List of Romanian words of possible Dacian origin

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According to the specialist Ion I. Russu, there are 160 Romanian words of Dacian origin (representing, together with derivates, 10% of the basic Romanian vocabulary).[1]

Below is a list of Romanian words believed by early scholars to be of Dacian origin, which have also been attributed to other origins. The list does not include the Dacian plant names collected by Dioscorides and Pseudo-Apuleius since these words were not retained in Romanian.

Sources[edit]

The Sources column indicates the linguist(s) or the works who suggested including the words in the list:

  • "Sala": Marius Sala, De la latină la română (1998) [3]
  • "Hasdeu": Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae, 1894.[better source needed]
  • "Russu": Ion I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, Editura Ştiințifică, 1967. The words that have been identified by I. I. Russu to have cognates in Albanian are marked with (Alb.).
  • "Vraciu": Ariton Vraciu, Limba daco-geților, Timişoara: Editura Facla, 1980.
  • "NODEX": Noul dicționar explicativ al limbii române [The New Dictionary of the Romanian Language], Litera Internațional, 2002. In this dictionary substratum words are labeled cuvînt autohton "native word".
  • "Olteanu": Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal".[2]
  • "Ciorănescu": Alexandru Ciorănescu, "Dicționarul etimologic român", Tenerife: Universidad de la Laguna, 1958–1966

Table[edit]

  • The Notes column contains information found in various dictionaries. "Not in current use" indicates words not found in dictionaries of contemporary Romanian.
Word / Name English Sources Notes, Albanian cognates or alternative etymologies
abeș really, for sure! Hasdeu, Vraciu dialectal Banat; from Albanian besë ‘word of honor; faith’, besabesë ‘on my honor!’
Abrud Abrud river Hasdeu older Obruth (12th century), from Latin Abruttus; a Slavic form, with a > o (Slavic) and o > a (Hungarian), and non-native preservation of -br- (vs. cibrum > Romanian ciur)
abur(e) steam, vapour Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu Aromanian abur(ã); from Proto-Albanian *abulā ‘steam, vapor’ (modern Albanian avull).
acăța, agăța to hang up, hook up; accost, seize Russu Aromanian cățari ‘to snatch’, Istro-Romanian (a)coț ‘id.’; from Latin *ad + captiāre ‘to snatch’; pt > t rare but attested; cf. Latin baptizare > boteza. Acăț "acacia" used in Ardeal region.
ademeni to tempt, lure; deceive Hasdeu dial. adimeni; from older ademană "(old) gift, temptation; (Trans.) usury, interest", from Transylvanian adămană "gift", from Hungarian adomány "gift, grant".
adia to breeze gently; to whisper, touch lightly Russu older adiia, West Transylvanian aduĭ, aduĭa, Aromanian adil’u ‘to breathe’; all from Latin *adiliare.
aghiuță devil Hasdeu from Greek ágios (άγιος) ‘holy’ + -uță.
aidoma alike, identical Hasdeu variant avidoma; from a + Slavic vidomŭ "visible".
alac einkorn (Triticum monococcum); spelt (Triticum aestivum spelta) Hasdeu Old Romanian alacu; from Latin alica ‘spelt’ (cf. Sardinian alighe, Spanish álaga).
ală a monster that unleashes storms Hasdeu variant hală; from Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian hala
aldea  ? Hasdeu
ameți to drug, anesthetize, stupefy Russu from Latin *ammattīre; cf. Old French amatir.
andrea knitting needle Russu Muntenian/Transylvanian undrea; from Andrea, Undrea ‘December’, from Greek Andréas ‘St. Andrew’s Day’ (Nov. 30th); from the tradition of knitting socks on St. Andrew’s Day. Similar to Alb. shëndreu ‘November’, after Shën Ndreu ‘St. Andrew’.
anina to hang up, hook; accost Russu from Latin *annināre ‘to rock’; cf. Italian ninnare, Sardinian anninnare, Romansch niner, Provençal nina ‘to fall asleep’
aprig fiery, hot-blooded; harsh Russu variants apric, apreg; from Latin aprīcus ‘sunny, exposed (to the sun)’; cf. Calabrian apricari ‘to warm’, Spanish ábrego ‘southwest wind’, Occitan abrigar ‘to shelter’.
