List of Solar System objects by size

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Masses of the largest objects (click to enlarge)

This is a list of Solar System objects by size, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius. The list can also be partially sorted according to an object's mass and, for the largest objects, volume, density and surface gravity. This list contains the Sun, the planets, dwarf planets, many of the larger small Solar System bodies (which includes the asteroids), all named natural satellites, and a number of smaller objects of historical or scientific interest, such as comets and near-Earth objects.

The ordering may be different depending on whether one chooses radius or mass, because some objects are denser than others. For instance Uranus is bigger than Neptune but less massive, and although Ganymede and Titan are larger than Mercury, they have less than half its mass. This means some objects in the lower tables, despite their smaller radii, may be more massive than objects in the upper tables because they have a higher density.

Many trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) have been discovered, and their approximate locations in this list are shown, even though there can be a large uncertainty in their measurement.

Solar System objects more massive than 1021 kilograms (one zettagram [Zg]) are known or expected to be approximately spherical. Astronomical bodies relax into rounded shapes (ellipsoids), achieving hydrostatic equilibrium, when the gravity of their mass is sufficient to overcome the structural strength of their material. These are dubbed "regular". Objects made of ice become regular more easily than those made of rock, and many icy objects are spheroidal at far lower sizes. The cutoff boundary for regularity is somewhere between 100 km and 200 km in radius.[1]

The larger objects in the mass range between 1018 kg to 1021 kg (1 to 1000 zettagrams [Zg]), such as Tethys, Ceres, and Mimas, have relaxed to an oblate-spheroid equilibrium due to their gravity, while the less massive rubble piles (e.g. Amalthea and Janus) are roughly rounded, but not spherical, dubbed "irregular".

Spheroidal bodies typically have some polar flattening due to the centrifugal force from their rotation, but a characteristic feature of the "irregular"-shaped bodies is that there is a significant difference in the length of their two equatorial diameters.

There can be difficulty in figuring out the diameter (within a factor of about 2) for typical objects beyond Saturn. (See 2060 Chiron as an example.) For TNOs there is some confidence in the diameters, but for non-binary TNOs there is no real confidence in the "unreferenced wiki-assumed" masses/densities. Many TNOs are just assumed to have a density of 2.0 g/cm3, though it is just as likely that they have a comet-like density of only 0.5 g/cm3.[2] Thus most provisional TNOs are not given an MEarth value to prevent from cluttering the list with too many assumptions that could be off by an order of magnitude. For example, if a TNO is poorly assumed to have a mass of 3.59×1020 kg based on a radius of 350 km with a density of 2 g/cm3 and is later discovered to only have a radius of 175 km with a density of 1 g/cm3, the mass estimate would be only 2.24×1019 kg.

The sizes and masses of many of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn are fairly well known due to numerous observations and interactions of the Galileo and Cassini orbiters. But many of the moons with a radius less than ~100 km, such as Jupiter's Himalia, still have unknown masses with assumed densities.[3] Again, as we get further from the Sun than Saturn, things get less clear. There has not yet been an orbiter around Uranus or Neptune for long-term study of the moons. For the small outer irregular moons of Uranus, such as Sycorax, which were not discovered by the Voyager 2 flyby, even different NASA web pages, such as the National Space Science Data Center[4] and JPL Solar System Dynamics,[3] have somewhat contradictory size and albedo estimates depending on which research paper is being cited.

Data for objects has varying reliability including uncertainties in the figures for mass and radius, and irregularities in the shape and density, with accuracy often depending on how close it is to Earth or if it has been visited by a probe.

List[edit]

Objects above ≈400 km in radius[edit]

It was once thought that everything above this size is probably in hydrostatic equilibrium, though some bodies listed near the end might not be if their estimated or measured size were "grossly in error" or their composition primarily rocky.[5] However, Rhea is the smallest body where detailed measurements have been made and are consistent with hydrostatic equilibrium,[6] while Iapetus is the largest determined not to be in equilibrium.[7]

A lot of the values are manually calculated assuming sphericity. The size of solid bodies does not include an object's atmosphere. For example, Titan looks bigger than Ganymede, but its solid body is smaller. For the gas giants, the "radius" is the point at which the atmosphere reaches 1 bar of atmospheric pressure.[8] The radius of Saturn's main rings is 136,775 km.

