Conservation Techniques for Cultural Properties

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In 1975 the Japanese government added a new chapter to the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1950) to provide for "traditional techniques or craftsmanship that are indispensable to the preservation of cultural property and for which preservation measures shall be taken". Preservation techniques are selected in relation to both tangible and intangible cultural properties and a holder or preservation body is recognized for each technique.[1][2][3]

In support of the Selected Conservation Techniques (選定保存技術?), the government provides funding for and conducts programmes relating to documentation, training, development, promotion and public education. Recognition is thus made and measures taken to combat some of the most serious conservation issues, namely the lack of specialist craftsmen, the loss of knowledge of traditional techniques, and the availability of suitable tools and materials. These issues are of particular relevance in Japan due to the sophistication and inherent susceptibility of much of its art and architecture.[2][3]

The list below is compiled from the database of cultural properties maintained by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, with translations, glosses and listed holders (as of 2004) following those published by the Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU).[4][5]

Selected Conservation Techniques[edit]

Tangible Cultural Properties[edit]

43 techniques

Name Remarks Holder Year Picture
Production of roofing tiles (屋根瓦製作 (鬼師) yane kawara seisaku (onishi)?)[6][7] Onigawara Individual (Akio Kobayashi, b. 1921) 1988 Onigawara.jpg
Kiku-jutsu techniques for marking when constructing wooden building (modern) (規矩術 (近世規矩) kiku-jutsu (kinsei-kiku)?)[8][9] lit. "measuring with a carpenter's square" Individual (Takeo Mochida, b. 1931) 1993
Kiku-jutsu techniques for marking when constructing wooden building (ancient) (規矩術 (古式規矩) kiku-jutsu (koshiki-kiku)?)[3][10] In particular for projecting eaves; developed since the twelfth century Individual (Takeo Mochida, b. 1931) 1991
Smithery of metal fittings (金具鍛冶 kanagu kaji?)[11][12] Individual (Mayoshio Yokoya, b. 1931) 2002 Japanese metal fittings Rokuyou.svg
Manufacture of kinkarakami (金唐紙製作 kinkarakami seisaku?)[13][14][15] Gold-embossed wallpaper, used in western-style buildings of the Meiji to Shōwa periods; cf. kinkarakawa or 'leather wallpaper' Individual 2005
Making of traditional fittings such as sliding doors (建具製作 tategu seisaku?)[16][17] Includes shōji, fusuma, amado Individual (Tadashi Suzuki, b. 1936) 1999 Farsari house interior.jpg
Production of model buildings (建造物模型製作 kenzōbutsu mokei seisaku?)[18] Individual (Yushuhiro Wada, b. 1932) 1999 Kairyuoji2.jpg
Restoration of armour (甲冑修理 katchū shūri?)[19] Individual (Masami Ozawa, b. 1953) 1998 Samurai with sword.jpg
Plastering (traditional Kyokabe walls) (左官 (古式京壁) sakan (koshiki kyō-kabe)?)[20] Individual (Haruo Sato, b. 1924) 2001 Wall of Kyoto Imperial Palace.jpg
Plastering (左官 (漆喰塗) sakan (shikkuinuri)?)[21][22] Glue, brine, clay, and thread are mixed into the lime Individual (Isokichi Okui, b. 1919) 1998
Restoration of lacquer wares (漆工品修理 shikkōhin shūri?)[23][24] Individual (Kenichi Kitamura, b. 1938) 1994 Makie-enlargement.jpg
Crafting and restoration of metal fittings of Jōdai ornaments (上代飾金具製作修理 jōdai kazari kanagu seisaku shūri?)[25] Includes mikoshi, zushi Individual (Sōtaro Kanae, b. 1908) 1977 O-mikoshi 197152337 a863c9050e o.jpg
Manufacture of tatami (畳製作 tatami seisaku?)[26] Individual 1929 Men Making Tatami Mats, 1860 - ca. 1900.jpg
Stone tile roofing (石盤葺 sekibanbuki?)[27] Individual 2005
Production of nails made of bamboo (竹釘製作 takekugi seisaku?)[28][29] Individual (Yoshiharu Ishizuka, b. 1922) 1998
Casting production (鋳物製作 imono seisaku?)[30] Individual (Shūichi Otani, b. 1933) 1999
