallorum et Pannoniorum
I Hispanorum
II Pannoniorum
II Pannoniorum veterana
I Tungrorum Frontoniana

I Flavia Commagenorum sagitt
numerus equitum Illyricorum

I Afrorum c.R. eq
I Batavorum eq c.R. pf
II Flavia Bessorum
I Bracaraugustanorum
I Britannica c.R. eq
II Britannorum c.R.
I Flavia Brittonum eq
I Ulpia Brittonum
I Augusta Brittonum Nerviana
II Augusta Brittonum Nerviana
I Cananefatium
I Flavia Commagenorum
II Flavia Commagenorum
IV Baetica

I Cypria c.R.
II Gallorum
II Gallorum Dacica
II Gallorum Macedonica eq
II Gallorum Pannonica
III Gallorum
I Hispanorum
I Hispanorum veterana eq
I Flavia Ulpia Hispanorum c.R. eq
II Hispanorum scutata c.R.
IV Hispanorum eq
V Lingonum

I Aurelia Antonina Hemesenorum
II Flavia Numidarum
VIII Raetorum eq c.R.
VI Thracum eq
Ubiorum eq
I Ubiorum
I Vindelicorum c.R. eq

I Augusta Ituraerorum sagitt
I Thracum sagitt
I Tyriorum sagitt

^Cappadocia

Table I(i): CAPPADOCIA
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Ulpia Auriana
I Augusta gemina colonorum
I Ulpia Dacorum
II Gallorum
I Parthorum veterana
Apula c.R.
I Bosporanorum
I Claudia eq
II Claudia
I Hamiorum c.R.
I Italica voluntariorum c.R.
milliaria c.R. eq
I Numidarum
II Ulpia Petreorum eq
III Ulpia Petreorum eq
I Raetorum eq
IV Raetorum eq

III Augusta Cyrenaica sagitt

^Syria

Table I(j): SYRIA (inc. Judaea, Arabia Petraea)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
I Flavia Agrippiana
II Flavia Agrippiana
Gaetulorum veterana
I Phrygum
VII Phrygum
I Ulpia singularium
I Thracum Herculanea
Augusta Xoitana

I Ulpia dromedariorum
Gallorum et Thracum Antiana sagitt
III Bracarum
IV Bracarugustanorum
III Callaecorum Bracarum
IV Callaecorum Lucensium
II Cantabrorum
II classica
I Ulpia Dacorum
III Dacorum
I Damascena Armeniaca
II equitum eq
II Ulpia equitatum eq
I Flavia
I Gaetulorum
I Ulpia Galatarum
II Ulpia Galatarum
VII Gallorum eq
V gemella c.R.
VI Hispanorum
II Ligurum et Corsorum
I Lucensium
I Augusta Lusitanorum
I Montanorum
I Augusta Pannoniorum
II Ulpia Paphlagonum
III Ulpia Paphlagonum eq
IV Ulpia Petreorum
V Ulpia Petreorum eq
VI Ulpia Petreorum
I Sebastena
I Thracum
III Augusta Thracum
II Thracum Syriaca
III Thracum Syriaca
IV Thracum Syriaca

I Ascalonitanorum sagitt
I Flavia Chalcidenorum eq sagitt
I Damascenorum sagitt
II Italica voluntariorum c.R. sagitt
I Ulpia Petreorum eq sagitt
I Ulpia c.R. sagitt
I Augusta Thracum eq sagitt

^Aegyptus

Table I(k): AEGYPTUS
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Apriana
Augusta Syriaca
Commagenorum
Gallorum veterana
I Thracum Macedonica
Vocontiorum
I Ulpia Afrorum eq
I Flavia Cilicum eq
II Ituraeorum
III Ituraeorum
I Aug. praetoria Lusitanorum eq
I Macedonica eq
I Pannoniorum
I Thebaeorum eq
II Thebaeorum
scutata c.R.