argea loom Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu plural argele; from Greek argaleiós; also Albanian dial. argali ‘small, wooden loom’ (< Gk)
Argeș Argeș river Hasdeu Arghiș (1427), Argyas (1369); from Pecheneg argiš ‘high ground’[3]
arunca to throw Russu Aromanian aru(n)cu; from Latin eruncāre ‘to weed out’; cf. Italian arroncare, Abruzzese arrongá
azugă  ? Hasdeu Not in current use (see also Azuga, a town in the Prahova County)
baci chief shepherd, cheese-maker Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu Aromanian baciu, Megleno-Romanian bač, Istro-Romanian bațe; from Turkish baş ‘leader, chief’; also Serbo-Croatian bač, Albanian baç, Hungarian bacs (all < Turkish)
baier thread, band, strap, string; coin necklace; talisman Russu Transylvanian baieră, Moldavian baieri, Muntenian băieri, Aromanian bairu; from Latin bājulus, bājula; cf. French baille ‘pail, bucket’
baligă dung, manure Russu (Alb.) Aromanian baligă, Megleno-Romanian balig, Istro-Romanian bålege; from Old Albanian baljëgë (modern bajgë)
baltă pool, puddle Russu (Alb.) Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian baltă, Istro-Romanian bote; from Albanian baltë "swamp", from Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian blȁto "mud", Czech blato; alternatively, directly from Slavic.
bară marsh, morass Hasdeu from Serbo-Croatian bara "puddle, pool; swamp"
barză stork (Ciconia ciconia) Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu, Olteanu Oltenia bardăș, bardoș ‘stork’, Transylvanian/Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian bardzu ‘white’; from barz ‘whitish (of birds)’, from Albanian bardhë "white", bardhosh, bardhash ‘whitish’
bască beret Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.) from French basque
batal wether (castrated ram) Hasdeu from Turkish battal "useless", itself from Arabic bāṭil "vain, useless, worthless" (> Spanish balde "in vain"); also Albanian batal, Bulgarian батал, Greek batálikos (μπατάλιϰος) "rude, boorish".
bălaur, balaur dragon, monster Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu from Serbo-Croatian blavor (variants blavur, blaor) ‘scheltopusik’, from Albanian bullar (var. buljar, bollar).
băga to insert, thrust Russu Aromanian bagu ‘to put’, Megleno-Romanian bagari; from Byzantine Greek bázein ‘to put in or on, set down’
băiat boy; servant, page Russu variant băiet;
băl, bălan, bălaș fair-haired, blond (person); white-haired (animal) Hasdeu from Albanian bal(ë) ‘white-haired; starred forehead’, balosh, balash ‘white-marked, piebald; dappled; hoary, white-haired’
bâr call to a sheep Vraciu from Albanian berr ‘sheep or goat; small livestock’; cf. Czech beran ‘ram’, Polish/Ukrainian/Russian baran (< Romanian); Canavese berro ‘ram’, Piemontese bero ‘id.’ (< Alb)
bârsă sheth, standard (part on a plow) NODEX[4] variant bârță; from Slavic; cf. Slovenian brdče "beam holding a trawl net", Moravian brdče "thill, draft-pole"
beregată Adam’s apple; gullet, windpipe Russu dialectal bereglej, Istro-Romanian biricuată; from Hungarian beragad "to stick, get stuck"; also Serbo-Croatian berikat (< Romanian)
boare breeze Russu variant bore, Aromanian boră, Megleno-Romanian boari; from Latin boreas "north wind"
bordei sunken-floor cottage Hasdeu, Russu older bordeiu "cottage; whorehouse" (1595); from Hungarian bordély, German Bordell, or Italian bordello, all "whorehouse".
bortă hole, hollow Hasdeu also borti, borteli "to bore"; from Ukrainian bort "hole", bortyty "to bore"
brad fir (Abies) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Olteanu Aromanian brad; from Proto-Albanian *brada (modern bredh).
brândușă meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale) Russu from Serbo-Croatian brnduša; akin to Bulgarian brenduška
brânză cheese Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu Aromanian brîndzã, Megleno-Romanian brǫnză; from Albanian brëndës ‘intestines; rennet bag (made of stomach)’, identical to rânză (< rrëndës) (see below); Romanian lent German de:Brinsenkäse, Slavic ru:брынза,[5][6] Slovak/Polish bryndza[5]
brâu belt, waist Russu (Alb.) dialectal brân, colloquial brână, Aromanian brãnu, Megleno-Romanan brǫn, Istro-Romanian brĕne; from Old Albanian *bren (modern brez ‘belt’, mbrej ‘to buckle’)
brusture burdock (Lappa) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian broștur, brușturã; from Albanian brushtull ‘heather’
bucura to be glad Russu (Alb.) also bucuros "glad"; from Albanian bukuroj "to beautify", bukurosh "beautiful", both from bukur "nice, lovely"
buiestru ambling, ambling gait (of horse) Russu from Slavic *bujestĭ "boldness, arrogance" + -estru[citation needed]
bunget dense, dark forest Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu cf. Albanian bung[7] "chestnut oak" + Romanian -et "grove".
burghiu drill bit Hasdeu Aromanian burghie, Megleno-Romanian burghijă; from Turkish burgü "auger, gimlet"; also Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian burgija "drill, gimlet", Albanian burgi (< Turk)
burlan spout, water pipe Russu from Italian borlone "rolling cylinder", from North Italian borlare "to roll"[8]
burtă belly, stomach Russu dialectal borț ‘pregnant woman’s belly’
burtucă  ? Hasdeu Not in current use.
