List of Shakespeare authorship candidates
Claims that someone other than William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon wrote the works traditionally attributed to him were first explicitly made in the 19th century, though supporters of the theory often argue that coded assertions of alternative authorship exist in texts dating back to Shakespeare's lifetime. Typically, they say that the historical Shakespeare was merely a front to shield the identity of the real author or authors, who, for reasons such as social rank, state security, or gender, could not safely take public credit. Although these claims have attracted much public interest, all but a few Shakespeare scholars and literary historians consider them to be fringe theories with no hard evidence, and for the most part disregard them except to rebut or disparage the claims.
The basis for these theories can be traced to the 18th century, when, more than 150 years after his death, Shakespeare's status was elevated to that of the greatest writer of all time. Shakespeare’s pre-eminence seemed incongruous with his humble origins and obscure life, arousing suspicion that he was not the author of the works attributed to him. At the same time, the influence of biblical higher criticism led some authors to take the view that Shakespeare's works could be the product of the collaborative efforts of many authors. Public debate and a prolific body of literature date from the mid-19th century, and numerous historical figures, including Francis Bacon, the Earl of Oxford, Christopher Marlowe and the Earl of Derby, have since been nominated as the true author.
Promoters of various authorship theories assert that their particular candidate is more plausible in terms of education, life experience, and/or social status to be the true author of the Shakespeare canon. Most candidates are either members of the upper social classes or are known poets and playwrights of the day. Proponents argue that the documented life of William Shakespeare lacks the education, aristocratic sensibility, or familiarity with the royal court which they say is apparent in the works.
Mainstream Shakespeare scholars maintain that biographical interpretations of literature are unreliable for attributing authorship, and that the convergence of documentary evidence for Shakespeare’s authorship—title pages, testimony by other contemporary poets and historians and official records—is the same as that for any other author of the time. No such supporting evidence exists for any other candidate, and Shakespeare’s authorship was not questioned during his lifetime or for centuries after his death.
Despite the scholastic consensus, a relatively small but highly visible and diverse assortment of supporters, including some prominent public figures, are confident that someone other than William Shakespeare wrote the works. They campaign to gain public acceptance of the authorship question as a legitimate field of academic inquiry and to promote one or another of the various authorship candidates through publications, organizations, online discussion groups and conferences.
This list of 86 candidates is in alphabetical order of surname, so that aristocrats appear under their family name, rather than their title (e.g. "De Vere, Edward" rather than "Oxford, Earl of").
- Alexander, William (1568–1640), 1st Earl of Stirling, Well traveled nobleman, sonnet writer & playwright. Proposed in 1930 by Peter Alvor.
- Andrewes, Lancelot (1555–1626), Bishop of Winchester, scholar and theological writer, proposed in 1940 by Dr. W.M. Cunningham, as a member of a group of Freemasons.
- Bacon, Anthony (1558–1601), statesman, spy. First proposed as a contributor by Mrs. Henry Pott in 1892 and as author of the sonnets by W.H. Denning, in 1925.
- Bacon, Francis (1561–1626), lawyer, scholar, essayist. Proposed as sole author by William Henry Smith in 1856 and as a co-author by Delia Bacon in 1857. See Baconian theory of Shakespeare authorship
- Barnard, John (1604–74), husband of Shakespeare's granddaughter, proposed by Finch Barnard in 1914.
- Barnes, Barnabe (1571–1609), poet, playwright. proposed as a member of a group theory by Alden Brooks in 1943.
- Barnfield, Richard (1574–1620), poet, proposed in 1901 in Notes and Queries.
- Blount, Charles (1563–1606), 8th Baron Mountjoy and 1st Earl of Devonshire, soldier and Knight of the Garter, proposed by Peter Alvor in 1930.
- Bodley, Rev. Miles (ca. 1553– ca. 1611), Bible scholar; proposed in 1940 (mistakenly as "Sir Miles Bodley") by W. M. Cunningham.
- Bodley, Sir Thomas (1545–1613), diplomat, scholar, proposed in 1940 by Dr. W.M. Cunningham, as a member of a group of Freemasons 
- Burbage, Richard (1567–1619), actor, proposed as a co-author of Hamlet in a group theory by Wilhelm Marschall in 1926.
- Burton, Robert (1577–1640), scholar, proposed by M. L. Hore in 1885.