Body Image Mean radius
(km)
Mean radius
(R)
Volume
(109 km3)
Volume
(V)
Mass
×1021 kg
(Yg)
Mass
(M)
Density
[note 1]
g/cm3
Surface gravity
(m/s2)
Surface gravity
()
Type of object Shape
Sun The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg 696000[9] 109 1,412,000,000 1,304,000 1,989,000,000 333,000 1.409 274.0 28.02 Star regular
Jupiter Jupiter by Cassini-Huygens.jpg 69911±6 10.97 1,431,280 1,321 1,898,600 317.83 1.33 24.79 2.535 Planet (gas giant) regular
Saturn Saturn closeup.jpg 58232±6
(w/o rings)
9.14 827,130 764 568,460 95.159 0.70 10.445 1.06 Planet (gas giant) regular
Uranus Uranus2.jpg 25362±7 3.98 68,340 63.1 86,832 14.536 1.30 8.87 0.90 Planet (gas giant) regular
Neptune Neptune.jpg 24622±19 3.86 62,540 57.7 102,430 17.147 1.76 11.15 1.140 Planet (gas giant) regular
Earth The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg 6371 1 1,083.21 1 5,973.6 1 5.515 9.78033 0.99732 Planet (terrestrial) regular
Venus Venus-real.jpg 6052±1
(w/o gas)
0.950 928.43 0.857 4,868.5 0.815 5.24 8.872 0.905 Planet (terrestrial) regular
Mars Mars Valles Marineris.jpeg 3389.5±0.2 0.532 163.18 0.151 641.85 0.107 3.94 3.7 0.38 Planet (terrestrial) regular
Ganymede
Jupiter III
Noaa ganymede.jpg 2634.1±0.3 0.413 76.30 0.0704 148.2 0.0248 1.936 1.428 0.15 Satellite of Jupiter regular
Titan
Saturn VI
Two Halves of Titan.png 2576±2
(w/o gas)
0.404 71.52 0.0660 134.5 0.0225 1.88 1.354 0.14 Satellite of Saturn regular
Mercury Mercury in color - Prockter07 centered.jpg 2440±1 0.383 60.83 0.0562 330.2 0.0553 5.43 3.7 0.38 Planet (terrestrial) regular
Callisto
Jupiter IV
Callisto.jpg 2410±2 0.378 58.65 0.0541 107.6 0.018 1.83 1.23603 0.126 Satellite of Jupiter regular
Io
Jupiter I
Io highest resolution true color.jpg 1821.6±0.5 0.286 25.32 0.0234 89.3 0.015 3.528 1.797 0.183 Satellite of Jupiter regular
Moon
Earth I
FullMoon2010.jpg 1737.1 0.273 21.958 0.0203 73.5 0.0123 3.3464 1.625 0.166 Satellite of Earth regular
Europa
Jupiter II
Europa-moon.jpg 1560.8±0.5 0.245 15.93 0.0147 48 0.00803 3.01 1.316 0.134 Satellite of Jupiter regular
Triton
Neptune I
Triton Voyager 2.jpg 1353.4±0.9 0.212 10.38 0.0096 21.5 0.00359 2.061 0.782 0.0797 Satellite of Neptune regular
PlutoR
134340
Pluto-map-hs-2010-06-c180.jpg 1184±10[10] 0.185 7 0.0066 13.105 0.0022 2.0 0.61 0.062 Dwarf planet
KBO
regular
ErisR
136199
Eris and dysnomia2.jpg 1163±6[11] 0.182 7 0.007 16.7[12] 0.0027 2.5 0.662 0.0677 Dwarf planetSDObinary regular
Titania
Uranus III
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg 788.4±0.6 0.124 2.06 0.0019 3.526 0.00059 1.72 0.378 0.0385 Satellite of Uranus regular
Rhea
Saturn V
PIA07763 Rhea full globe5.jpg 764±1 0.12 1.87 0.0017 2.3166 0.00039 1.23 0.26 0.027 Satellite of Saturn regular
Oberon
Uranus IV
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg 761±3 0.12 1.85 0.0017 3.014 0.0005 1.63 0.347 0.035 Satellite of Uranus regular
Iapetus
Saturn VIII
Iapetus as seen by the Cassini probe - 20071008.jpg 735±3 0.113 1.55 0.0014 1.9739 0.00033 1.08 0.223 0.0227 Satellite of Saturn regular
MakemakeRA
136472
Makemake hubble.png 715±7 1.7 3 0.00067 1.7[13] 0.4 Dwarf planet
KBO
regular
HaumeaR
136108
ca. 715[14] 0.117 1.3–1.6 0.001 4.006 0.00069 2.55[15] 0.44 0.045 Dwarf planet
KBOtrinary
regular (scalene ellipsoid)
2007 OR10
225088
640±100[16] 0.1 1.0981 0.00101 SDO unknown
Charon
Pluto I
Charon.png 604±2 0.095 0.87 0.0008 1.52 0.00025 1.65 0.279 0.028 Satellite of Pluto regular
Umbriel
Uranus II
Umbriel moon 1.gif 585±3 0.092 0.84 0.0008 1.2 0.00020 1.4 0.234 0.024 Satellite of Uranus regular
Ariel
Uranus I
Ariel-NASA.jpg 578.9±0.6 0.091 0.81 0.0008 1.35 0.00022 1.67 0.269 0.027 Satellite of Uranus regular
Dione
Saturn IV
Dione-PIA07746.jpg 561.4±0.4 0.088 0.73 0.0007 1.096 0.000183 1.48 0.232 0.0236 Satellite of Saturn regular
Quaoar
50000
Quaoar PRC2002-17e.jpg 555±3 1.6[17] 0.0003 2.0[18] 0.125 KBOcubewanobinary unknown
Tethys
Saturn III
PIA07738 Tethys mosaic contrast-enhanced.jpg 531.1±0.6 0.083 0.624 0.0006 0.6173 0.000103 0.984[19] 0.145 0.015 Satellite of Saturn regular
SednaRA
90377
Sedna PRC2004-14d.jpg 500±80 0.08 TNOdetached object[20] unknown
Ceres
1
Ceres optimized.jpg 476.2[21] 0.076 0.437 0.0004 0.95 0.000159 2.08 0.27 0.0275 Dwarf planetasteroid regular
2002 MS4
307261
470±30 0.07 KBO[20] unknown
OrcusRA
90482
Orcus nasa.jpg 460±10 0.06 0.23 0.0002 2.47[22] KBOplutinobinary unknown
Salacia
120347
430±20 0.07 0.45 1.16[23] 0.147 KBObinary unknown

Objects between ≈400 and ≈200 km in radius[edit]

Most objects in this size range are expected to be round. All the satellites except Proteus are round. The asteroid 10 Hygiea is not, and 2 Pallas and 4 Vesta are borderline. Like the satellites, TNOs in this size range are expected to be round (assuming the estimated size is correct).