burtuș  ? Hasdeu Not in current use.
butuc, butură stump, log; trunk Russu from dialectal Bulgarian butuk, butur ‘freshly-chopped tree stump’, from bútam ‘to beat, knock’.
buză lip; edge Russu (Alb.) Aromanian budzã "lip; brim"; from Albanian buzë "lip; edge"
caier tow; hemp bundle; (arch.) distaff-full of wool, etc. to be spun Russu Aromanian cairu "distaff-full of wool, etc. to be spun"; from Vulgar Latin *cajulus, diminutive of caia, caiæ "stick"
cață shepherd's rod, crook Russu also descăța "to unhook"; See acăța above.
cârlan sheep or goat weanling; 2- or 3-year-old colt Russu
cârlig sheep hook Russu from Bulgarian kărlik (кърлик)
căciulă high fur cap Russu (Alb.) from Albanian kaçule, itself from Latin casula
căpușă sheep louse (Melophagus ovinus) Russu (Alb.) cf. Albanian këpushë[7] "tick", from kap "to grip, snatch"
căpută toe (of shoe); low boot Russu (Alb.) from Albanian këputë "sole (of shoe)", këpucë "shoe"; unrelated to Slavic kopyto "hoof" > Romanian copită
cătun hamlet Russu (Alb.) from Albanian katund (dial. katun, kotun) "village"; Serbian katun "summer pasture" from Albanian
cioară crow Sala, Hasdeu, Vraciu Aromanian țoarã, Megleno-Romanian čoară; Albanian cognate: sorrë[7]
cioc beak Sala, Hasdeu, Vraciu also ciocârlie ‘skylark’; from Serbo-Croatian čok; also Albanian çok ‘hammer; knuckle’ (< Slavic).
ciomag club, cudgel Hasdeu Aromanian ciumac, Megleno-Romanian čămugă; from Turkish çomak; also Albanian çomage ‘big hammer’ (< Turk)
ciut hornless, poll; one-horned Russu (Alb.) dialectal șut; from Slavic; cf. Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian šut; also Albanian shut ‘hornless’ (< Slavic)
codru wide old forest Hasdeu, Vraciu also Aromanian codru ‘public square; hilltop; forest’; from Vulgar Latin *codrum, from Latin quadrum ‘square’; cf. Albanian kodër ‘hill; angular stone, cornerstone’
copac tree Sala, Russu (Alb.) older copaci, Aromanian cupaciu, Megleno-Romanian cupač, Istro-Romanian copaț ‘thicket, brush’; from Albanian kopaç ‘knot in wood, stump, trunk’, itself from Bulgarian kopačĭ ‘sapper’, a derivative of kopája ‘to hollow out, dig out’.
copil child Russu Aromanian cochil(u); from Serbo-Croatian kȍpile, Bulgarian kópele, both "bastard" (whereas other Slavic languages have sense "hoe" as in: Lower Sorbian koṕeło ‘corral hoe’, Polab ťüpål ‘hoe’, Russian kopyl ‘stake; hoe’); cf. Albanian kopil (< Slav)
creț curly; curly-haired Russu Old Romanian creçu; from Slavic; cf. Serbian/Bulgarian krečav "curly", Polish kręty "curly", Slovenian kèrč, Czech krč
cruța to pardon, spare Russu (Alb.) from Albanian kursej ‘to spare; save money’ (var. kurcoj), from *kurt (modern shkurt), from Latin curtus ‘short’
culbec snail Hasdeu variant cubelc
curma to stop abruptly, interrupt Russu (Alb.) older curmez, from Byzantine Greek kormázein (κορμάζω); cf. Albanian kurmua
curpăn vine, twining stem Russu (Alb.) from Albanian kurpën, kurpër ‘clematis’, from kurp
cursă trap, snare Russu (Alb.), Olteanu from Albanian kurth(ë), diminutive of kurp ‘clematis’; related to above.
custură blade, knife edge, knife Russu variants custure, cusutură, cuțitură, from cuțit "knife' + suffix -tură
darari  ? Russu Not in current use.
daș ram Russu (Alb.) from Albanian dash
dărâma to tear down, demolish, destroy Russu (Alb.) Aromanian dãrîmu; from Latin dērāmāre; cf. Albanian dërmoj ‘to cut into pieces; plummet’
deh  ? Hasdeu Not in current use.
deretica to tidy up Russu variants derăteca, derdica, dereteca; from Latin *deradicare "to root out"
dezbăra to break a habit, to rid Russu probably from French débarasser "to rid, get rid of"
dezgauc  ? Hasdeu
doină lamenting folksong Hasdeu, Vraciu Transylvanian daină; from Lithuanian dainà ‘folksong’ (cf. Latvian daĩn̨a), from
don  ? Hasdeu
dop cork, plug Russu from Transylvanian German Dop
droaie crowd, multitude; a lot Russu back-formation from the plural droi, Albanian cognate: droe / droje[7] "fear"; same sense development in Rom. groază ‘horror’ > o groază de ‘a lot of’.
