List of Sesame Street Muppets

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Jim Henson, creator of The Muppets, in 1989.

The Muppets are a group of puppet characters created by Jim Henson, many for the purpose of appearing on the children's television program Sesame Street. Henson's involvement in Sesame Street began when he and Joan Ganz Cooney, one of the creators of the show, met in the summer of 1968, at one of the show's five three-day curriculum planning seminars in Boston. Author Christopher Finch reported that director Jon Stone, who had worked with Henson previously, felt that if they could not bring him on board, they should "make do without puppets".[1]

Jim Henson was initially reluctant, but he agreed to join Sesame Street for its social goals. He also agreed to waive his performance fee for full ownership of the Sesame Street Muppets and to split any revenue they generated with the Children's Television Workshop, the series' non-profit producer[2] (renamed to the Sesame Workshop in 2000). The Muppets were a crucial part of the show's popularity and it brought Henson national attention.[3] In early research, the Muppet segments of the show scored high, and more Muppets were added during the first few seasons. The Muppets were effective teaching tools because children easily recognized them, they were stereotypical and predictable, and they appealed to adults and older siblings.[4]

During the production of Sesame Street '​s first season, producers created five one-hour episodes to test the show's appeal to children and examine their comprehension of the material. Not intended for broadcast, they were presented to preschoolers in 60 homes throughout Philadelphia and in day care centers in New York City in July 1969.[5] The results were "generally very positive";[6] children learned from the shows, their appeal was high, and children's attention was sustained over the full hour.[5] However, the researchers found that although children's attention was high during the Muppet segments, their interest wavered during the "Street" segments, when no Muppets were on screen. This was because the producers had followed the advice of child psychologists who were concerned that children would be confused if human actors and Muppets were shown together. As a result of this decision, the appeal of the test episodes was lower than the target.[6][7]

The Street scenes were "the glue" that "pulled the show together",[8] so producers knew they needed to make significant changes. The producers decided to reject the advisers' advice and reshot the Street segments; Henson and his coworkers created Muppets that could interact with the human actors,[8][9] specifically Oscar the Grouch and Big Bird, who became two of the show's most enduring characters.[10] These test episodes were directly responsible for what writer Malcolm Gladwell called "the essence of Sesame Street—the artful blend of fluffy monsters and earnest adults".[8]

Since 2001, the full rights for the Muppets created for Sesame Street have been owned by Sesame Workshop.[11]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Abby Cadabby Leslie Carrara-Rudolph[12] (2007) A three-year-old fairy-in-training with tiny wings, a magic wand, and sparkles in her hair who was created to increase the number of the female Sesame Street Muppets. Daughter of the fairy godmother (who is spoken about but never seen), she "has her own point of view and is comfortable with the fact that she likes wearing a dress". She was designed by Ed Christie and built by Rollie Krewson.[13]
Alice Snuffleupagus Judy Sladky (1988–1992) Baby sister of Aloysius Snuffleupagus ("Snuffy"). She has "luxurious, pale-golden fur", long eyelashes, and a blue-checkered hair ribbon, and was introduced to model sibling rivalry. She was one of the first Muppets controlled by remote control.[14]
Alistair Cookie Frank Oz (1978–2001) Played by Cookie Monster, he appeared in the "Monsterpiece Theater" sketch (a parody of Masterpiece Theater). At first, he appeared with a pipe that he later ate. The pipe was removed because according to executive producer Carol-Lynn Parente, it "modeled the wrong behavior".[15] He is a parody of Alistair Cooke.[16]
Amazing Mumford Jerry Nelson A "W.C. Fields-esque" magician made from a Live-Hand Large Lavender Anything Muppet whose magic tricks often go awry. His catch phrase, and most-often used to produce his tricks, is "À la peanut butter sandwiches". He was designed by Jim Henson and built by Don Sahlin.[17]
Anne Phibian Fran Brill A newt made from a Green Anything Muppet who is the host of the game show "Find the Amphibian" which was played by Elmo and Abby Cadabby in episode 4201.[18]