Body Image Mean radius
(km)
Mean radius
(R)
Volume
(109 km3)
Volume
(V)
Mass
×1021 kg
(Yg)
Mass
(M)
Density

g/cm3
Surface gravity
(m/s2)
Surface gravity
(⊕)
Type of object Shape
2002 AW197R
55565
2002AW197-Spitzer.jpg 380±20 0.06 0.207 0.00019 0.414P 0.000069 0.206 0.0211 KBO[20] unknown
Varuna*
20000
379250-500 0.049 0.125 0.000115 0.37 6.2E-5 0.992[15] 0.258 0.028 KBO unknown
2003 AZ84R
208996
360±30 0.06 KBOPlutinobinary unknown
2004 GV9R
90568
340±40 0.0531 0.162 0.00015 0.325P 0.0000534 0.19 0.0194 KBO unknown
Varda9
174567
350±40 0.06 0.22 0.0002 0.616P 0.0001 0.228 0.02 KBObinary unknown
2005 UQ5139
202421
250±40 0.06 0.22 0.0002 0.886P 0.0001 0.278 0.0284 KBOCubewano unknown
Dysnomia
Eris I
340±30 Satellite of Eris unknown
2005 RN439
145452
340±40 0.0573 0.2036 0.00019 0.407P 0.000068 0.205 0.02096 KBO[20] unknown
2002 UX25R
55637
UX25-LB1-2009Nov19-06UT.jpg 350±10 0.82[24] KBObinary unknown
IxionRA
28978
320±120 KBOPlutino unknown
2006 QH1819 200–500 0.06 0.233 0.000215 0.467P 0.00008 0.214 0.022 SDO unknown
2007 JJ43
278361
ca. 300 TNO[20] unknown
Chaos
19521
300±70 0.0585 0.216 0.0002 0.4328P 0.00007 0.209 0.021 KBOCubewano unknown
2007 UK1269
229762
300±40 SDO unknown
2010 KZ39 200–500 TNODetached object[25] or Cubewano[26] unknown
2004 XA192
230965
170±60 0.055 0.177 0.00016 0.354P 0.000059 0.195 0.02 TNO[20] unknown
2010 RF43 ca. 300 SDO unknown
2002 TC302
84522
290±50 2:5 resonance unknown
2005 RM439
145451
ca. 300 0.0455 0.102 0.00009 0.2P 0.000034 0.159 0.016 KBO unknown
2004 XR190 200–400 0.059 0.221 0.0002 0.4416P 0.00007 0.21 0.0215 SDO[20] unknown
2004 NT33 210±40 0.043 0.089 0.000082 0.178P 0.000029 0.155 0.0158 KBOCubewano[20] unknown
2001 UR1639
42301
ca. 300 0.05 0.134 0.00012 0.269P 0.000045 0.178 0.018 SDO[20] unknown
2003 UZ4139 200–400 0.048 0.116 0.00012 0.33P 0.000055 0.241 0.0246 KBOPlutino unknown
2004 TY364*
120348
ca. 300[citation needed] 0.043 0.089 0.000082 0.178P 0.000029 0.155 0.0158 KBO[20] unknown
2010 VK201 ca. 300[citation needed] Cubewano[20] unknown
2008 ST291 200–400 SDO unknown
2010 RE64 200–400 KBO unknown
2010 FX86 120–300 KBOCubewano unknown
2002 XV93 280±10 KBOPlutino[20] unknown
Pallas$
2
PallasHST2007.jpg 270±10 0.211 0.0000353 2.8[27] 0.19 0.02 Asteroid irregular
Vesta$
4
Vesta full mosaic.jpg 262.7±0.1[28] 0.259076 3.456[28] 0.252 Asteroid regular?
2003 VS2
84922
2003VS2-mag20.jpg 260±20 KBOPlutino[20] unknown
2012 VP113 225–330 TNODetached object unknown
2003 QX113 ca. 250 0.036 0.051 0.00005 0.102P 0.000017 0.129 0.013 SDO[20] unknown
Enceladus
Saturn II
Enceladus from Voyager.jpg 252.1±0.2 0.039 0.067 0.00006 0.108 0.0000181 1.61 0.111 0.0113 Satellite of Saturn regular
2004 PF115
175113
200±50 KBOPlutino unknown
2010 TY53 unknown TNOcentaur[20] unknown
2011 GM27 unknown SDO unknown
2006 HH123 unknown 0.031 0.0335 0.000011 0.067P 0.000011 0.112 0.011 Centaur[20] unknown
2010 TJ unknown SDO[20] unknown
2010 VZ98 unknown SDO[20] unknown
2011 FW62 unknown Classical unknown
Miranda
Uranus V
Miranda.jpg 235.8±0.7 0.037 0.055 0.00005 0.0659 0.000011 1.20 0.0791 0.00806 Satellite of Uranus regular
2010 EK139 240±70 SDO unknown
2005 TB190
145480
230±30 TNODetached object[20] unknown
1999 DE9
26375
230±20 0.036 0.051 0.000047 0.1026P 0.000017 0.129 0.013 KBO unknown
2003 FY128
120132
230±10 SDO[20] unknown
1998 SN165*
35671
200±20 0.036 0.05 0.000046 0.1P 0.000017 0.128 0.013 KBO unknown
2002 KX149
119951
unknown KBO unknown
2000 YW134*
82075
ca. 200 0.039 0.065 0.00006 0.13P 0.000022 0.139 0.014 SDO[20] unknown
2002 VR128
84719
2003VS2-mag20.jpg 220±20 KBOPlutino[20] unknown
2002 WC19
119979
unknown 0.0315 0.034 0.00003 0.0675P 0.000011 0.113 0.0115 KBObinary unknown
HuyaR
38628
229±5 KBOPlutino unknown
10 Hygiea$ 215±4 Asteroid irregular
1999 CD158 ca. 210 0.0345 0.0446 0.00004 0.089P 0.000014 0.123 0.0126 KBO unknown
Proteus A
Neptune VIII (8)
Proteus (Voyager 2).jpg 210±7 0.033 0.038 0.000035 0.050 0.00000844 1.3[29] 0.0666 0.00678 Satellite of Neptune irregular
2005 QU1829
303775
210±40 SDO[20] unknown
2001 QF298 200±20 KBOPlutino[20] unknown
1996 GQ21*
26181
ca. 200 0.031 0.0335 0.000011 0.067P 0.000011 0.112 0.011 SDO[20] unknown