- Butts, William (d. 1583), patron of literature; proposed by Walter Conrad Arensberg in 1929.
- Campion, Edmund (1540–1581), poet; proposed by Joanne Ambrose in 2005.
- Cecil, Robert (1563–1612), 1st Earl of Salisbury, statesman, proposed by J. H. Maxwell in 1916.
- Chettle, Henry (1560–1607), playwright, polemicist, proposed as a member of a group theory by John H. Stotsenberg in 1904.
- Daniel, Samuel (1562–1619), poet, historian, first proposed as a member of a group theory by T.W. White in 1892.
- de Cervantes, Miguel (1547-1616), Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright; proposed by Carlos Fuentes in 1976.
- de Vere, Edward (1550–1604), 17th Earl of Oxford, courtier, poet, playwright. Proposed by J. Thomas Looney in 1920. See Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship
- Defoe, Daniel (1660-1731), novelist, proposed by George Magruder Battey.
- Dekker, Thomas (1572–1632), playwright, proposed as a member of a group theory by John H. Stotsenberg in 1904.
- Devereux, Robert (Essex) (1566–1601), 2nd Earl of Essex. proposed as dual author in 1902, and as sole author in 1905 by Lantham Davis.
- Devereux, Walter (1541?–1576), 1st Earl of Essex. Proposed as dual author with his son Robert, in 1902 by Eugen Reichel.
- Digges, Leonard (c.1515–c.1559), scientist, proposed by Peter Usher in 2010.
- Donne, John (1572–1631), poet, Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, proposed as part-author of the Sonnets by H.T.S. Forrest in 1923.
- Drake, Sir Francis (1540–1596), naval commander, adventurer, proposed in 1940 by Dr. W.M. Cunningham, as a member of a group of Freemasons 
- Drayton, Michael (1563–1631), playwright, proposed as a member of a group theory by John H. Stotsenberg in 1904.
- Dyer, Sir Edward (1543–1607), courtier, poet; proposed by Alden Brooks in 1943.
- Ferrers, Henry (1549–1633), Warwickshire antiquary, first proposed as a member of a group by J.P. Yeatman in 1896.
- Fletcher, John (1579–1625), playwright, proposed as a member of a group theory by John H. Stotsenberg in 1904.
- Florio, John (1554–1625), linguist, proposed by Erik Reger in 1927.
- Florio, Michelangelo (1515–1572), Protestant evangelist and scholar; proposed by Santi Paladino in 1925.
- Greene, Robert (1558–1592), playwright, polemicist, first proposed as a member of a group theory by T.W. White in 1892.
- Greville, Fulke (1554–1628) 1st Baron Brooke; proposed by A. W. L. Saunders in 2007.
- Griffin, Bartholomew (d. 1602), poet, first proposed as a member of a group by J.P. Yeatman in 1896.
- Hastings, William. Supposed son of Queen Elizabeth; proposed by Robert Nield in 2007.
- Hathaway, Anne (1555/6-1623), Shakespeare's wife, proposed by J. P. de Fonseka, 1938.
- Herbert, William (1580–1630), 3rd Earl of Pembroke, scholar, patron, Chancellor of the University of Oxford, founder Pembroke College. first proposed as a member of a group by J.P. Yeatman in 1896.
- Heywood, Thomas (1574–1641), playwright, proposed as a member of a group theory by John H. Stotsenberg in 1904.
- The Jesuits, proposed by Harold Johnson in Did the Jesuits Write 'Shakespeare'? (1916).
- Jonson, Ben (1572–1637), playwright, poet, first proposed as a member of a group theory by John H. Stotsenberg in 1904.
- Kyd, Thomas (1558–1594), playwright, proposed as a member of a group by Alden Brooks in 1937.
- Lanier, Emilia (1569–1645), poet; proposed by John Hudson in 2007.
- Lewkenor, Lewes (1560-1627) Soldier, writer; proposed by William 'Bill' Corbett in 2012.
- Lodge, Thomas (1557–1625), playwright, first proposed as a member of a group theory by T.W. White in 1892.
- Lyly, John (1554–1606), playwright, prose stylist, theatre troupe manager, proposed as a member of a group by Alden Brooks in 1937.
- Manners, Elizabeth Sidney (d. 1615), Countess of Rutland, proposed as a member of a group by C.G. Muskat in 1925.