dulău mastiff Hasdeu, Vraciu from Polish dolow
fărâmă crumb, morsel, bit Russu (Alb.) variant sfărâmă, Aromanian sîrmã; from Albanian thërrime, from ther ‘to stab, slaughter, snip’
gard fence Russu (Alb.) Istro-Romanian gård "wattle gate to a pen"; from Albanian gardh; not related to Slavic gradŭ > Alb gradë
gata ready, done Russu (Alb.) from Albanian gat(i) "ready", not related to Slavic *gotovati; cf. Serbo-Croatian gotov "ready", Polish gotowy
gâde executioner; tyrant Hasdeu plural gâzi; from Bulgarian gidija "crazy, extravagant, reckless"
gâdel  ? Hasdeu
gălbează liver rot (fascioliasis), sheep pox Russu (Alb.) variant călbează; from Albanian gëlbazë, këlbazë, klëbacë ‘sheep pox’, itself from Slavic *kŭlbasa ‘stuffed gut’, from *kŭlbŭ ‘animal stomach’
genune depth, abyss Hasdeu, Russu dialectal gerune, Old Romanian gerure; from Latin gyrō, gyrōnem
gheară claw, talon Russu from Arabic garaf "grasp"
ghes a poke, a goad Russu probably from Romani ges[citation needed]
ghimpe thorn Russu (Alb.) from Albanian gjemb (dialectal Tosk gjëmp, Arvanite gljimp, Gheg glëmp)
ghiob cheese barrel Hasdeu from Hungarian döböny
ghionoaie woodpecker Sala, Russu (Alb.) dialectal ghionoi, ghin, Aromanian ǵionu "tawny owl"; from Albanian gjon "scops owl", from Gjon "John"; Albanian also has qukapik "woodpecker" = qukë "owl" + pik "woodpecker"
ghiont nudge, poke Russu
ghiuj gaffer, old fogey Hasdeu, Vraciu Aromanian ghiuș; from Albanian gjysh "grandfather"
gordin kind of grapes used in winemaking Hasdeu variants gordean, g(o)ardină, gorgan, gordan; from Russian gordina "currant"
gorun durmast oak (Quercus petraea) Russu from Bulgarian gorun (горун)
grapă harrow Russu (Alb.) from Albanian grep (var. grap) ‘hook’.
gresie sandstone, whetstone Russu (Alb.) Aromanian greasă; from Albanian gërresë (var. grresë) ‘rasp, scraper; drawing knife’, from gërryej ‘to scrape, scour’
groapă hole, pit Russu (Alb.) Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian groapă, Istro-Romanian gropă; from Albanian gropë, from Montenegrin grȍp, variant of Serbo-Croatian grȍb
grui hilltop, hillock Russu variant gruńu, Aromanian gruñiu ‘chin’; from Latin grunnium; cf. French groin ‘pig snout’
grumaz neck Russu (Alb.), NODEX Aromanian grumadz, gurmadz; from Albanian gurmaz ‘gaping maw, wide-open jaws; esophagus’ (variants gurmac, grumas, gërmaz), itself from kurm ‘trunk (of the body), torso’ (> Romanian dial. curm ‘short rope’, curmei ‘vine shoot’)
grunz lump, clod Russu (Alb.) variants (s)grunț, Aromanian grundã (plural grundz) ‘lump’, grundzã ‘bran’; from Albanian krunde ‘coarse bran; sawdust’ (var. grundë), from kruaj ‘to scratch’
gudura to fawn, cajole Russu from Albanian gudulis "to cuddle; tickle"; not related to Romanian gâdila "to tickle" (var. gâdili, ghidili), from Bulgarian gădel me e (гъдел ме е) "it tickles", from gădeličkam (гъделичкам),[9] from Turkish gıdıklamak.
gușă a bird's crop; goiter Russu (Alb.) Aromanian gușe "neck, goiter"; from Latin geusiæ; cf. Italian gozzo, Friulian gose, French gosier; also Albanian gushë, Bulgarian/Serbian guša (< Rom).
hojma repeatedly, continuously Hasdeu, Vraciu from Ukrainian hožma
iazmă (Banat) ugly and evil apparition, ghost Hasdeu variants aiazmă, agheazmă; from Greek agiasma
iele (mythology) white lady, dame blanche, who bewitches men with song and dance Hasdeu variant ele; from Romanian ele, feminine form of el "they". Euphemism of Romanian word dînsele 'ghost, soul of the dead' (= Latin lemures)[5]
încurca to tangle, to mix up Russu from Vulgar Latin *incolicare, from colus "distaff"; also descurca "to untangle"
înghina to assemble, to put together Russu variant of Romanian îmbina, from Latin imbinare; cf. Friulian imbinâ; likewise dezbina ~ desghina "to take apart, disassemble"
îngurzi to wrinkle the edge of a fabric or the sole of a shoe with a thread Russu variant îngruzi; from în + gurgui
însăila to stitch, to sew temporarily Russu variant înseila; from dial. saia "stitch" (Muntenia, Moldavia sailă), from Transylvanian German Seil "cord, rope".