Selected objects between 200 and 100 km in radius[edit]

Satellites of Saturn
Satellites of Neptune

Objects between 200 and 100 km in radius (400 and 200 km in diameter). The largest of these may lie above the boundary for hydrostatic equilibrium, but most are irregular. Most of the trans-Neptunian objects listed with a radius smaller than 200 km have "assumed sizes based on a generic albedo of 0.09" since they are too far away to directly measure their sizes with existing instruments. Values relative to Earth are not included beyond this point. Mass switches from 1021 kg to 1018 kg (Zg). Main-belt asteroids have orbital elements constrained by (2.0 AU < a < 3.2 AU; q > 1.666 AU) according to JPL Solar System Dynamics (JPLSSD).[30] This is not complete, missing many poorly known TNOs.[20]

Body Image Mean radius
(km)
Mass
×1018 kg
(Zg)
Type of object Shape
Mimas
Saturn I
Mimas moon.jpg 198.2±0.4 37.49 Satellite of Saturn regular (smallest known body in current HE)
Hiʻiaka
Haumea I
ca. 200 20 Satellite of Haumea irregular
Vanth
Orcus I
perhaps 140±10 Satellite of Orcus irregular
Interamnia M
704
163±1 37 Main-belt asteroidF-type irregular
Nereid A
Neptune II
Nereid-Voyager2.jpg
170±30 31 Satellite of Neptune irregular
Altjira 9
148780
60–100 Trans-Neptunian objectcubewano irregular
Davida$
511
145±10 43.8 Main-belt asteroidC-type irregular
Actaea
Salacia I
140±10 Satellite of 120347 Salacia irregular
Europa$
52
52Eur-LB1-richfield.jpg
158±4 16.5 Main-belt asteroidC-type irregular[31]
Eunomia$
15
134±7 31.2 Main-belt asteroidS-type irregular[31]
Sylvia$
87
CMSylvia.png
143±5 14.78 Outer main-belt asteroidX-typetrinary irregular[31]
Cybele$
65
136±6 17.8 Outer main-belt asteroidC-type irregular
Juno$
3
Juno 4 wavelengths.jpg
135.7[32] 26.7 Main-belt asteroidS-type irregular[31]
Hyperion
Saturn VII
Hyperion true.jpg
135±4 5.58 Satellite of Saturn irregular
Camilla$
107
129±7 11.2 Outer main-belt asteroidC-typebinary irregular[33]
EuphrosyneM
31
128±3 6.23 Main-belt asteroidC-type irregular
Chariklo
10199
124±9 Centaur irregular
S/2007 (148780) 1
Altjira I
50–90 Secondary of 148780 Altjira irregular
Sila9
79360
perhaps 120±50 11 Kuiper belt objectbinary (Nunam) irregular
BambergaM
324
117±4 10 Main-belt asteroidC-type
Thisbe $
88
113±6 10.5 M Main-belt asteroidB-type irregular[33]
Nunam
79360
perhaps 110±50 Satellite of Sila irregular
Patientia
451
117±5 Main-belt asteroid irregular
Fortuna $
19
104±6 12.7 Main-belt asteroidG-type irregular
Herculina
532
111±2 Main-belt asteroidS-type irregular[31]
Doris
48
111±4 17A Main-belt asteroid irregular
Chiron*A
2060
95P/Chiron
116±7 10 Centaur irregular
Ursula
375
375Ursula-LB1.jpg
96±2 Main-belt asteroid irregular
Phoebe $
Saturn IX
Phoebe cassini.jpg
106.5±0.7 8.29±0.01 Satellite of Saturn formerly
regular[34]
Amphitrite$
29
106±3 11.8 Main-belt asteroidS-type irregular[31]
Deucalion
53311
ca. 105 Trans-Neptunian objectcubewano irregular
Themis M
24
100±10 11.3 Main-belt asteroidC-typeThemis
DiotimaA
423
104±3 16 Main-belt asteroidC-type irregular[35]
EgeriaM
13
104±4 16.3 Main-belt asteroidG-type irregular
Bienor
54598
105±15 Centaur irregular
Aurora
94
102±2 Main-belt asteroid irregular[36]
HektorA
624
624Hektor-LB1-mag15.jpg
113±8 14 AsteroidJupiter Trojanbinary irregular
Rhadamanthus
38083
40–140 Kuiper belt object irregular

Selected objects between 100 and 50 km in radius[edit]

Satellites of Jupiter
Satellites of Saturn
Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Neptune

Objects 100 and 50 km in radius (200 km to 100 km in average diameter). The listed objects currently include most objects in the asteroid belt and moons of the gas giants in this size range, but many newly discovered objects in the outer Solar System are missing, such as those included in the following reference.[20] Asteroid spectral types are mostly Tholen, but some might be SMASS.