- Manners, Roger (1576–1612), 5th Earl of Rutland.
- Marlowe, Christopher (1564–1593), playwright; first proposed as a member of a group theory by T.W. White in 1892. First proposed as sole author by Wilbur G. Zeigler. - see Marlovian theory of Shakespeare authorship
- Mathew, Sir Tobie (1577–1655), courtier, Catholic priest, proposed in 1940 by Dr. W.M. Cunningham, as a member of a group of Freemasons 
- Middleton, Thomas (1580–1627), playwright.
- More, Sir Thomas (1478–1535), Lord Chancellor of England and Saint of the Catholic Church, proposed in 1940 by Dr. W.M. Cunningham, as a member of a group of Freemasons 
- Munday, Anthony (1560–1633), dramatist first proposed as a member of a group theory by T.W. White in 1892.
- Nashe, Thomas (1567–1601), poet, polemicist.
- Neville, Henry (1564-1615) politician and courtier; proposed by Brenda James and William Rubenstein in 2005.
- North, Thomas (1535-1604), translator of Plutarch, proposed by Dennis McCarthy in 2011.
- Nugent, William (1550–1625), Irish rebel; first proposed by Elizabeth Hickey in 1978.
- O'Toole, Patrick, Irishman, citizen of Ennis, first proposed by George Newcomen in 1897.
- Paget, Henry (d. 1568), 2nd Baron Paget.
- Peele, George (1556–1596), playwright, first proposed as a member of a group theory by T.W. White in 1892.
- Pierce, William (1561–1674), claimed writer; proposed by Peter Zenner in 1999.
- Porter, Henry (fl. c. 1596–99), playwright.
- Raleigh, Sir Walter (1554–1618), courtier, poet. Proposed as a co-author by Delia Bacon in 1857 and as sole author by George S. Caldwell 20 years later.
- The Rosicrucians
- Sackville, Thomas (1536–1608), Lord Buckhurst, 1st Earl of Dorset.
- Seymour, William, "bastardized" son of Earl of Hertford and Lady Catherine Grey, and supposedly raised by Mary Shakespeare. Proposed by Ira Sedgwick Proper in 1953.
- Shirley, Sir Anthony (1565?–1635), soldier, sailor, adventurer.
- Sidney Herbert, Mary (1561–1621), Countess of Pembroke, nominated by Gilbert Slater in 1931.
- Sidney, Sir Philip (1554–1586), poet, soldier, courtier.
- Smith, Wentworth (1571 – c.1623), playwright.
- Spenser, Edmund (1552–1599), poet; proposed in 1940 by W. M. Cunningham.
- Stanley, William, 6th Earl of Derby (1561–1642), first proposed by James Greenstreet in 1891. See Derbyite theory of Shakespeare authorship
- Stuart, James, King of England (1566–1625), proposed by Malcolm X in 1965.
- Stuart, Mary (1542–1587), Queen of Scots.
- Talbot, Gilbert (1552-1616), 7th Earl of Shrewsbury.
- Tudor, Edward, King of England (1537–1553), proposed by W.B. Venton in 1968.
- Tudor, Elizabeth (1533–1603), Queen of England; proposed anonymously in 1857, re-proposed by W. R. Titterton in 1913 (not too seriously) and by G. E. Sweet in 1956.
- Warner, William (c. 1558–1609), poet.
- Watson, Thomas (1555–1592), poet.
- Webster, John (1580?–1625?), playwright.
- Whateley, Anne (1561?-1600?), Shakespeare's supposed first fiancée, proposed in 1939 by William Ross.
- Wilson, Robert (1572–1600), playwright.
- Wolsey, Thomas (1473?–1530) Cardinal of England, proposed by the anonymous J.G.B. in 1887.
- Wotton, Sir Henry (1568–1639), scholar, diplomat; proposed in 1940 by Dr. W.M. Cunningham, as a member of a group of Freemasons 
- Wriothesley, Henry (1573–1624), 3rd Earl of Southampton, first proposed as a member of a group by J.P. Yeatman in 1896.
- Zubayr bin William, Shaykh ("Sheik Zubayr"), supposed Arab scholar, first proposed frivolously by Ahmad Faris al-Shidyaq and later in earnest by Safa Khulusi and, in 1989, Muammar Gaddafi.
- Edmondson & Wells 2013, p. 2.