întrema to recover after illness or fatigue Russu variants întrăma, (Moldavia, Bucovina) întrarma, back-formation from destrăma ‘unweave, unravel, break up’.
jeț tall-backed (arm)chair Hasdeu, Vraciu variants jețiu, jățiu; from Transylvanian German Sätz "seat"; but older and dialectal variants jilț, jelț may have been influenced by Slavic; cf. Czech židlice "stool; seat", Serbo-Croatian sjedalo
leagăn cradle, swing Russu variants leangăn, leagănă; Istro-Romanian leagăr; back-formation of legăna "to rock, swing" (cf. Aromanian leagînu "to swing", Megleno-Romanian legăn), from Byzantine Greek liknon "cradle"
lepăda to drop; to take off (clothes) Russu dialectal lăpăda; Aromanian aleapidu "to throw, abandon"; from Latin lapidare "to throw stones"
lespede plat, slab, flagstone, gravestone Russu from Rusyn lepest "page, sheet", dialectal lespet(ok), from lepestitj "to shed"
leșina to faint Russu from Serbo-Croatian lešina "corpse"
mal shore Sala, Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu Albanian cognate: mal "mountain"[10]
maldac, măldac a small load (of wood, hay, etc.) Hasdeu from Greek mandákis
mazăre pea (Pisum sativum) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu, Olteanu Aromanian madzãre; also Romanian măzăriche ‘vetch’, Aromanian mãdziricl’e; from Albanian modhull(ë) "vetch", diminutive of modhë
mânz foal, colt Russu (Alb.) Aromanian mîndzu, Megleno-Romanian mǫndz; from Old Albanian manz (modern Tosk mëz, Gheg mâz). Also mânzat ‘steer’, from OAlb. *manzat (mod. mëzat ‘id.’).
măceș sweetbrier (Rosa eglanteria) Russu
mădări to pamper, to spoil (a child) Russu from Transylvanian German maddern
măgură hill, knoll Sala, Russu (Alb.) dialectal Romanian and Aromanian măgulă; from Albanian magulë, a metathesis of gamulë
mălai cornflour; dial. millet (flour) Hasdeu Moldavian malai; from Albanian miell "flour" (var. mjell, mill) or mel "millet", from Latin milium
mămăligă polenta, cornmeal mush (mămăligă) Hasdeu Aromanian mumalig; from Bulgarian mamuli[citation needed], metathesis of Turkish muhlama "pudding-like dish of cornmeal cooked in butter and water"
mărcat (Aromanian) rancid milk Russu
mătură broom Russu (Alb.) Aromanian metură, Megleno-Romanian mietură, Istro-Romanian meture; from Vulgar Latin *metula (cf. Albanian netull "mullein", used in broommaking), from early Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian mètla, Bulgarian metlá
Mehadia Mehadia Hasdeu 1614; from Hungarian Mihald (1323), Myhold (1349), from Mihály "Michael" + -d
melc snail Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu older melciu, Aromanian zmelciu; from Bulgarian melčev (мелчев), melčov (мелчов), melčo (мелчо) "snail"[11]
mieriu sky blue; bluish, whitish Russu from dial. mier "blue", from Latin merus
mire bridegroom Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu cf. Albanian mirë[7] "good" mire
mistreț wild boar Russu from Latin mixtīcius ‘mixed, crossbred, hybrid’; cf. Spanish mestizo "half-breed"; also Albanian mistrec "mischievous person" (< Romanian).
mișca to move, stir Russu Megleno-Romanian micicari; from Slavic; cf. Slovene mîkati "to jerk", Czech mikati "to move abruptly"
morman pile, heap Russu
moș old man Russu (Alb.) back-formed from moașă "midwife" (cf. Aromanian moașe, Megleno-Romanian moașă "old woman"), from Albanian moshë "age", moshëm "old, aged"; replaced Oltenia auș, from Latin avus.
moț tuft, crest Hasdeu from Slavic; cf. Czech/Slovak moc "power, clout", Serbo-Croatian mȏć "id."
mozoc large shepherd dog Hasdeu variant mosoc
mugure bud Russu (Alb.) from Albanian mugull "bud, sprout"
munună, murună hilltop Russu
murg dark-bay horse Sala, Russu (Alb.) Aromanian murgu, Megleno-Romanian murg; also amurg 'twilight, dusk'; from Albanian murg "dark".