Body Image Mean radius
(km)
Mass
×1018 kg
(Zg)
Type of object/Notes
7 Iris$
7Iris-LB1-richfield-mag10.jpg
100±5 13.6 Main-belt asteroidS-type
702 Alauda
702Ala-mag13-occult.jpg
97±2 6.05 Main-belt asteroidC-typebinary
LarissaA
Neptune VII (7)
Larissa 1.jpg
97±3 4.2 Satellite of Neptune
121 HermioneM 121Hermione (Lightcurve Inversion).png 95 km[37] 5.38 Outer main-belt asteroidC-typebinary
41 Daphne
41Daphne-Keck.jpg
100±5 Main-belt asteroid
372 Palma 96±2 Main-belt asteroid
9 Metis$ 95 ± ?? 11.3 Main-belt asteroid
128 Nemesis 92±3 7 Main-belt asteroidC-type
16 Psyche$ 127±2 21.9 Main-belt asteroidM-type
6 Hebe $ 93 ± ?? 12.8 Main-belt asteroidS-type
5145 Pholus 92±8 6.6 Centaur
154 Bertha 93±1 Main-belt asteroidC-type
76 Freia 92±2 6.5 Outer main-belt asteroidCybele
130 ElektraM 91±6 6.6 AsteroidG-typebinary
Janus$
Saturn X (10)
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
89.5±1.4 1.912 Satellite of Saturn
259 Aletheia 95±3 5.97 Main-belt asteroid
Galatea
Neptune VI (6)
Galatea moon.jpg
88±4 2.12 Satellite of Neptune
88611 Teharonhiawako 80 ± ?? Trans-Neptunian objectcubewanobinary
42355 Typhon 81±4 Trans-Neptunian objectbinary
120 Lachesis 87 ± ?? 5.5 Main-belt asteroid
65489 Ceto 112±10 5.4[38] CentaurTNObinary
747 Winchester 85±3 Asteroid
153 Hilda 85 ± ?? 5.2 Main-belt asteroidHildas
Himalia M
Jupiter VI (6)
Cassini-Huygens Himalia.jpg
85 ± ?? 4.19 [39] Satellite of JupiterHimalia group
Namaka
Haumea II
assumed ca. 85 2 Satellite of Haumea
Puck
Uranus XV (15)
Puck.png
81±2[40] 2.9A Satellite of Uranus
96 Aegle 84 ± 3 5.1 Main-belt asteroid
241 Germania 89 ± 4 5.05 Main-belt asteroidC-type
194 Prokne 85 ± 3 5 Main-belt asteroidC-type
566 Stereoskopia 84[41] Outer main-belt asteroidCybele
Amalthea
Jupiter V (5)
Amalthea (moon).png
84±2 2.08 ± 0.15 Satellite of Jupiter$
911 Agamemnon 83 ± ?? AsteroidJupiter Trojan
22 Kalliope 90 ± 2 8.09M Main-belt asteroidM-typebinary
66652 Borasisi 70–90?[citation needed] Trans-Neptunian objectcubewanobinary
386 Siegena 85 ± 4 Main-belt asteroidC-type
59 Elpis 82 ± 3 Main-belt asteroid
1437 Diomedes 82 ± 2 4.6 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
444 GyptisM 82 ± 5 12.5 Main-belt asteroidC-type
409 Aspasia 88 ± 2 4.42 Main-belt asteroidC-type
20461 Dioretsa unknown Centaur[42]Damocloid
209 Dido 70 ± 5 4.28 Main-belt asteroidC-type
334 Chicago 84 ± 4 Main-belt asteroidC-type
804 Hispania 74 ± 2 9.95 Main-belt asteroidP-type
185 Eunike 80 ± 3 4.09 Main-belt asteroid
EugeniaM
45
107 ± 2 5.69 Main-belt asteroidF-typetrinary (irregular)[31]
139 Juewa 81 ± 4 4 Main-belt asteroid
85 Io 80 ± ?? 3.4 Main-belt asteroid
165 Loreley 82 ± 4 3.91 Main-belt asteroidC-type
790 Pretoria 80.49[43] Outer main-belt asteroidCybele
173 Ino 80 ± 3 Main-belt asteroidC-type
354 Eleonora 77 ± 3 Main-belt asteroidS-type
39 Laetitia 76.9[43] 3.5 Asteroid
14 Irene 76 ± ?? 8.2 Main-belt asteroid
89 Julia 74 ± 4 3.6 Main-belt asteroidS-type
536 Merapi 76 ± 2 Main-belt asteroid
776 Berbericia 76 ± 2 Main-belt asteroid
145 Adeona 75 ± 3 3.6 Main-belt asteroidAdena
150 Nuwa 73 ± 5 3.62 Main-belt asteroidC-type
DespinaA
Neptune V (5)
Despina.jpg
75±3 2.1 Satellite of Neptune
Sycorax
Uranus XVII (17)
75 (assumed) 2.3 Satellite of Uranus
49 Pales M 74.9[44] 2.69 Main-belt asteroidC-type
117 Lomia ca. 70 3.4 Main-belt asteroidC-type
238 Hypatia ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidC-type
168 Sibylla ca. 70 3.42 Main-belt asteroidC-type
283 EmmaM ca. 70 1.38 Asteroidbinary
51 Nemausa ca. 70 Asteroid
106 Dione ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidG-type
137 Meliboea ca. 70 3.2 Main-belt asteroid
20 Massalia$ ca. 70 5.67 Asteroid
211 Isolda ca. 70 3.07 Main-belt asteroidC-type
1172 Äneas ca. 70 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
144 Vibilia ca. 70 3 Main-belt asteroid
508 Princetonia ca. 70 Main-belt asteroid
895 Helio ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidB-type
361 Bononia ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidD-type
420 Bertholda ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidP-type
93 Minerva ca. 70 2.9 Main-belt asteroidC-typetrinary
617 Patroclus ca. 70 AsteroidJupiter Trojanbinary
308 Polyxo ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidT-type
18 Melpomene ca. 70 3 Main-belt asteroid
268 Adorea ca. 70 Main-belt asteroid
349 Dembowska ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidR-type
489 Comacina ca. 70 Main-belt asteroid
69 Hesperia ca. 70 2.76 Main-belt asteroidM-type
54 Alexandra ca. 70 Main-belt asteroid
762 Pulcova ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidC-typebinary
Pabu
Borasisi I
ca. 70 Secondary of 66652 Borasisi
196 Philomela ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidS-type
212 Medea ca. 70 2.64 Main-belt asteroid
95 Arethusa ca. 70 2.6 Main-belt asteroid
Portia
Uranus XII (12)
68±4 1.7 Satellite of Uranus
588 Achilles ca. 70 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
690 Wratislavia
690Wrat-mag13-100yrs.jpg
ca. 70 Asteroid
111 Ate ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidC-type
247 Eukrate ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidC-type
705 Erminia ca. 70 Main-belt asteroid
471 Papagena ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidC-type
Phorcys
Ceto I
86±5 1.67[38] Satellite of 65489 Ceto
147 Protogeneia ca. 70 2.5 Main-belt asteroid
Menoetius
Patroclus I
ca. 70 Secondary of 617 Patroclus
344 Desiderata ca. 70 Main-belt asteroidC-type
146 Lucina ca. 70 2.4 Main-belt asteroid
141 Lumen ca. 70 1.6 Main-belt asteroidC-type
356 Liguria ca. 70 Main-belt asteroid
11 Parthenope ca. 70 6.15M Main-belt asteroid
187 Lamberta ca. 70 2.37 Main-belt asteroidC-type
419 Aurelia ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidF-type
200 Dynamene ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
8 Flora 8Flora (Lightcurve Inversion).png ca. 60 8.47 Main-belt asteroidS-typeFlora
712 Boliviana ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidX-type
654 Zelinda ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
426 Hippo ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