Anything Muppets Various Performers (1969–1973) Writer Christopher Finch called Anything Muppets "unadorned puppet torsos and heads"[19] used for a single role or purpose. This ever-expanding troupe of Muppets came in all shapes, sizes, and appearances. The Anything Muppets portray humans, specific animals, and occasional aliens.[20]
AM Monsters Various Performers (1970–1974) Short for "Anything Muppet Monsters," the AM Monsters are customizable Muppet Monsters like the Anything Muppets and the Whatnots from The Muppet Show. Like the Anything Muppets, the AM Muppets come in all shapes, sizes, and appearances. According to writer Louise Gikow, Elmo started out as an AM Monster.[21]
Aristotle Richard Hunt[22] A blind monster created to increase inclusiveness of people and puppets with disabilities on the show. He was designed by Michael K. Frith and built by Ed Christie.[23]
Arlene Frantic Fran Brill (1970-1974) Appeared in the Sesame Street sketch "What's My Part". She is a parody of Arlene Francis.[24]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Baby Bear Richard Hunt (1991-1992), David Rudman (1992-present) "The character from that Goldilocks story, in Muppet form". Rudman uses a "babyish lisp" when he voices Baby Bear.[17]
Barkley Toby Towson (1977–1978),[25] Brian Muehl,[26] Bruce Connelly[27] Originally named "Woof-Woof", he is a "large, friendly, shaggy dog" owned by Linda and knows a few words in American Sign Language.[17] Barley once traveled to China with Big Bird. He was designed by Michael K. Frith and built by Susan Moore.[28]
Beautiful Day Monster Jim Henson, Frank Oz, Caroll Spinney Originally appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show, this puppet was used interchangeably with Cookie Monster the first season of Sesame Street.[29]
Bennett Snerf Jerry Nelson (Monster version), Caroll Spinney (Anything Muppet version) (1970-1974) An Anything Muppet who appeared in the Sesame Street sketch "What's My Part". The first version seen was a monster made from a Fat Blue Anything Muppet. The second version was made from a Lavender Anything Muppet. He is a parody of Bennett Cerf.[24]
Benny Rabbit Kevin Clash The "irascible" rabbit who works as a bellhop at the Furry Arms Hotel (which was part of the Around-the-Corner set expansion of the 1990s).[30]
Bert Frank Oz (1969–present),[31] Eric Jacobson (1997–present)[32] Ernie's best friend, he collects paper clips and is fascinated by pigeons. His sketches were made by Jim Henson and he was built by Don Sahlin.[33]
Betty Lou Jim Henson, Caroll Spinney, Frank Oz (Episode 67), Marilyn Sokol (voice, Episodes 808 and 810), Lisa Buckley (1993), Fran Brill A Hot Pink Anything Muppet girl. "With her blonde braided hair, [she] is friendly and unassuming".[34] She collects dolls of various shapes and ethnicities.[35]
Biff Jerry Nelson[36] One-half of the Muppet construction worker duo, Biff is an "Archie Bunker-style blue-collar loudmouth". He and his partner Sully made for a "classic comedy team". Whenever they encountered a problem, Biff would ask for Sully's opinion but interrupt him before Sully could answer, and then Sully would be the one to come up with the solution.[37]
Big Bird Caroll Spinney (1969–present),[38] Matt Vogel (understudy)[39] A large yellow bird who was developed during the 1968 curriculum seminars. Designed by Jim Henson and built by Kermit Love and Don Sahlin, Big Bird is an 8-foot-2-inch tall big yellow bird with a slightly quirky and naive outlook on the world. Residing in a large nest alongside the "123 Sesame Street" building, he was the first Muppet to appear on the show[40] and represents a 6-year-old child who questions everything.[41][42]
Bip Bippadotta Jim Henson The wild-haired puppet featured in the Muppet segment "Mah Nà Mah Nà".[43]
Bruno the Trashman Caroll Spinney Created by Spinney as a way to allow Oscar to move around and talk at the same time, Bruno is a silent trashman who doesn't talk much.[34][44]
Buster the Horse Martin P. Robinson Forgetful Jones' horse, who often helps Forgetful get out of difficulties and helps him remember things. Buster can also sing, drive a jeep, brush his teeth, and play the piano.[34][45]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Captain Breakfast Brian Muehl[46][30] He was an orange-colored superhero who fought for the most important meal of the day. His insignia was a bowl of cereal.[47]
Clementine Forgetful Jones' longtime girlfriend.[48]
Colambo Joey Mazzarino A black lamb detective who is inspired by Columbo.[34] He's "a shrewd sheep investigator who often solves cases of things gone missing" and a fairy-tale expert.[49]
Cookie Monster Frank Oz (1969–2001),[50] David Rudman (2001–present)[51] As Sesame Street Unpaved says, "At first glance, Cookie Monster appears to be a monster with a one-track mind. He is deeply, emotionally, physically and spiritually attached to cookies".[52]
