List of Russian physicians and psychologists
This list of Russian physicians and psychologists includes the famous physicians and psychologists, medical scientists and medical doctors from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia. Physicians of all specialities may be listed here.
- Aleksandr Bakulev, prominent cardiovascular surgery developer
- Vladimir Bekhterev, neuropathologist, founder of objective psychology, noted the role of the hippocampus in memory, major contributor to reflexology, studied the Bekhterev’s Disease
- Vladimir Betz, discovered Betz cells of primary motor cortex
- Peter Borovsky, described the causative agent of Oriental sore
- Sergey Botkin, major therapist and court physician
- Nikolay Burdenko, major developer of neurosurgery
- Konstantin Buteyko, developed the Buteyko method for the treatment of asthma and other breathing disorders
- Livery Darkshevich, neurologist, described the nucleus of posterior commissure
- Vladimir Demikhov, major pioneer of transplantology
- Vladimir Filatov, ophthalmologist, corneal transplantation pioneer
- Svyatoslav Fyodorov, inventor of radial keratotomy
- Pyotr Gannushkin, psychiatrist, pioneer researcher of psychopathies known today as personality disorders.
- Oleg Gazenko, founder of space medicine, selected and trained Laika, the first space dog.
- Georgy Gause, inventor of gramicidin S and other antibiotics.
- Vera Gedroitz, the first female Professor of Surgery in the world.
- Yuliya Gippenreyter, researcher in experimental psychology, family therapy and neuro-linguistic programming.
- Ilya Gruzinov, found that vocal folds are the source of phonation.
- Nikolai Korotkov, invented auscultatory blood pressure measurement, pioneer of vascular surgery
- Sergey Korsakov, studied the effects of alcoholism on the nervous system, described Korsakoff's syndrome, introduced paranoia concept
- Aleksei Kozhevnikov, neurologist and psychiatrist, described the epilepsia partialis continua
- Aleksey Leontyev, founder of activity theory in psychology
- Peter Lesgaft, founder of the modern system of physical education in Russia
- Andrey Yevgenyevich Lichko, adolescent psychiatrist
- Alexander Luria, co-developer of activity theory and cultural-historical psychology, major researcher of aphasia
- Ilya Mechnikov, pioneer researcher of immune system, probiotics and phagocytosis; coined the term gerontology, Nobel Prize in Medicine winner
- Lazar Minor, neurologist, described Minor's disease
- Alexey Olovnikov, predicted existence of Telomerase, suggested the Telomere hypothesis of aging and the Telomere relations to cancer
- Ivan Pavlov, founder of modern physiology, the first to research classical conditioning, influenced comparative psychology and behaviorism by his works on reflexes, Nobel Prize in Medicine winner
- Nikolay Pirogov, pioneer of ether anaesthesia and modern field surgery, the first to perform anaesthesia in the field conditions, invented a number of surgical operations
- Viktor Protopopov, founder of his own pathophysiological school of thought, namesake of Protopopov's syndrome
- Leonid Rogozov, performed an appendectomy on himself during the 6th Soviet Antarctic Expedition, a famous case of self-surgery
- Grigory Rossolimo, pioneer of child neuropsychology
- Vladimir Roth, neuropathologist, described meralgia paraesthetica
- Ivan Sechenov, founder of electrophysiology and neurophysiology, author of the classic work Reflexes of the Brain
- Vladimir Serbsky, founder of forensic psychiatry in Russia
- Nikolay Sklifosovskiy, prominent 19th century field surgeon
- Lina Stern, pioneer researcher of blood–brain barrier
- Fyodor Uglov, the oldest practicing surgeon in history
- Alexander Varshavsky, researched ubiquitination, Wolf Prize in Medicine winner
- Vikenty Veresayev, Russian/Soviet doctor, author of Memoirs of a Physician
- Luka Voyno-Yasenetsky, founder of purulent surgery, saint
- Lev Vygotsky, founder of cultural-historical psychology, major contributor to child development and psycholinguistics, introduced zone of proximal development and cultural mediation concepts
- Alexander Zalmanov, developer of turpentine bath therapy
- Alexander Zaporozhets, developmental psychologist, collaborator of Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev, once head of the Kharkov School of Psychology
- Bluma Zeigarnik, psychiatrist, discovered the Zeigarnik effect, founded experimental psychopathology