47 Aglaja pic ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
279 Thule ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidD-type
92 Undina ca. 60 2.1 Main-belt asteroidM-type
1173 Anchises ca. 60 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
1143 Odysseus ca. 60 AsteroidJupiter Trojan (L4)
469 Argentina ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidCybele
159 Aemilia ca. 60 1.4 Asteroid
405 Thia ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
602 Marianna ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
46 Hestia ca. 60 3.5[45]–21[46] Main-belt asteroid
216 Kleopatra Kleopatra.jpg ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidM-typetrinary
104 Klymene ca. 60 2 Main-belt asteroid
410 Chloris ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
134 Sophrosyne ca. 60 2 Main-belt asteroid
328 Gudrun ca. 60 1.94 Main-belt asteroidS-type
1867 Deiphobus ca. 60 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
68 Leto ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidS-type
70 Panopaea ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
Sawiskera
Teharonhiawako I
ca. 60 Secondary of 88611 Teharonhiawako
127 Johanna ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
276 Adelheid ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
176 Iduna ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidG-type
156 Xanthippe ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidS-type
28 Bellona ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
86 Semele ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
78 Diana ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
381 Myrrha ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
225 Henrietta ca. 60 1.83 Main-belt asteroidC-typeCybele
618 Elfriede ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
105 Artemis ca. 60 1.8 Main-belt asteroidC-type
81 Terpsichore ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
5 Astraea ca. 60 2.9 Main-belt asteroid
74 Galatea ca. 60 1.8 Main-belt asteroidC-type
350 Ornamenta ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
772 Tanete ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
476 Hedwig ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
1093 Freda ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
171 Ophelia ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-typeThemis
909 Ulla ca. 60 Asteroid
3317 Paris ca. 60 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
203 Pompeja ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
3063 Makhaon ca. 60 1.6 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
2006 SQ372
308933
ca. 60 TNO
38 Leda ca. 60 1.6 Asteroid
360 Carlova ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
521 Brixia ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
490 Veritas ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid—Veritas
466 Tisiphone ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
53 Kalypso ca. 60 Asteroid
2241 Alcathous ca. 60 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
388 Charybdis ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidC-type
34 Circe ca. 60 1.5 Main-belt asteroidC-type
Epimetheus
Saturn XI (11)
PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg
58±2 0.5304[47] Satellite of Saturn$
596 Scheila ca. 60 Main-belt asteroid
56 Melete ca. 60 1.5 Asteroid
129 Antigone ca. 60 2 Main-belt asteroid—nickel-iron
12 Victoria ca. 60 Main-belt asteroidS-type
57 Mnemosyne ca. 60 Asteroid
545 Messalina ca. 60 Asteroid
2797 Teucer ca. 60 AsteroidJupiter Trojan(L4)
2920 Automedon ca. 60 AsteroidJupiter Trojan(L4)
91 Aegina ca. 50 1.4 Main-belt asteroidC-type
140 Siwa ca. 50 1.4 Main-belt asteroid
814 Tauris ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
595 Polyxena ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
230 Athamantis ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidS-type
659 Nestor ca. 50 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
37 Fides ca. 50 1.3 Main-belt asteroidS-type
514 Armida ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
23 Thalia ca. 50 1.3 Main-belt asteroidS-type
739 Mandeville ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidX-type
40 Harmonia ca. 50 1.3 Main-belt asteroidS-type
181 Eucharis ca. 50 1.2 Main-belt asteroidK-type
346 Hermentaria ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidS-type
357 Ninina ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
506 Marion ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidC-type
365 Corduba ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidC-type
36 Atalante ca. 50 Asteroid
713 Luscinia ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidC-type
1269 Rollandia ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
164 Eva ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidC-type
98 Ianthe ca. 50 1.2 Main-belt asteroidC-type
240 Vanadis ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidC-type
221 Eos ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidK-type
788 Hohensteina ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
791 Ani ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
1208 Troilus ca. 50 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
192 Nausikaa ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidS-type
63 Ausonia ca. 50 1.1 Main-belt asteroidS-type
35 Leukothea ca. 50 1.1 Main-belt asteroidC-type
570 Kythera ca. 50 Main belt asteroid
233 Asterope ca. 50 Main belt asteroidT-type
4063 Euforbo ca. 50 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
1583 Antilochus ca. 50 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
1390 Abastumani ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
522 Helga ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidCybele
175 Andromache ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidC-type
191 Kolga ca. 50 1.08 Main-belt asteroidC-type
663 Gerlinde ca. 50 Asteroid
626 Notburga ca. 50 Asteroid
387 Aquitania ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidS-type
42 Isis ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidS-type
30 Urania ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidS-type