Count von Count Jerry Nelson (1972), Matt Vogel[53] Count von Count is a number-obsessed vampire who craves counting with a single-focused passion. He has lavender-fleece skin, bat-shaped ears, a flat black hairpiece, a red spade tongue, and wears a formal cape. Nelson based the Count's character and exaggerated European accent on Bela Lugosi's Count Dracula. His signature is organ music, lightening flashes, and thunder cracks.[54]
The Countess Fran Brill (1980-1984) Count von Count's girlfriend. She has a dog named Masha and is modeled after Marlene Dietrich.[34][55]
Curly Bear Stephanie D'Abruzzo[56] (2003–present)[57] Baby Bear's little sister. Created to address the issue of sibling rivalry, Curly calls her brother "Bebo", has a very loud growl, and unlike the rest of her family, does not like porridge.[56][58]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
David Letterguy Host of "The Alphabet Roadshow".[59]
Deena Karen Prell Described as "hyper-active", Karen Prell reported that her performance was deemed "over-the-top", so the character didn't last long.[60]
Dingers Various Performers Like the Honkers, the Dingers communicate only with noises.[61]
Don Music Richard Hunt A piano-playing composer who required assistance from Kermit the Frog to complete the lyrics to his songs. When frustrated, he would say, "Oh, I'll never get it! Never, never, never!" and bang his head on the keyboard. He had a bust of Ludwig van Beethoven on his piano, and as an inside joke, a framed photo of Joe Raposo hanging on the wall.[37]
Donald Grump A Grouch who is modeled after billionaire real-estate developer Donald Trump.[62]
Dr. Feel A spoof of TV personality and author Dr. Phil McGraw.[62]
Dr. Nobel Price Brian Muehl, Kevin Clash Price's inventions consisted of things that are either no use (like a rain-producing machine and a flying cupcake) or have already been invented. Author Louise Gikow called Price a "misguided inventor" and the "bane of reporter Kermit's existence."[61]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Elizabeth Stephanie D'Abruzzo A pig-tailed Muppet with a Brooklyn accent who loves the number 732 and her cat Little Murray Sparkles. D'Abruzzo said about her: "She was unlike your typical little girl characters".[56]
Elmo Brian Muehl, Richard Hunt (1985), Kevin Clash (1985–2012),[63][64] Ryan Dillon (2013–present)[65] A furry three-and-a-half-year old red monster. It wasn't until Clash took over the role that Elmo became what Clash called a "phenomenon".[66]
Ernestine Ernie's baby cousin. Her laugh sounds like Ernie's laugh.[67]
Ernie Jim Henson (1969–1990),[68] Steve Whitmire (1993–present)[69] Orange-colored, oval-headed, and always grinning, Ernie is a "free spirit" and a "trickster". His best friend is Bert where they share a basement apartment at 123 Sesame Street.[70]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Farley A green Muppet boy with short orange spiked hair and a yellow sweater.[71]
Flo Bear David Rudman[72]
Fluffy the Elephant Oscar the Grouch's pet elephant; he sticks his trunk out of Oscar's trash can from time to time.[73]
Forgetful Jones Richard Hunt A "simpleton cowboy".[37] He is the "most forgetful cowboy in the Wild Wild West".[74]
Frazzle Jerry Nelson A large orange monster Muppet with big teeth.[75]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Gladys the Cow Richard Hunt (1973—1992), Jennifer Barnhart (2003—present) A cow. With her "piercing operatic voice", Sesame Street Unpaved calls her "a theatrical ham (even though she's a cow)".[76]
Googel A purple monster who is a member of the Monster Clubhouse.[77]
Granny Bird Big Bird's grandmother who had watched over him when he was a little bird and who likes to make him food made of birdseed. She has grey feathers on her forehead.[78]
Granny Fanny Nestlerode An old lady Muppet who appeared in season 2.[79]
Grover Frank Oz, Eric Jacobson[80] Sesame Street Unpaved describes Grover as "the Muppet we'd all like to be—self-confident, furry, cute, capable, and intelligent. Well, self-confident, furry, and cute, at least".[81]
Grundgetta Brian Muehl (1982—1984), Pam Arciero (1984—present)[82] A Grouch who is Oscar the Grouch's "trashy girlfriend."[82] She has Oscar's grouchy temperament and also likes everything trashy. She wears tattered hats and veils.[83]
Gulliver A seagull pal of Big Bird's, whose racism was confronted by Big Bird in episode 4021, which was inspired by and aired four months after the events of 9-11.[84]
Guy Smiley Jim Henson,[85] Eric Jacobson[80] The "enthusiastic," self-proclaimed "America's Favorite Game Show Host"[86] with a "wide, grinning mouth and his desire to explore the lives of others without revealing his own".[87]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Harvey Kneeslapper A blonde and wild-eyed Muppet. Harvey likes telling jokes, which often involve puns, letter, and numbers, and playing practical jokes on others, which sometimes backfire on him.[88]