mușat handsome Russu Aromanian mușeat, Megleno-Romanian/Istro-Romanian mușat; clipped form of *frumușat, from frumos
năpârcă common adder, viper (Vipera berus) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian năpîrtică; from Albanian nepërtkë (standard nepërkë, dial. nëpërkë), from Slavic *nepŭrŭtkŭ (cf. Bulgarian neprătăk "buttercup").
năsărâmbă (Transylvania, Oltenia) prank, mischief Hasdeu from sărâmb "head"
nițel a little Russu from Old Romanian nișchițel, diminutive of nișchit, neșchit "tiny", from niște, (Oltenia) nește "some, a few", from Latin nescit
noian multitude, heap; (arch.) abyss, immense sea Sala, Russu from Albanian ujanë "ocean", from ujë "water"
ortoman rich (of a shepherd); handsome (of an outlaw); quick (of a horse) Hasdeu variants iortoman, hartoman; from Turkish yortman "to run, flee"[citation needed]
păstaie pod, capsule, hull Russu (Alb.) Aromanian păstăl'e; from Vulgar Latin pistālia, from pistāre "to pound"; cf. Albanian bishtajë "pod, hull; string bean"
pânză cloth, linen, fabric, textile Russu Aromanian pîndzã, Megleno-Romanian pǫndză, Istro-Romanian pănzę; from Vulgar Latin *pandia, from pandere
pârâu (pl. pâraie) brook, creek Russu (Alb.) dial. (North) pârău, Megleno-Romanian păroi; from Albanian përrua (def.sg. përroi) ‘torrent, rushing stream’, from Bulgarian poroj (порой) ‘torrent’, from *po-rojĭ[12] (cf. Macedonian roj (рој) ‘swarm’, Polish zdrój ‘spring, waters’); ending influenced by Romanian râu "river; stream", from Latin rivus
păstra to keep up Russu older păstrez; Aromanian spăstrescu, Megleno-Romanian păstres; from Greek pastrevō (παστρεύω) "to clean, cleanse", from Byzantine Greek spastréuō; cf. Bulgarian pastrja (< Greek)[5]
prunc toddler, infant Russu from early Serbo-Croatian *prǫtče ‘small rod’ (modern Serbian prutka, Croatian pritka), variant of *prątče (Bulgarian prăčka), diminutive of *prątŭ ‘rod’ (Serbo-Croatan prut ‘rod, withe, switch’)
pupăză hoopoe Sala
pururi always, forever Russu (Alb.) variant pururea; from d(e-a) pure(a)
rață duck Hasdeu, Vraciu, Sala Serbian cognate: raca, Albanian cognate: rosë[7])
râmf (Transylvanian) birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis) Hasdeu variants rimf, remf, rempf; from Transylvanian German Rämp ‘birthwort’ ~ Rimf ‘tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)’[13]
rânză ruminant stomach Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu Aromanian arîndzã "rennet"; from Albanian rrëndës "rennet"
răbda to suffer, endure, tolerate Russu older/Transylvanian rebda, Aromanian aravdu, arăvdare; from Latin *rigidare[14]
reazem support, backing, prop Russu variants razăm, reazăm, reazim; back-formation from rezema (dial. răzima) "to lean against, prop up"
ridica to raise, lift Russu older aridica, dialectal radica, Aromanian ardic(ari); from Latin eradicare "to uproot"
Sarmisegetuza Sarmizegetusa Hasdeu refers to a pre-Roman Dacian archaeological site; did not survive into Romanian
sâmbure kernel; pip, core Russu (Alb.), NODEX, Olteanu dialectal simbure, sumbure, Aromanian sîmbure, sumbur; from Albanian sumbull "push button; bud"
sâmvea (?) Hasdeu
scăpăra to strike fire; sparkle, lighten Russu (Alb.) Aromanian ascăpirare, Megleno-Romanian scăpirari; from Albanian shkrep "to strike fire", shkrepës "flint"
scrum ashes Russu (Alb.) older scrumb; from Albanian shkrumb; also Bulgarian скрум (< Romanian)
scula to get up, wake Russu (Alb.) Aromanian sculare, Megleno-Romanian sculari, Istro-Romanian scolu; from South Slavic raskoliti[15]
scurma to scrape or dig (with snout, claws, beak, tools) Russu from Vulgar Latin *excorrimāre; although rimāre > Romanian râma.
searbăd insipid Russu (Alb.), Olteanu older sarbăd, Aromanian sarbit; from Albanian tharbët "sour" (standard thartë, dialectal tharptë)
spânz purple hellebore Russu (Alb.) variants spânț, spunz, Aromanian spingiu; from Albanian shpendër (variants shpindër, spindër, spinër)[16]
stână sheepfold Hasdeu, Vraciu, NODEX variants stan, stean, Aromanian stînă, stane; from Slavic; cf. Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian stan "shepherd's hut"
stăpân master, owner Hasdeu, Vraciu Megleno-Romanian stăpǫn; from Slavic stopanŭ; cf. Macedonian stopan, Serbo-Croatian stopanin; also Albanian (Gheg) shtëpâ ‘cheese-making shepherd’.