Production of karakami paper (唐紙製作 karakami seisaku?)[31][32] Individual (Kenkichi Senda, b. 1942) 1999
Manufacture of boxes made of paulownia wood for containing art and craft objects (美術工芸品保存桐箱製作 bijutsu kōgeihin hozon kiribako seisaku?)[33] Individual (Yūichi Maeda, b. 1927) 1980
Manufacture of ancient textiles (such as gold brocade) for mounting (表具用古代裂 (金襴等) 製作 hyōgu-yō kodai-gire (kinran tō) seisaku?)[34][35][36][37] For kakemono etc. Individual 2007
Manufacture of brushes for mounting (表具用刷毛製作 hyōguyō hage seisaku?)[38][39] Individual 1958
Production of Udagami handmade paper for mounting on sliding doors (表具用手漉和紙 (宇陀紙) 製作 hyōguyō tesuki washi (udagami) seisaku?)[40] washi Individual (Hiroyuki Hukunishi, b. 1930) 1978
Production of Misugami handmade paper for mounting (表具用手漉和紙 (美栖紙) 製作 hyōguyō tesuki washi (misugami) seisaku?)[41] washi Individual 2009
Production of Hoshū handmade paper for mounting (表具用手漉和紙 (補修紙) 製作 hyōguyō tesuki washi (hoshūshi) seisaku?)[42] washi Individual 2007
Production of brushes for mounting (表具用打刷毛製作 hyōguyō uchibake seisaku?)[43] Individual (Genjirō Hujii, b. 1920) 1998
Joinery for mounting (表装建具製作 hyōsō tategu seisaku?)[17][44][45] Individual 1995 Fujinraijin-tawaraya.jpg
Dyeing with true indigo (本藍染 hon aizome?)[46] Individual (Yoshio Mori, b. 1941) 1996 Indian indigo dye lump.jpg
Woodwork restoration (木工品修理 mokkohin shūri?)[47] Individual (Hiroshi Sakurai, b. 1950) 1997
Gathering Japanese cypress bark (檜皮採取 hiwada saishiki?)[48] Individual (Yutaka Ono, b. 1934) 1999 Kyoto Toji Hiwadabuki C0990.jpg
Crafting of decorative metal fittings (錺金具製作 kazari kanagu seisaku?)[49][50] Individual 1998 (Yasunosuke Morimoto, b. 1928) Nikko Toshogu Yomeimon M3247.jpg
Roofing with roofing tiles (屋根瓦葺 (本瓦葺) yanegawarabuki (hongawarabuki)?)[51][52] Joint (Kiyokazu Yamamoto, b. 1932; Mitsuo Teramoto, b. 1946; group also) 1994 Byodoin-Phoenix-M1234.jpg
Roofing with thatch (茅葺 kayabuki?)[53][54] Joint (Ryōzō Sumida, b. 1926; National Organization for Conservation of Roofing Techniques for Temples and Shrines) 1980 Shikokumura07s3200.jpg
Woodwork for building (建造物木工 kenzōbutsu mokkō?)[55] Joint (Shoji Matsuura, b. 1929; Association of Conservation Techniques for Cultural Property Buildings) 1976 Sumitsubo.jpg
Roof-thatching using Japanese cypress bark or boards (檜皮葺・柿葺 hiwada-buki/kokera-buki?)[56][57][58] cf. shake roofing Joint (Yasuo Onishi, b. 1925; National Organization for Conservation of Roofing Techniques for Temples and Shrines) 1976 Hogonji00bs3872.jpg
Buildings colouration (建造物彩色 kenzōbutsu saishiki?)[59] Group (Organization for Conserving Cultural Properties Related to Shrines and Temples of Nikkō 1979 20100727 Nikko Tosho-gu Yomeimon 5934.jpg
Building restoration (建造物修理 kenzōbutsu shūri?)[60] Group (Association of Conservation Techniques for Cultural Property Buildings) 1976 Osaka Castle under reconstruction.JPG
Building decoration (建造物装飾 kenzōbutsu sōshoku?)[61] Group 2007 Karamon Gate Side 2 Details.jpg
Plastering (Japanese walls) (左官 (日本壁) sakan (nihon kabe)?)[62] Group 2002
Production and repair of festival floats (祭屋台等製作修理 matsuri yataitō seisaku shūri?)[63][64] Group (Association of Holders of Festival Floats Production and Repair Techniques 2002 屋台三木市岩壺神社PA080068.JPG
Traditional framing and mounting techniques (装こう修理技術 sōkō shūri gijutsu?)[65] Group (Federation of National Treasure Framers and Restorers) 1995
Ukiyo-e woodblock art techniques (浮世絵木版画技術 ukiyo-e mokuhanga gijutsu?)[66] Group 1978 Ukiyo-e dsc04679.jpg
Conservation techniques for Cultural Property dry stone walls (文化財石垣保存技術 bunkazai ishigaki hozon gijutsu?)[67][68] Group 2009 Imperial Palace Tokyo Stone Wall near Kikyo mon.JPG
Conservation techniques for gardens designated as Cultural Properties (文化財庭園保存技術 bunkazai teien hozon gijutsu?)[69] Group 2002 Oizumi ga ike.jpg
Restoration of wooden sculptures (木造彫刻修理 mokuzō chōkoku-shūri?)[70] Group (Bijutsu-in (Art Institute) 1976 Sanjusangendo Raijin.jpg