Harvey Monster He appeared in the sketch "Near and Far" with Elmo, Clancy, and Kermit the Frog.[89]
Herbert Birdsfoot A bespectacled Muppet. He is a lecturer who often appeared with Grover.[90]
Herry Monster Jerry Nelson[91] Herry is a blue and burly monster who does not know his own strength. His voice is gruff but he has a gentle heart.[92] He appears in many unscripted scenes with children, and "is written to represent a monster with the psychological age of a six-year old".[93]
Honkers Like the Dingers, they communicate only through noises.[61]
Hoots the Owl Kevin Clash[94] Sesame Street writer Mark Saltzman described Hoots as "the saxophone-playing jazz owl".[95] Clash based his voice after Louie Armstrong.[94]
Horatio the Elephant Joey Mazzarino A dancing elephant.[96]
Humphrey He and his wife Ingrid, who together are Natasha's parents, are the hotel managers of the Furry Arms Hotel which was part of the Around-the-Corner set from 1993 to 1998.[30]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
"I Love My Hair" Muppet Inspired by head writer Joey Mazzarino's adopted daughter Segi, this Muppet is an African-American little girl who sings proudly about her hair, "helping little girls—and their moms—to accept themselves just the way they are by loving their hair".[97]
Ingrid Natasha's mother. She and her husband Humphrey are the hotel managers of the Furry Arms Hotel.[30]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Jamie Fox A fox; along with Elmo and Jamie Foxx he tries to figure out who is the real "Jamie Foxx" and sing the alphabet together.[98]
Joe Hundred Guy An orange Muppet who is a spoof of the reality show Joe Millionaire.[99]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Kermit the Frog Jim Henson (1955–1990), Steve Whitmire (1990—present)[100] A frog who is one of the first Muppets designed and built by Jim Henson.[101] Borgenicht calls Kermit "funny, ironic, and always the voice of reason amidst the insanity around him; the calm in the eye of the storm".[102] Gerald S. Lesser, CTW's first Advisory Board chairman, calls him "the saturnine but gentlemanly puppet frog".[103]
Kingston Livingston III Kevin Clash A young African-American boy who is smart and cool, and who prefers to do his own thing.[17] He is "one cool kid" who is different by just being himself.[104]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Lefty the Salesman Frank Oz[105]
Little Bird Wise, soft-spoken little bird who is good at explaining concepts for his friend Big Bird.[106]
Little Chrissy Jim Henson (puppeteer), Christopher Cerf (voice) The lead singer of "Little Chrissy and the Alphabeats," he was one of the earliest Muppets based upon an actual person (Cerf).[107]
Little Jerry A green Muppet who is the lead singer of the rock group "Little Jerry and the Monotones". Many of their songs were written by Jeff Moss.[107]
Little Murray Sparkles Stephanie D'Abruzzo Elizabeth's beloved pet cat.[56]
Liz Lemon A lemon who is a parody of Tina Fey's 30 Rock character of the same name.[108]
Louie Elmo's dad.[109]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Mel Kevin Clash A gibberish-speaking blue monster with a mop of hair and yellow horns who is a member of the Monster Clubhouse.[77]
Monty Muppet-tribute to Monty Python's Flying Circus.[61]
Mr. Johnson Jerry Nelson Also called "Fat Blue", Mr. Johnson usually appears with Grover in restaurant skits as his harried customer (usually at Charlie's Restaurant). Grover made up this rhyme about him: "In a hurry to be fed, beady eyes and big, blue head!"[110][111]
Murray Monster Joey Mazzarino The host of the "Word on the Street" segment, Murray is a boisterous, flame-colored Muppet.[112]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Narf Joey Mazzarino An orange monster with a blue nose and googly eyes who is a member of the Monster Clubhouse.[77]
Natasha Kevin Clash An infant monster who uses only baby-talk to communicate. Natasha's parents are Humphrey and Ingrid and her alter-ego is Super Baby.[17][113]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Oscar the Grouch Caroll Spinney One of the first Muppets created for Sesame Street, and a "surprising success", Oscar gives kids "permission to feel grouchy—and to demonstrate differing opinions", as well as to model how to adapt to different personalities.[114] Spinney based his voice on a New York City cab driver.[38]
Ovejita Carmen Osbahr (2008) A little lamb, Ovejita accompanies Murray to various schools in the segment "Murray Had a Little Lamb."[115]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer
Papa Bear Joey Mazzarino[116] Baby Bear's father.