strănut with a white spot on nose (of animals) Russu variants strenut, stărnut; back-formation from strănuta, from Latin sternūtāre "to sneeze"
stejar oak Hasdeu, Vraciu variants stăjer(iu), st(r)ăjar, strejar; from Bulgarian stežer (стежер); doublet of steajer, from Serbo-Croatian stežer "trunk"
steregie soot caked in a chimney; scum; dross, waste; wine tartar Russu variants stirigie, stirighie, etc.; from variants tereghie, tirghie, etc. "wine tartar", from Greek trugiá, blended with Serbo-Croatian striješ (Chakavian striš) "wine tartar"[17]
sterp barren, infertile Russu (Alb.) Aromanian sterpu; from Byzantine Greek stéripos; cf. Albanian: shterpë
străghiață cottage cheese Russu variant stereghiață, Banat străghiată, Aromanian strãgl’atã, Megleno-Romanian strigl’ată; from Bulgarian strigle (стригле), literally ‘clipped, sheared’, preterit/past participle of striža (стрижа) ‘to shear, clip’; cf. Greek éstriglos (ἔστριγλος) ~ strigária (στριγάρια) ‘gleanings’ (< Bulg); also Serbo-Croatian strigljata, Greek stringléta (στριγκλέτα) (< (Ar)Romanian)
strepede cheese maggot (larva of the cheese fly, cheese skipper; Piophila casei) Russu (Alb.) Aromanian streapit "cheese mite", Megleno-Romanian strepij; from Albanian shtrep "maggot, larva"
strugure grape; (arch.) bunch Russu, NODEX singularized plural, from dialectal (Basarabia) strug, from Greek trýgos, trygḗ ‘vine harvest’; replaced Old Romanian auo, from Latin ūva
strungă sheepfold; narrow passage, canyon Russu (Alb.), NODEX from Albanian shtrungë ‘milking enclosure’, from shtroj ‘to spread’
sugruma to strangle, to burke Russu from sub "under" + grumaz "throat" (see above).
sugușa to strangle, to burke Russu from sub "under" + gușă "neck; goiter" (see above).
șale loins, small of the back Russu (Alb.) Aromaian șali ‘loins’; from Albanian shalë ‘saddle; inner thigh’, from Latin sella ‘saddle’; cf. inherited Romanian șa (Muntenia șea, pl. sele), Aromanian șeauã, șelã, both ‘saddle’
șir row, line Hasdeu, Russu also șiră "spine"; from Latin series
șopârlă wall lizard (Lacerta muralis) Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu variant șopirlă, Aromanian ciupilar (recent jabilu, şapic, japie); from Albanian shapi (plural shapinj) ‘lizard’ (var. zhapi, xhzpik)
șorici bacon skin, pork rind Russu Moldavian cioric; from Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian čvarak, Czech škvarek, Polish skwarek
tare hard Russu Aromanian tari ‘some, certain’, Megleno-Romanian tari, Istro-Romanian tore; from Latin talis ‘such’; cf. Albanian tallë
traistă bag Hasdeu Albanian trastë, trajstë (same meaning), cf. Romanian synonym straiță and Albanian strajcë
tulei (young) whiskers Hasdeu from Serbo-Croatian tulaj, Ukrainian tulij
țap he-goat; buck Russu (Alb.) from Albanian cjap (var. cap, cqap, sqap)
țarc pen, fold Russu (Alb.), Olteanu from Albanian thark (var. cark) ‘enclosure (esp. for milking)’.
țarină country, land Russu from Serbo-Croatian carina
țăruș pole, pale, picket Russu from Ukrainian taraš "post, pile, pillar"[18]
țumburuș small, round knob, nub Olteanu older țâmburuș; from Albanian thumbull ‘button; pin’; nearly identical to sâmbure (< sumbull) (see above).
țurcă traditional Romanian game Hasdeu from Ukrainian curka
(a se/ a) uita respectively: to look, to forget Russu Banat/Maramus zăuita, Aromanian ultare, Megleno-Romanian ul’t(ari), Istro-Romanian utu; from Latin oblitare "to forget"; cf. Occitan/Catalan oblidar, French oublier
urca to mount, ascend; increase Russu from Vulgar Latin *oricāre, frequentative of orior "to rise".
urcior stye Russu variant ulcior, Aromanian urcior, ulcior; from Latin urceolus; cf. Italian orciuolo, Old French orçuel, Occitan orsol
urdă cottage cheese Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu from dialectal Albanian urdhë (standard udhos, dialectal urdhos)
urdina to go frequently, visit; have diarrhea Russu from Latin ordināre "to put in order"; cf. Spanish ordeñar
urdoare bleariness; eye snot Russu from Latin horridus; cf. Old French ord ‘foul’.