- McMichael & Glenn 1962, p. 56
- Wadsworth 1958, p. 65
- Kathman 2003, p. 621: "Professional Shakespeare scholars mostly pay little attention to it, much as evolutionary biologists ignore creationists and astronomers dismiss UFO sightings."; Alter 2010 quotes James Shapiro: "There's no documentary evidence linking their 50 or so candidates to the plays."; Nicholl 2010, p. 4 quotes Gail Kern Paster, director of the Folger Shakespeare Library: "To ask me about the authorship question ... is like asking a paleontologist to debate a creationist's account of the fossil record." Chandler 2001 argues however in an anti-Stratfordian on-line journal that: "while Oxfordians have sometimes attacked the academy for ignoring them, the fact is, on the whole, that 'mainstream' Shakespeare scholarship has shown more interest in Oxfordianism than Oxfordians have shown in 'mainstream' Shakespearean scholarship."; Nelson 2004, p. 151: "I do not know of a single professor of the 1,300-member Shakespeare Association of America who questions the identity of Shakespeare ... Among editors of Shakespeare in the major publishing houses, none that I know questions the authorship of the Shakespeare canon."; Carroll 2004, pp. 278–279: "I am an academic, a member of what is called the 'Shakespeare Establishment,' one of perhaps 20,000 in our land, professors mostly, who make their living, more or less, by teaching, reading, and writing about Shakespeare—and, some say, who participate in a dark conspiracy to suppress the truth about Shakespeare.... I have never met anyone in an academic position like mine, in the Establishment, who entertained the slightest doubt as to Shakespeare's authorship of the general body of plays attributed to him. Like others in my position, I know there is an anti-Stratfordian point of view and understand roughly the case it makes. Like St. Louis, it is out there, I know, somewhere, but it receives little of my attention."; Gibson 2005, p. 30
- Law 1965, p. 184; Kroeber 1993, p. 369
- Shapiro 2010, pp. 58–60 (53–54); Bate 2004, p. 106; Dobson 2001, p. 31: "By the middle of the 19th century, the Authorship Controversy was an accident waiting to happen. In the wake of Romanticism, especially its German variants, such transcendent, quasi-religious claims were being made for the supreme poetic triumph of the Complete Works that it was becoming well-nigh impossible to imagine how any mere human being could have written them all. At the same time the popular understanding of what levels of cultural literacy might have been achieved in 16th-century Stratford was still heavily influenced by a British tradition of Bardolatry (best exemplified by David Garrick's Shakespeare Jubilee) which had its own nationalist reasons for representing Shakespeare as an uninstructed son of the English soil …"
- Shapiro 2010, pp. 69–75
- Shapiro 2010, p. 2-3 (3-4): McCrea 2005, p. 13
- Dobson 2001, p. 31: "These two notions—that the Shakespeare canon represented the highest achievement of human culture, while William Shakespeare was a completely uneducated rustic—combined to persuade Delia Bacon and her successors that the Folio’s title page and preliminaries could only be part of a fabulously elaborate charade orchestrated by some more elevated personage, and they accordingly misread the distinctive literary traces of Shakespeare’s solid Elizabethan grammar-school education visible throughout the volume as evidence that the 'real' author had attended Oxford or Cambridge."
- Schoone-Jongen 2008, p. 5: "in voicing dissatisfaction over the apparent lack of continuity between the certain facts of Shakespeare’s life and the spirit of his literary output, anti-Stratfordians adopt the very Modernist assumption that an author’s work must reflect his or her life. Neither Shakespeare nor his fellow Elizabethan writers operated under this assumption."; Smith 2008, p. 629: "Perhaps the point is that deriving an idea of an author from his or her works is always problematic, particularly in a multi-vocal genre like drama, since it crucially underestimates the heterogeneous influences and imaginative reaches of creative writing. Often the authorship debate is premised on the syllogistic and fallacious interchangeability of literature and autobiography."; Nelson 1999, p. 382 writes of "the junk scholarship that so unhappily defaces the authorship issue"; Alter 2010 quotes James Shapiro: "Once you take away the argument that the life can be found in the works, those who don't believe Shakespeare wrote Shakespeare don't have any argument left."