Phoebe A green monster who is a member of the Monster Clubhouse.[77]
Placido Flamingo An operatic flamingo with a clear tenor voice who sings at the Nestropolitan Opera.[117]
Prairie Dawn Fran Brill A little girl whose psychological age is that of a precocious three-year old,[118] Prairie has "big dreams and a little voice".[119]
Prince Charming A Muppet who resembles "Guy Smiley in prince's clothing". he is the "self-involved" prince who appears in Muppet fairy tales.[36]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Roosevelt Franklin Matt Robinson (voice) A little Reddish-Magenta Anything Muppet who attended Roosevelt Franklin Elementary School and was so popular, he recorded his own album. He was dropped from the show because "he was thought by some to be a negative cultural stereotype".[120]
Roosevelt Franklin's Mother Loretta Long (voice) A Purple Anything Muppet who is the mother of Roosevelt Franklin.[120]
Rosita Carmen Osbahr The first bilingual Muppet on Sesame Street, Rosita speaks both English and Spanish. She is a "good-natured, intelligent turquoise Muppet" and her full name is Rosita, la Monstrua de las Cuevas (translated as "Rosita, the Monster of the Caves").[17]
Roxie Marie Fran Brill A lavender Muppet who is the niece of construction worker Biff.[61]
Ruby Camille Bonora A sunflower-yellow, pony-tailed monster who likes to play with toy trucks.[121]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
SAM the Robot Jerry Nelson A robot who is supposedly perfect, SAM is prone to silly mistakes. His name is an acronym for "Super Automated Machine".[46]
Sherlock Hemlock Jerry Nelson Based on Basil Rathbone's movie portrayal of Sherlock Holmes; a detective who solves mysteries by "concentrating on the little clues and overlooking the big ones" that his dog Watson tends to find.[34]
Sherry Netherland Alice Dinnean The "Leona Helmsley of the Furry Arms Hotel". She rules with "an iron fist, a heart of gold, and a brain of oatmeal".[36]
Simon Soundman Jerry Nelson (1970) A blue Muppet who first appeared in Season 2, he uses sounds to communicate.[79]
Slimey the Worm Jerry Nelson (1970–1978), Michael Earl Davis (1978–1980), Martin P. Robinson (1980–present),[122] Dick Maitland (voice)[123] An "intelligent worm" who is the smallest and, other than Buster, the smartest character on Sesame Street. When he first appeared, he spoke in just squeaky sounds. He later became the only Muppet not voiced by a puppeteer.[124]
Aloysius Snuffleupagus ("Snuffy") Jerry Nelson (1971–1978), Richard Hunt, Bryant Young (1978), Michael Earl Davis (1978–1980), Martin P. Robinson (1980–present)[122] Created to represent the psychological age of a four-year old, Snuffy at seven feet tall and twelve feet wide is the largest Muppet on Sesame Street. He was Big Bird's "imaginary friend" until 1985, when he was finally revealed to the adult cast.[125]
Sonny Friendly Richard Hunt (1986–1992), David Rudman (1992–2000) "America's Friendliest Game Show Host".[36] Based on Pat Sajak, his catch phrase is "Are we having a nice day or what?"[126]
Stinky the Stinkweed Joey Mazzarino[127] A talking stinkweed plant.