Intangible Cultural Properties[edit]

31 techniques

Name Remarks Holder Year Picture
Hair styling for kabuki theatre (歌舞伎床山 kabuki tokoyama?)[71] Individual (Toshikazu Kamoji, b. 1938) 2003 Eiko Hayashi, Nihon Buyô – danse du Kabuki (Musée Guimet) III.jpg
Crafting and restoration of wind instruments for gagaku music (雅楽管楽器製作修理 gagaku kangakki seisaku shūri?)[72] Individual (Yasuhiko Hukuda, b. 1926; Zenichi Yamada, b. 1934) 1976 Yunghocchiku.jpg
Traditional steel-refining (tatara-buki) (玉鋼製造 (たたら吹き) tamahagane seizō (tatara-buki)?)[73] Individual (Akira Kihara, b. 1935; Katsuhiko Watanabe, b. 1939) 1977
Hair styling for traditional Okinawan performing arts (結髪 (沖縄伝統芸能) keppatsu (Okinawa dentō geinō)?)[74] Individual 2008
Special charcoal for polishing lacquer or metal handicrafts (研炭製造 togizumi seizō?)[75] Individual (Asatarō Higashi, b. 1921) 1994
Production of brushes for gold/silver lacquer painting (蒔絵筆製作 makie fude seisaku?)[76] for maki-e Individual (Kurōbei Murata, b. 1915) 1987
Production of brushes for lacquer (漆刷毛製作 urushi bake seisaku?)[77] Individual (Seiji Izumi, b. 1950) 1998
Production of tools for lacquer gathering (漆掻き用具製作 urushi kakiyōgu seisaku?)[78] Individual (Humitoshi Nakahata, b. 1943) 1995 Urushi01.jpg
Production of Yoshino-gami paper for filtering lacquer (漆濾紙 (吉野紙) 製作 urushi koshigami (Yoshino gami) seisaku?)[79] Individual (Takao Konbu, b. 1951) 1999
Loom building (手機製作 tebata seisaku?)[80] Individual (Tawaichi Nishimura, b. 1937) 2003
Production of Arasō raw material for textiles (粗苧製造 arasō seizō?)[81] ramie used in kasuri resist-dyeing Individual (Masakado Yahata, b. 1938) 2003
Crafting of kotsuzumi drums and drumheads for nohgaku (能楽小鼓 (胴・革) 製作修理 nōgaku kotsuzumi dōkawa seisaku shūri?)[82] Individual (Satoyuki Suzuki, b. 1936) 1995 Japanese small hand drum,kotsudumi,katori-city,japan.JPG
Crafting of drumheads for Ōtsuzumi drums used in nohgaku (能楽大鼓 (革) 製作 nōgaku ōtsuzumi kawa seisaku?)[83] Individual (Yukihiko Kimura, b. 1929) 1976
Crafting and restoration of nohkan flute (能管製作修理 nōkan seisaku shūri?)[84] Individual (Hōju Hayashi, b. 1929) 1978 Nohkan.jpg
Crafting and restoration of biwa (琵琶製作修理 biwa seisaku shūri?)[85] Individual 2006 Byodoin bosatsu 2.jpg
Wig styling for bunraku puppets (文楽人形鬘・床山 bunraku ningyō katsura - tokoyama?)[86] Individual (Shōji Nagoshi, b. 1930) 2002 Bunraku doll in national theatre Osaka 1.JPG
Production of strings for Japanese stringed instruments (邦楽器糸製作 hōgaki ito seisaku?)[87] for shamisen, koto, wagon, biwa Individual (Hiroyuki Ozasa, b. 1924) 1979 Japanese Koto.jpg
Loom shuttle production (杼製作 hi seisaku?)[88] Individual (Junichi Hasegawa, b. 1933) 1999
Ryūkyū indigo dyestuffs production (琉球藍製造 Ryūkyū ai seizō?)[89] Joint (Seishō Inowa, b. 1927; Organization for Conserving Ryūkyū Indigo Production Techniques) 1977
Karamushi plant production (からむし (苧麻) 生産・苧引き karamushi (choma) seisan - obiki?)[90] ramie Group (Shōwa-mura Karamushi Production Techniques Conservation Association) 1991
Awa indigo production (阿波藍製造 Awa ai seizō?)[91] Group (Organization for Conserving Awa Indigo Production Techniques) 1978
Kabuki stage costume production and restoration (歌舞伎衣裳製作修理 kabuki ishō seisaku shūri?)[92] Group (Association for Conservation of Kabuki Stage Costume Production and Restoration) 2002 Kabuki.png
Kabuki stage properties production (歌舞伎小道具製作 kabuki kodōgu seisaku?)[93] Group (Organization for Conserving Kabuki Stage Properties Production Techniques) 1996
Kabuki stage set (scenery painting) production (歌舞伎大道具 (背景画) 製作 kabuki ōdōgu (haikeiga) seisaku?)[94] Group (Organization for Conserving Kabuki Stage Set Production Techniques) 2002 Scene of a kabuki performance.JPG