Examples of objects between 50 km and 20 km in radius[edit]

There are easily tens of thousands of objects 50 km in radius or smaller[clarification needed], but only a fraction have been explored. The number of digits is not an endorsement of significant figures. The table switches from ×1018 kg to ×1015 kg (Eg), and many of these mass values are assumed. (See also: List of minor planets.)

Satellites of Jupiter
Satellites of Saturn
Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Neptune
Satellites of Pluto
Body Image Mean radius
(km)
Mass
×1015 kg
(Eg)
Type of object
50 VirginiaA ca. 50 1000 Asteroid
114 Kassandra ca. 50 1000 Main-belt asteroidT-type
1021 Flammario ca. 50 Asteroid
162 Laurentia ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
401 Ottilia ca. 50 Main-belt asteroid
ThebeA
Jupiter XIV (14)
Thebe.jpg
ca. 50 430 Satellite of Jupiter
148 Gallia ca. 50 980 Main-belt asteroidR-type
404 Arsinoe ca. 50 Main-belt asteroidC-type
27 EuterpeA ca. 50 930 Main-belt asteroidS-type
773 Irmintraud ca. 50 AsteroidD-type
21 Lutetia ca. 50 1700 [48] Main-belt asteroidM-type
62 Erato ca. 50 910 Main-belt asteroidThemis
26 Proserpina ca. 45 900 Asteroid
345 Tercidina ca. 45 Main-belt asteroidC-type
JulietA
Uranus XI
ca. 45 560 Satellite of Uranus
58 Concordia ca. 45 850 Asteroid
229 Adelinda ca. 45 Main-belt asteroidC-type
379 Huenna ca. 45 480 Main-belt asteroidC-type
Nix
Pluto II
ca. 45 70 Satellite of Pluto
103 Hera ca. 45 790 Asteroid
17 Thetis
17Thetis-LB1.jpg
ca. 45 1200 Asteroid
143 Adria ca. 45 760 Main-belt asteroid
109 Felicitas ca. 45 750 Asteroid
100 Hekate ca. 45 1000 Asteroid
90 Antiope A ca. 45 410 AsteroidC-typebinary
227 Philosophia ca. 45 Main-belt asteroid
Prometheus $
Saturn XVI (16)
Prometheus 12-26-09a.jpg
ca. 45 156.6 Satellite of Saturn
110 Lydia ca. 45 670 Asteroid
ElaraA
Jupiter VII
ca. 45 870 Satellite of JupiterHimalia group
72 Feronia ca. 45 670 Asteroid
60558 Echeclus/
174P/Echeclus
ca. 40 Centaur[49]
S/2000 (90) 1 ca. 40 Asteroid moon of 90 Antiope
71 Niobe ca. 40 610 Asteroid
102 Miriam ca. 40 Asteroid
97 Klotho ca. 40 590 Asteroid
61 Danae ca. 40 Asteroid
ThalassaA
Neptune IV
ca. 40 350 Satellite of Neptune
122 Gerda ca. 40 570 Main-belt asteroidS-type
Pandora$
Saturn XVII (17)
Pandora PIA07632.jpg
ca. 40 135.6 Satellite of Saturn
83 Beatrix ca. 40 560 Main-belt asteroidX-type
32 PomonaA ca. 40 550 Asteroid
BelindaA
Uranus XIV (14)
Belinda.gif
ca. 40 360 Satellite of Uranus
115 Thyra ca. 40 Asteroid
Cressida
Uranus IX
ca. 40 340A Satellite of Uranus
135 Hertha ca. 40 Asteroid
84 Klio ca. 40 520 Asteroid
80 Sappho ca. 40 Asteroid
Echidna
Typhon I
44±3 Satellite of 42355 Typhon
1001 Gaussia ca. 40 Asteroid
58534 Logos ca. 40 270 Kuiper belt objectcubewanobinary
124 Alkeste ca. 40 470 Main-belt asteroidS-type
55576 Amycus ca. 40 Centaur
25 Phocaea ca. 40 Asteroid
Weywot
Quaoar I
ca. 35 Satellite of Quaoar
8405 Asbolus ca. 35 Centaur
112 Iphigenia ca. 35 Asteroid
Hydra
Pluto III
ca. 35 391P Satellite of Pluto
Rosalind*
Uranus XIII (13)
ca. 35 250 Satellite of Uranus
Caliban
Uranus XVI (16)
ca. 35 Satellite of Uranus
99 Dike ca. 35 390 Asteroid
66 Maja ca. 35 Asteroid
116 Sirona ca. 35 Main-belt asteroid
44 Nysa ca. 35 370 Main-belt asteroidE-type
10370 Hylonome ca. 35 Centaur
77 Frigga ca. 35 350 Asteroid
55 Pandora ca. 35 Asteroid
133 Cyrene ca. 35 310 Main-belt asteroidS-type
79 Eurynome ca. 35 Asteroid
Zoe
Logos I
ca. 35 Satellite of 58534 Logos
Naiad
Neptune III
Naiad Voyager.png
ca. 35 190A Satellite of Neptune
43 Ariadne ca. 35 Asteroid
101 Helena ca. 35 300 Asteroid
108 Hecuba ca. 30 390 Asteroid
DesdemonaA
Uranus X
ca. 30 180 Satellite of Uranus
Halimede*
Neptune IX
ca. 30 Satellite of Neptune
52975 Cyllarus ca. 30 Centaur
82 Alkmene ca. 30 Asteroid
60 Echo ca. 30 Asteroid
Crantor
83982
ca. 30 Centaur
Comet Hale–Bopp
C/1995 O1
Hale-bopp.jpg
ca. 30 Comet
Pasiphae*A
Jupiter VIII
ca. 30 300 Satellite of Jupiter
7066 Nessus ca. 30 Centaur
Neso
Neptune XIII (13)
ca. 30 Satellite of Neptune
64 Angelina ca. 30 Main-belt asteroidE-type
67 Asia ca. 30 Asteroid
119 Althaea ca. 30 200 Main-belt asteroidS-type
75 Eurydike ca. 30 180 Main-belt asteroidM-type
142 Polana ca. 30 180 Main-belt asteroidF-type
253 Mathilde$
(253) mathilde crop.jpg
26.4 103.3 Main-belt asteroidC-type
52872 Okyrhoe ca. 25 Centaur
Bianca
Uranus VIII
ca. 25 92 Satellite of Uranus
Prospero
Uranus XVIII (18)
ca. 25 85 Satellite of Uranus
Setebos
Uranus XIX (19)
ca. 25 75 Satellite of Uranus
123 Brunhild ca. 25 Main-belt asteroid
4348 Poulydamas ca. 25 AsteroidJupiter Trojan
1000 Piazzia ca. 25 Main-belt asteroid
113 Amalthea ca. 25 100 Main-belt asteroid
Carme*
Jupiter XI
ca. 25 130 Satellite of JupiterCarme group
138 Tolosa ca. 25 99 Main-belt asteroidS-type
126 Velleda ca. 20 94 Main-belt asteroid
73 Klytia ca. 20 92 Asteroid
Sao
Neptune XI (11)
ca. 20 Satellite of Neptune
125 Liberatrix ca. 20 87 Main-belt asteroidM-type
Metis
Jupiter XVI (16)
Metis.jpg
ca. 20 36 Satellite of Jupiter
132 Aethra ca. 20 82 Main-belt asteroidM-type
Ophelia*
Uranus VII
ca. 20 53 Satellite of Uranus
Laomedeia
Neptune XII (12)
ca. 20 Satellite of Neptune
118 Peitho ca. 20 76 Main-belt asteroid
208 Lacrimosa ca. 20 73.9 Main-belt asteroidKoronisS-type
136 Austria ca. 20 68 Main-belt asteroidM-type
131 Vala ca. 20 69 Main-belt asteroid
Cordelia*
Uranus VI
ca. 20 44 Satellite of Uranus
Siarnaq
Saturn XXIX (29)
ca. 20 Satellite of Saturn