- Love 2002, pp. 198–202, 303–307:298: "The problem that confronts all such attempts is that they have to dispose of the many testimonies from Will the player’s own time that he was regarded as the author of the plays and the absence of any clear contravening public claims of the same nature for any of the other favoured candidates."; Bate 1998, pp. 68–73
- Bate 1998, p. 73: "No one in Shakespeare’s lifetime or the first two hundred years after his death expressed the slightest doubt about his authorship."; Hastings 1959, pp. 486–88: ". . . no suspicions regarding Shakespeare's authorship (except for a few mainly humorous comments) were expressed until the middle of the nineteenth century (in Hart's The Romance of Yachting, 1848). For over two hundred years no one had any serious doubts."
- Dobson 2001, p. 31: "Most observers, however, have been more impressed by the anti-Stratfordians' dogged immunity to documentary evidence, not only that which confirms that Shakespeare wrote his own plays, but that which establishes that several of the alternative candidates were long dead before he had finished doing so."
- Nicholl 2010, p. 3
- Nelson 1999, p. 381: "the astonishing hypotheses generated by the endlessly fertile brains of anti-Stratfordians."
- Niederkorn 2005
- Elliott & Valenza 2004, pp. 331–332
- Churchill 1958, p. 99
- Churchill 1958, p. 122n
- Churchill 1958, pp. 45, 47
- Churchill 1958, pp. 34–35, 70–4
- Churchill 1958, pp. 97–8
- Churchill 1958, pp. 52
- Churchill 1958, pp. 115
- Wadsworth 1958, p. 134
- Churchill 1958, p. 49
- Churchill 1958, p. 77
- Wadsworth 1958, p. 84
- Kathman Ross
- Churchill 1958, p. 75
- Churchill 1958, pp. 45–46
- Churchill 1958, p. 44
- Fuentes 1988, pp. 69–70
- Garber 1987, p. 3
- Churchill 1958, p. 43
- Falk 2014, p. 178
- Wadsworth 1958, p. 139
- Churchill 1958, pp. 111–112
- Wadsworth 1958, p. 143
- Saunders 2007. But see Lang 2008, p. 98
- Alberge 2007
- Churchill 1958, p. 54
- Wadsworth 1958, p. 132
- Churchill 1958, pp. 34, 45–46
- Churchill 1958, p. 52
- Amini 2008
- Churchill 1958, pp. 52, 105
- James & Rubinstein 2005, statesman
- Romei 2011
- Iske 1978
- Churchill 1958, pp. 70–4
- Wadsworth 1958, p. 135
- Hannay, Kinnamon & Brennan 1998, p. 35
- Dobson & Wells 2001, p. 220
- Bate 1999, p. 65
- Venton 1968, p. 8
- Hackett 2009, p. 168
- Wadsworth 1958, pp. 156, 161
- Churchill 1958, p. 122
- McMichael & Glenn 1962, pp. 145–146
- Ghazoul 1998: According to Eric Ormsby, Khulusi's version claimed that Zubayr was "the lone survivor of the shipwreck of an Arab merchant vessel washed up on the shores of Elizabethan England and made his way, wet, bedraggled, and famished, to the nearest village where he found hospitality and shelter. Establishing himself, there our mariner quickly mastered English and in short order was churning out remarkable poems and dramas.", Ormsby, E, "Shadow Language", New Criterion, Vol. 21, Issue: 8, April 2003.
- Alberge, Dalya (25 October 2007), "Double, double, Shakespeare oil in trouble", The Times (London)
- Alter, Alexandra (9 April 2010), "The Shakespeare Whodunit", Wall Street Journal
- Amini, Daniela (28 February 2008), "Kosher Bard", New Jersey Jewish News
- Bate, Jonathan (1998), The Genius of Shakespeare, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512823-9
- Bate, Jonathan (2002), "Scenes from the Birth of a Myth", in Nolan, Stephanie, Shakespeare’s Face: Unraveling the Legend and History of Shakespeare’s Mysterious Portrait, Free Press, pp. 103–125, ISBN 978-0-7432-4932-4
- Carroll, D. Allen (2004), "Reading the 1592 Groatsworth attack on Shakespeare", Tennessee Law Review (Tennessee Law Review Association) 72: 277–294
- Chandler, David (Spring 2001), "Historicizing Difference: Anti-Stratfordians and the Academy", Elizabethan Review, archived from the original on 2006-05-06
- Churchill, Reginald C. (1958), Shakespeare and his betters: a history and a criticism of the attempts which have been made to prove that Shakespeare's works were written by others, M.Reinhardt
- Dobson, Michael (2001), "Authorship controversy", in Dobson, Michael; Wells, Stanley, Oxford Companion to Shakespeare, Oxford University Press, pp. 30–31, ISBN 978-0-19-811735-3
- Edmondson, Paul; Wells, Stanley, eds. (2013). Shakespeare Beyond Doubt: Evidence, Argument, Controversy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-60328-8.