Production of steel used for making Japanese swords (歌舞伎大道具 (背景画) 製作 tamahagane seizō?)[95] tamahagane Group (Japanese Association for Conserving Art Swords) 1977 Tamahagane.jpg
Production of tools for paper making (手漉和紙用具製作 tesuki washi yōgu seisaku?)[96] washi Group (National Organization for Conserving Production Techniques of Tools for Traditional Paper Making) 1976
Natural dyestuffs (safflower and gromwell) production (植物染料 (紅・紫根) 生産・製造 shokubutsu senryō (behi - shikon) seisan - seizō?)[97] Group (Japanese Association for Conserving Ethnic Craft Techniques) 1979 Safflower.jpg
Kumi Odori tools and costume production and restoration (組踊道具・衣裳製作修理 kumiodori dōgu - ishō seisaku shūri?)[98] Group 2009
Choma thread twisting (苧麻糸手績み choma ito teumi?)[99] Group (Miyako Organization for Conserving Bunmi Techniques) 2003
Production and refining of Japanese lacquer (日本産漆生産・精製 Nihon san urushi seisan - seisei?)[100] Group (Japanese Association of Lacquer for Cultural Properties; Japanese Organization for Conserving Lacquer Gathering Techniques) 1976 Lacquer in liquid form, mixed with water and turpentine.jpg
Production of strings for Japanese musical instruments (邦楽器原糸製造 hotsugakki genshi seizō?)[101] Group (Kino-honcho Town Organization for Conserving Production of Strings for Japanese Traditional Musical Instruments; Asai-cho Town Organization for Conserving Production of Strings for Japanese Traditional Musical Instruments) 1991
This list is complete and up-to-date as of April 3, 2012.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  49. ^ "錺金具製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
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  72. ^ "雅楽管楽器製作修理". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  73. ^ "玉鋼製造 (たたら吹き)". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  74. ^ "結髪 (沖縄伝統芸能)". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  75. ^ "研炭製造". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  76. ^ "蒔絵筆製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  77. ^ "漆刷毛製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  78. ^ "漆掻き用具製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
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  80. ^ "手機製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  81. ^ "粗苧製造". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  82. ^ "能楽小鼓 (胴・革) 製作修理". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  83. ^ "能楽大鼓 (革) 製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  84. ^ "能管製作修理". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  85. ^ "琵琶製作修理". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  86. ^ "文楽人形鬘・床山". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  87. ^ "邦楽器糸製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  88. ^ "杼製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  89. ^ "琉球藍製造". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
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  91. ^ "阿波藍製造". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  92. ^ "歌舞伎衣裳製作修理". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  93. ^ "歌舞伎小道具製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  94. ^ "歌舞伎大道具 (背景画) 製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  95. ^ "玉鋼製造". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  96. ^ "手漉和紙用具製作". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  97. ^ "植物染料 (紅・紫根) 生産・製造". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  98. ^ "組踊道具・衣裳製作修理". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  99. ^ "苧麻糸手績み". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  100. ^ "日本産漆生産・精製". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  101. ^ "邦楽器原糸製造". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 

External links[edit]