Sully Richard Hunt (1973–1992) One-half of the Muppet construction worker duo and Biff's silent counterpart. He is one of Richard Hunt's most "understated and complex" characters.[37]
Super Grover Grover's superhero alter ego.[128]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Telly Monster Bob Payne (1979), Brian Muehl (1979–1984), Martin P. Robinson (1984–present) Originally named "the Television Monster" because he was obsessed with TV, his name was changed to Telly and his obsession became triangles. Telly is "the Woody Allen of Muppets: the neurotic one, the one who overthinks everything, the worrier". The original Telly Monster puppet was built by Bob Payne.[129]
The Twiddlebugs Thomas Twiddlebug: Jim Henson (1973–1990), Martin P. Robinson (1995-1998)
Tessie Twiddlebug: Frank Oz (1973–1990), David Rudman (1995-1998)
Tina Twiddlebug: Jerry Nelson (1973–1998)
Timmy Twiddlebug: Richard Hunt (1973–1990), Kevin Clash (1995-1998)
(1973–1977) A family of cute and innovative insects (consisting of Tina, Thomas, Timmy, and Tessie) made from different Anything Muppets that live in a flower box on Ernie's windowsill.[36] They use tiny found objects as their furniture and toys. The Twiddlebugs later appeared in CGI by 2006 where they were animated by Magnetic Dreams Animation Studio and were all voiced by Rickey Boyd.[130]
Two-Headed Monster Right Head: Peter Friedman (1978), Richard Hunt (1979–1991), David Rudman (1992–present)
Left Head: Jerry Nelson (1978–2002), Joey Mazzarino (2003–present)[36][72]
A purple monster with two heads. They teach young viewers how to cooperate while speaking in a baby-like, gibberish language. They were designed by Jim Henson and built by Caroly Wilcox.[36]




Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Yip Yips (1971-1975)[131] Jim Henson, Frank Oz, Jerry Nelson, Richard Hunt, Martin P. Robinson, Kevin Clash, David Rudman, Julianne Buescher, John Tartaglia, Eric Jacobson, Matt Vogel, Leslie Carrara-Rudolph The nickname for the Martians with a jellyfish-like appearance who speak in simple, declarative phrases that are a mixture of Martian and English.[132] They "valiantly explore our world despite their frequent terrifying encounters with everyday objects like telephones, clocks, radio, fan, book, and computers".[133]


Character Actor/Muppet Performer Description
Zoe Fran Brill (1993—Present) Introduced to increase the number of strong female Sesame Street Muppets, Zoe is a yellow-orange monster who is "simultaneously dainty and strong, practical and impulsive".[134] Zoe loves dancing and ballet and usually wears a bright tutu since 2000. She was designed by Ed Christie and built by Rollie Krewson.[135]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Finch, p. 53
  2. ^ Davis, p. 5
  3. ^ Morrow, p. 93
  4. ^ Morrow, pp. 94—95
  5. ^ a b Lesser, p. 164
  6. ^ a b Fisch, p. 39
  7. ^ Gladwell, p. 105
  8. ^ a b c Gladwell, p. 106
  9. ^ Fisch & Bernstein, pp. 39–40
  10. ^ Fisch & Bernstein, p. 40
  11. ^ Retsinas, Greg (May 8, 2003). "Hensons Buying Back the Muppets for $89 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Leslie Carrara-Rudolph: Leslie's Biography". Sesame Sesame Workshop. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  13. ^ Dominus, Susan (August 6, 2006). "A Girly-Girl Joins the 'Sesame' Boys". The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  14. ^ Hellman, Peter (November 23, 1987). "Street smart: How Big Bird & Co. do it". New York Magazine 20 (46): 48. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  15. ^ Heffernan, Virginia (November 18, 2007). "Sweeping the Clouds Away". The New York Times Magazine. p. 634. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  16. ^ Prial, Frank J. (March 31, 2004). "Alistair Cooke, Elegant Interpreter of America, Dies at 95". The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f Borgenicht, p. 132
  18. ^ "Sesame Street Amphibian Show". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 
  19. ^ Finch, p. 64
  20. ^ Lesser, p. 127
  21. ^ Gikow, p. 100
  22. ^ Gikow, p. 57
  23. ^ Gikow, p. 181
  24. ^ a b Episode 0131 (November 9, 1970), in Old School, Volume 1 (Disc 2) [DVD] (2006), Children's Television Workshop