- Elliott, Ward E. Y.; Valenza, Robert J. (2004), "Oxford by the Numbers: What Are the Odds That the Earl of Oxford Could Have Written Shakespeare’s Poems and Plays?" (PDF), The Tennessee Law Review (Tennessee Law Review Association) 72: 323–452
- Falk, Dan (2014), The Science of Shakespeare, Thomas Dunne, ISBN 978-1250008770
- Fuentes, Carlos (1988), Myself with Others: Selected Essays, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, ISBN 978-0-374-21750-1
- Hackett, Helen (2009), Shakespeare and Elizabeth: The meeting of two myths, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12806-1
- Garber, Marjorie (1987), Shakespeare's Ghost Writers: Literature As Uncanny Causality, Routledge, ISBN 0416091229
- Ghazoul, Ferial (1998), "The Arabization of Othello", Comparative Literature (Duke University Press) 50: 1–31, doi:10.2307/1771217
- Gibson, H.N. (2005) , The Shakespeare Claimants, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-35290-1
- Hackett, Helen (2009), Shakespeare and Elizabeth: The meeting of two myths, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12806-1
- Iske, Basil (1978), The Green Cockatrice, Meath Archaeological and Historical Society
- James, Brenda; Rubinstein, William D (2005), The Truth Will Out: Unmasking the Real Shakespeare, Pearson Education, ISBN 978-1-4058-2437-8
- Kathman, David (2003), "The Question of Authorship", in Wells, Stanley; Orlin, Lena C., Shakespeare: an Oxford Guide, Oxford University Press, pp. 620–632, ISBN 978-0-19-924522-2
- Kathman, David; Ross, Terry, The Shakespeare Authorship Page
- Kroeber, Karl (1993), "Shelley’s ‘Defence of Poetry’", in Kroeber, Karl; Ruoff, Gene W., Romantic poetry: recent revisionary criticism, Rutgers University Press, pp. 366–370, ISBN 978-0-8135-2010-0
- Lang, Andrew (2008) , Shakespeare, Bacon, and the Great Unknown, BiblioBazaar, LLC, ISBN 978-0-554-21918-9
- Law, Marie Hamilton (1965), The English familiar essay in the early nineteenth century, Russell & Russell, ISBN 978-0-300-11896-4
- Love, Harold (2002), Attributing Authorship: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-78948-6
- McCrea, Scott (2005), The Case for Shakespeare: The end of the authorship question, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-275-98527-1
- McMichael, George L.; Glenn, Edgar M. (1962), Shakespeare and his rivals: a casebook on the authorship controversy, Odyssey Press
- Montague, William Kelly (1963), The Man of Stratford—The Real Shakespeare, Vantage Press, OCLC 681431
- Nelson, Alan H. (1999), "Alias Shakespeare", Shakespeare Quarterly (Folger Shakespeare Library) 50 (3): 376–382, doi:10.2307/2902367
- Nelson, Alan H. (2004), "Stratford Si! Essex No!", Tennessee Law Review (University of Tennessee) 72 (1): 149–171
- Nicholl, Charles (April 2010), "Full Circle; Cypher wheels and snobbery: the strange story of how Shakespeare became separated from his works", Times Literary Supplement (5586): 3–4
- Niederkorn, William S. (30 August 2005), "The Shakespeare Code, and Other Fanciful Ideas From the Traditional Camp", New York Times
- Romei, Stephen (27 August 2011), "Much ado about the Bard", The Australian
- Saunders, A.W.L. (2007), The Master of Shakespeare: The First Folio Profiles, MoS Pub., ISBN 978-976-8212-11-5
- Venton, W.B. (1968), The Analyses of Shake-speares Sonnets Using the Cipher Code, The Mitre Press, ISBN 978-070-5100-13-7
- Wadsworth, Frank.W. (1958), The Poacher from Stratford, University of California Press