I Apamenorum eq sagitt

^Mauretania

Table I(l) MAURETANIA (inc. Africa, Numidia, Caesariensis, Tingitana
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
III Asturum
I Augusta c.R.
I Augusta Gallorum
I Gallorum Tauriana victrix
Gemelliana c.R.
I Flavia Numidica
I Augusta Nerviana
I Pannoniorum
II Augusta Thracum

I Hamiorum sagitt
Parthorum sagitt
I Syrorum sagitt
II Syrorum sagitt
I Flavia Afrorum
II Flavia Afrorum
I Asturum et Callaecorum
III Asturum c.R. eq
II Breucorum
II Brittonum eq
I Chalcidenorum eq
VI Commagenorum eq
I Corsorum c.R.
V Delmatarum c.R.
Aelia expedita
I Flavia eq
III Gallorum felix
IV Gallorum c.R.
II Hamiorum
I Flavia Hispanorum
II Hispanorum c.R. eq
I Ituraeorum c.R.
I Lemavorum c.R.
VII Lusitanorum eq
I Flavia Musulamiorum eq
I Nurritanorum
II Sardorum
IV Sugambrorum
IV Tungrorum

I Syrorum sagitt
II Syrorum eq sagitt

^Internal

Table I(m) INTERNAL PROVINCES & UNKNOWN LOCATIONS
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Flavia Hispanorum (HISP) III Alpinorum eq (DLM)
I Aelia Athoitarum (THR)
I Ausetanorum (HISP?)
I Flavia Bessorum (MCD)
Callaecorum (?)
I Celtiberorum eq (HISP)
I Cisipadensium c.R. (THR)
Dacorum (?)
I Gallica c.R. eq (HISP)
I Delmatarum mill eq (DLM)
I Ligurum (AS?)
maritima (BAE)
Maurorum et Afrorum (?)
I Musulamiorum (LYC)
VI praetoria (BYT)
III sagittariorum (?)
I/II nova tironum (HISP)
VIII voluntariorum (DLM)
XXV voluntariorum (HISP?)

GLOSSARY OF NON-ETHNIC REGIMENTAL NAMES

NB: Where a regiment carries the name of a person (other than an imperial name, see below), e.g. ala Sulpicia, the name in most cases is that of the regiment's first, or early, praefectus (regimental commander). In the Augustan era, commanders of auxiliary units were often Roman legionary centurions, or native chieftains e.g. ala Gallorum Atectorigiana, which was probably once commanded by a Gallic chieftain named Atectorix. (Later, the emperor Claudius restricted auxiliary commands to Roman knights only).

(1) imperial dedications

  • Augusta: founded by emperor Augustus (r. 30 BC - AD 14), or honoured with this title by any of his successors
  • Claudia: founded by, or honoured by, one of: Tiberius (r.14-37), Caligula (37-41) or Claudius (41-54), all of whom were members of the Claudii clan
  • Flavia: Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus r.69-79) or one of his two sons and successors, Titus (79-81) or Domitian (81-96)
  • Ulpia: Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus r.98-117)
  • Aelia: Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus r.117-138)
  • Aurelia: Marcus Aurelius (r.161-180)
  • Septimia: Septimius Severus (r.197-211)

N.B. In the 4th century, Valeria referred to emperor Diocletian (Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, r.284-305) and Flavia to Constantine I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus, r.312-337) or some of his successors.

(2) names of regiments originally raised by the emperor Augustus during the Illyrian revolt crisis (AD 6-9) from Roman citizens not admissible to legions (i.e. vagrants, convicts, debtors and freed slaves):

  • civium Romanorum: regiment originally composed of Roman citizens (inc freed slaves)
  • ingenuorum: regiment originally free-born (ingenui) Roman citizens
  • voluntariorum: regiment originally volunteers (voluntarii), in reality slaves freed in return for military service during the Illyrian revolt crisis[1]

PS: After their initial recruitment of Roman citizens, these regiments recruited non-citizens (peregrini) like all other regiments.