vatră hearth, home, fireplace Hasdeu, Russu (Alb). from Albanian vatër; also Serbian vatra "fire" (< Alb)
vătăma to hurt, to injure Russu from Latin victimare "to sacrifice"
vătui yearling kid (goat); hare Russu (Alb.) older vătuiu, Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian vitul’u; from Byzantine Greek *vitoúlion (modern Lefkada vitũli (βιτοῦλι)); also Albanian ftujë (Cham ftulë, Arbëresh vëtulë) ‘female kid’ (< ByzGk)
viezure badger Sala, Russu (Alb.), Olteanu older viedzure, Aromanian yedzurã, yedzãre; from Albanian vjedhull, from vjedh "to steal"
viscol snowstorm, snow squall Russu from Hungarian *veszkölni ~ viszkol, as in veszködni ‘to agitate’, from visz, vesz ‘to take; bear’.
zară buttermilk Russu from *dzară, from Albanian dhallë; also Aromanian dhală (recent loan; < Alb)
zâmbru Swiss pine, Arolla pine (Pinus cembra) Hasdeu, Vraciu from Italian cembro (or Lombardo zémbro)
zârnă black nightshade, sunberry (Solanum nigrum) Hasdeu from Slavic *zĭrno ~ zarno ‘grain; berry’; cf. Serbo-Croatian zȑno, (Hvar) zȃrno, Bulgarian zărno
zburda sport, frolic, frisk about Russu variant sburda; from Byzantine Greek spyrthizein ‘to frolic, lark (of animals)’
zer whey Russu, Olteanu older zăr, Moldavian/Banat/Aromanian dzăr, masculine back-formation from zară (see above).
zestre dowry Russu from Latin dextræ "solemn vow"
zgardă dog collar Russu (Alb.) cf. Albanian shkardhë[7] "dog chain"
zgâria to scratch Russu (Alb.?) Megleno-Romanian zgair, zgăirari; from Latin *scaberare (< scaber "itchy")
zgîrma, zgrîma, sgrîma (Aromanian) to scratch, scrape Russu cf. Romanian scurma above

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lucian Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, Reaktion Books, ISBN 1861891032, p.57
  2. ^ (English) (Romanian) Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal"
  3. ^ Laurenţiu Rădvan, At Europe's Borders: Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities (Brill, 2010), 243.
  4. ^ Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, Entry for bîrsă
  5. ^ a b c d "Alexandru Ciorănescu, Dicționarul etimologic român, Universidad de la Laguna, Tenerife, 1958-1966"
  6. ^ Șăineanu, Lazăr (1896) Dicționar universal al limbii române
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan", Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998
  8. ^ Rupprecht Rohr, Kleines rumänisches etymologisches Wörterbuch: 1. Band: A-B, s.v. "burlan" (Frankfurt am Main: Haag + Herchen, 1999), 251.
  9. ^ http://www.diri.bg/search.php?word=tickle[not in citation given]
  10. ^ Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (p. 145 [1])
  11. ^ Maček, Slavia, 28, 1959: 273.
  12. ^ Anon., Bulgarian Wiktionary, s.v. "порой", at [2].
  13. ^ Malwine Dengel, Siebenbürgisch-sächsisches Wörterbuch: Q-R, 2006: 48.
  14. ^ Delphine Seigneur & Claudine Pagliano, "On the Rumanian kt >pt Shift: Coda Lenition or Melodic Contamination?", in: Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2003 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005), 327.
  15. ^ Kim Schulte, "Loanwords in Romanian", Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook (Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2009).
  16. ^ Roger Bernard, "VI. Bulgare карп « ellébore », стрáтур « amarante »", in: Revue des études slaves, vol. 23, 1947: 161.
  17. ^ Olga Mladenova, Grapes and Wine in the Balkans: An Ethno-Linguistic Study (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998), 547.
  18. ^ Schulte, "Loanwords in Romanian", p. 254.

References[edit]

  • (Romanian) Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae, 1887–1895
  • (Romanian) Ion. I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, Editura Științifică, Bucureşti, 1967
  • (Romanian) Ion. I. Russu, Elemente autohtone în limba română, Editura Academiei RSR, București, 1970
  • (Romanian) Ion. I. Russu, Etnogeneza românilor, Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică, București, 1981
  • (Romanian) Ariton Vraciu, Limba daco-geților, Editura Facla, Timișoara, 1980
  • (Romanian) Alexandru Ciorănescu, Dicționarul etimologic român, Universidad de la Laguna, Tenerife, 1958-1966 (in part available online at DEX online)
  • (Romanian) George Pruteanu, "Limba traco-dacilor", transcript of a TV show broadcast March 25 and 26, 1996, on PRO TV; the transcript is followed by a "List of words considered by specialists as most probably belonging to the Dacian language".
  • (Romanian) DEX online: a collection of Romanian dictionaries
  • Albanian <-> English Dictionary