  25. ^ Fallstrom, Bob (May 31, 2010). "Former gymnast vaults into new career". The Herald-Review (Decatur, Illinois). Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  26. ^ Gikow, p. 79
  27. ^ Gikow, p. 93
  28. ^ "Barkley". Sesame Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  29. ^ Gikow, p. 41
  30. ^ a b c d Gikow, p. 207
  31. ^ Gikow, p. 27
  32. ^ "Eric Jacobson: Eric's Biography". Sesame Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  33. ^ Finch, p. 61
  34. ^ a b c d e f Borgenicht, p. 131
  35. ^ "Betty Lou". Sesame Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Borgenicht, p. 133
  37. ^ a b c d Davis, p. 242
  38. ^ a b Gikow, p. 48
  39. ^ Gikow, p. 141
  40. ^ "Big Bird". Sesame Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  41. ^ Borgenicht, p. 33
  42. ^ Gikow, p. 51
  43. ^ Gikow, p. 231
  44. ^ "Bruno". Sesame Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  45. ^ "Buster the Horse". Sesame Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  46. ^ a b Gikow, p. 92
  47. ^ Seher, Jason (6 October 2011). "Captain Breakfast". Time. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  48. ^ "Clementine". Sesame Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  49. ^ "Colambo". Sesame Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  50. ^ Davis, p. 246
  51. ^ Lewin Fischer, Shoshana (29 May 2008). "The greatest gift of all—and Bunnies!". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  52. ^ Borgenicht, p. 65
  53. ^ "Benedict Cumberbatch sleuths with Muppets in PBS video". CBS News. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  54. ^ Davis, p. 239
  55. ^ "Countess". Sesame Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  56. ^ a b c d Gikow, p. 134
  57. ^ Gikow, p. 164
  58. ^ "Curly Bear". Sesame Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  59. ^ Whitlock, Natalie Walker. "Ultimate Guide to Elmo". p. 3. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  60. ^ Howard, Brendan (20 August 2006). "Puppeteer Loved to 'Rock'". Home Media Magazine. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  61. ^ a b c d e Gikow, p. 104
  62. ^ a b "Donald Trump becomes a Muppet, Donald Grump". CBC News. February 11, 2005. Retrieved 2010-11-19. [dead link]
  63. ^ Clash, p. 2
  64. ^ Davis, p. 285
  65. ^ Hicks, Tony (2 April 2013). "Hicks: Elmo may be back in business". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  66. ^ Borgenicht, p. 9
  67. ^ "Ernestine". Sesame Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  68. ^ Davis, p. 166
  69. ^ Twardzik, Cathleen (22 February 2009). "Who is the Fellow That's Fluffy and Yellow?" Caroll Spinney". Somerville News. 
  70. ^ Borgenicht, pp. 21, 25
  71. ^ Episode 0536 (November 19, 1973), in Old School, Volume 1 (Disc 3) [DVD] (2006), Children's Television Workshop
  72. ^ a b Gikow, p. 103"
  73. ^ "Fluffy". Sesame Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
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  • Borgenicht, David (1998). Sesame Street Unpaved. New York: Hyperion Publishing. ISBN 0-7868-6460-5
  • Clash, Kevin, Gary Brozek & Louis Henry Mitchell (2006). My Life as a Furry Red Monster: What Being Elmo Has Taught Me about Life, Love and Laughing Out Loud. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-7679-2375-8
  • Davis, Michael (2008). Street Gang: The Complete History of Sesame Street. New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-01996-0
  • Finch, Christopher (1993). Jim Henson: The Works: the Art, the Magic, the Imagination. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-41203-4
  • Fisch, Shalom M.; Lewis Bernstein, "Formative Research Revealed: Methodological and Process Issues in Formative Research". In Fisch, Shalom M. & Truglio, Rosemarie T.. G" is for Growing: Thirty Years of Research on Children and Sesame Street. Mahweh, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8058-3394-2.
  • Gikow, Louise A. (2009). Sesame Street: A Celebration—Forty Years of Life on the Street. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57912-638-4.
  • Gladwell, Malcolm (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little, Brown, and Company. ISBN 0-316-31696-2
  • Lesser, Gerald S. (1974). Children and Television: Lessons from Sesame Street. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-394-71448-2

External links[edit]