(3) other non-ethnic regimental names:

  • classica: the regiment was originally recruited, probably in the Illyrian emergency, from naval personnel (from classis = "fleet"), who were mostly non-citizens. Also nauticarum (from nautae= "sailors") and maritima.
  • praetoria: originally a cohort of the Praetorian Guard in Rome. Apparently a detachment of the cohort was left behind at the end of an imperial campaign, presumably to form the core of a new auxiliary cohort, retaining the prestigious name.
  • singularium: ala formed around members of the elite equites singulares Augusti (imperial horseguards), left behind to reinforce frontier at the end of an imperial campaign.
  • contariorum: specialised regiment of lancers (contarii) from contus (a long lance)
  • dromedariorum: specialised regiment of camel-mounted troops for desert warfare

(4) regimental epithets:

  • civium Romanorum (c.R. for short): title awarded by the emperor to a regiment for signal valour. All current (but not future) members would be granted Roman citizenship, and the regiment would retain the title in perpetuity.
  • veterana: uncertain meaning: may have been used to distinguish older unit from a newer unit with the same serial number and name
  • tironum: from tirones ("trainees")

TABLE II: Index of ethnic regimental names[edit]

Linguistic group code

  • C = Celtic language group
  • X = non Indo-European language
  • X/C = non Indo-European base with strong Celtic influence
  • X/S = Semitic language group
TABLE II: ROMAN AUXILIARY REGIMENTS: Index of ethnic regimental names
Regimental
name
Original
tribe/city
Roman
province
Original
territory (approx.)
Native
language
Further information
Afrorum Afri Africa Tunisia Berber (X)
Alpinorum Salassi Alpes Tres Val d'Aosta, NW Italy Ligurian (X/C) Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Antiochensium Antiochenses Syria Antakya, Turkey Aramaic (X/S)
Aquitanorum Aquitani Gallia Aquitania Aquitaine, SW France Aquitanian (X)
Apamenorum Apameni Syria Apamea, Syria Aramaic (X/S)
Aravacorum Arevaci Hispania Tarraconensis Burgos pr Spain Celtiberian (C)
Aresacorum Aresaci Germania Inf ? Germanic
Ascalonitanorum Ascalonitani Judaea Ascalon, Israel Aramaic (X/S)
Asturum Astures Hispania T. Asturias, N Spain Celtiberian (C)
Athoitarum Autariatae Dalmatia Bosnia Illyrian
Ausetanorum Ausetani Hispania T. N Barcelona pr Spain Iberian (X)
Baetasiorum Baetasii Germania Inf S Netherlands W Germanic
Batavorum Batavi Germania Inf Betuwe, E Netherlands W Germanic
Bessorum Bessi Thracia Mid Bulgaria Thracian
Biturigum Bituriges Gallia Lugdunensis Berry, C France Gaulish (C)
Bosporanorum Bosporani Regnum Bospori Crimea, S. Russia Greek/Sarmatian
Bracarorum
Bracarum
Bracaraugustanorum
Bracari Hispania T. Minho, Portugal Gallaecian (C)
Breucorum Breuci Dalmatia N Bosnia Illyrian
Brittonum
Britannorum
Brittones
(Britanni)
Britannia N Britain Brythonic (C)
Callaecorum Gallaeci Hispania T. Galicia, NW Spain Gallaecian (C)
Campagonum Campagones Hispania T. N Spain Celtiberian (C)
Campanorum (Roman cit) Italia Campania, Italy Latin
Canathenorum Canatheni Syria Canatha, Syria Aramaic (X/S)
Cannanefatium Cananefates Germania Inf S Holland, Netherlands W Germanic
Cantabrorum Cantabri Hispania T. Cantabria N Spain Celtiberian (C)
Celtiberorum Celtiberi Hispania T. Guadalajara, Spain Celtiberian (C)
Chalcidenorum Chalcideni Bithynia Chalcedon, Turkey Greek
Cilicum Cilices Cilicia Icel/Adana pr Turkey Lydian
Cisipadensium (Roman citizens) Italia (Aemilia region) Emilia-Romagna, Italy Latin
Commagenorum Commagene Cappadocia Gaziantep pr Turkey Greek
Corsorum Corsi Sardinia N Sardinia, Italy Sardinian
Cretum Cretes Creta Crete, Greece Greek
Cugernorum Cugerni Germania Inf NW Rhineland, Germany W Germanic
Dardanorum Dardani Macedonia S Serbia/Kosovo Illyrian
Dacorum Daci Dacia Romania Dacian
Damascenorum Damasceni Syria Damascus, Syria Aramaic (X/S)
Delmatarum Dalmatae Dalmatia Dalmacja, Croatia Illyrian
Frisiavonum Frisiavones Germania Inf N Brabant S Neth W Germanic
Gaesatorum Gaesati Gallia Belgica Alsace, Fr Gaulish (C)
Gaetulorum Gaetuli Mauretania Algeria Berber (X)
Galatarum Galatae Galatia Ankara pr C Turkey Galatian (C)
Gallorum Gauls Gallia Lugdunensis NE France Gaulish (C)
Hamiorum Hama Syria Hama, Syria Aramaic (X/S)
Helvetiorum Helvetii Belgica SW Switzerland Gaulish (C)
Hemesenorum Emesa Syria Homs, Syria Aramaic (X/S)
Hispanorum Hispani Hispania T. N Spain Celtiberian (C)
Illyricorum Illyrici Dalmatia Bosnia Illyrian
Ituraeorum Ituraei Syria S Lebanon Aramaic (X/S)
Latobicorum Latobici Pannonia C Bosnia Illyrian
Lemavorum Lemavi Hispania T. Galicia, Spain Celtiberian (C)
Ligurum Ligures Italia (Liguria) Liguria, Italy Ligurian (X/C) Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Lingonum Lingones Belgica Langres, NE France Gaulish (C)
Lucensium Lucenses Hispania T. cLugo Galicia, Portugal Gallaecian (C)
Lusitanorum Lusitani Lusitania Portugal Celtiberian (C)
Mattiacorum Mattiaci Germania Sup Rhineland Pfalz, Germany W Germanic
Maurorum Mauri Mauretania Algeria Berber (X)
Menapiorum Menapii Belgica W Flanders, Belgium Gaulish (C)
Morinorum Morini Belgica Pas-de-Calais, France Gaulish (C)
Montanorum Montani Pannonia Julian Alps, Slovenia Raetian (X/C) Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Musulamiorum Musulamii Mauretania E Algeria Berber (X)
Nerviorum Nervii Belgica Flandres, France Gaulish (C)
Noricorum Taurisci Noricum Mid Austria (C) Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Numidarum Numidae Numidia NE Algeria Berber (X)
Nurritanorum Nurritani Sardinia cNuoro, N Sardinia, Italy Sardinian
Pannoniorum Pannonii Pannonia W Hungary Illyrian
Parthorum Parthi Cappadocia E Turkey Parthian
Petreorum Nabataei Arabia Pet. cPetra, Jordan Arabic (X/S)
Phrygum Phryges Galatia Eskisehir, W Turkey Phrygian
Raetorum Raeti Raetia S Germany/Switzerland Raetian (X/C) Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Sardorum Sardi Sardinia S Sardinia, Italty Sardinian
Scubulorum Scubuli Macedonia cSkopje, Macedonia Illyrian
Sequanorum Sequani Belgica Franche-Comté, France Gaulish (C)
Sugambrorum Sicambri Germania Inf NW Rhineland, Germany W Germanic
Sunucorum Sunici Germania Inf E Netherlands W Germanic
Syrorum Syri Syria Syria Aramaic (X/S)
Thebaeorum Thebaei Aegyptus Thebes, Egypt Egyptian (X)
Trachonitarum ? Syria? ? (X/S)
Thracum Thraces Thracia Bulgaria Thracian
Trevirorum Treveri Belgica cTrier, Germany Gaulish (C)
Tungrorum Tungri Belgica cTongeren (Tongres), Belgium Gaulish (C)
Tyriorum Tyrii Syria Tyre, S Lebanon Phoenician
Ubiorum Ubii Germania Inf NW Rhineland, Germany W Germanic
Vangionum Vangiones Germania Sup Mainz/Worms, Germany W Germanic
Varcianorum Varciani Pannonia E Croatia Illyrian
Vardulorum Varduli Hispania T. Guipuzcoa, Spain Old Basque (X)
Vasconum Vascones Hispania T. Navarra, Spain Old Basque
Vettonum Vettones Lusitania Salamanca pr Spain Celtiberian (C)
Vindelicorum Vindelici Raetia Black Forest, Germany Celtic/German Alpine regiments of the Roman army
Vocontiorum Vocontii Gallia Lugdunensis Dauphiné, France Gaulish (C)

External links[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Goldsworthy Complete Roman Army 64

See also[edit]