Examples of objects between 20 km and 1 km in radius[edit]

Satellites of Mars
Satellites of Jupiter
Satellites of Saturn
Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Neptune
Satellites of Pluto
Body Image Mean
radius
(km)
Mass
×1015 kg
(Eg)
Type of object
167 Urda ca. 20 66.7 Main-belt asteroidKoronisS-type
Hidalgo
944
ca. 20 Centaur
Sinope*
Jupiter IX
ca. 20 76 Satellite of Jupiter
Psamathe*
Neptune X
ca. 20 37 Satellite of Neptune
29P/Schwassmann–
Wachmann
29P Schwassmann Wachmann.jpg ca. 20 Cometcentaur
Lysithea*
Jupiter X
ca. 20 63 Satellite of JupiterHimalia group
158 Koronis ca. 20 Main-belt asteroidKoronisS-type
Helene
Saturn XII (12)
Dione B
Helene over Saturn.jpg
17.6±0.4 km[50] 25 Satellite of SaturnDione trojan
226 Weringia ca. 15 Main-belt asteroidS-type
433 Eros$
Eros southern hemisphere overview.jpg
ca. 15 66.9 Near-Earth asteroidAmor
Stephano
Uranus XX (20)
ca. 15 22 Satellite of Uranus
Albiorix
Saturn XXVI (26)
ca. 15 Satellite of Saturn
1036 Ganymed ca. 15 33 Near-Earth asteroid
1815 Beethoven ca. 15 Main-belt asteroid
243 Ida
243 Ida large.jpg
15.7[51] 42 Main-belt asteroidKoronisS-typebinary
Atlas$
Saturn XV (15)
Cassini Atlas N00084634 CL.png
15.1±0.9 km [50] 66 Satellite of Saturn
31824 Elatus ca. 15 Centaur
Perdita
Uranus XXV (25)
ca. 15 13 Satellite of Uranus
Pan$
Saturn XVIII (18)
Pan side view.jpg
14.1±1.3 km[52] 4.95[53] Satellite of Saturn
Linus
Kalliope I
ca. 15 60[54] Asteroid moon of 22 Kalliope
Ananke
Jupiter XII (12)
ca. 15 38.2 Satellite of Jupiter
Telesto
Saturn XIII (13) or Tethys B
Telesto cassini closeup.jpg
ca. 10 Satellite of SaturnTethys trojan
Phobos$
Mars I
Phobos colour 2008.jpg
11.267 10.7 Satellite of Mars
Paaliaq
Saturn XX (20)
ca. 10 8.2 Satellite of Saturn
Francisco
Uranus XXII (22)
ca. 10 7.2 Satellite of Uranus
Calypso
Saturn XIV (14) or Tethys C
N00151485 Calypso crop.jpg
ca. 10 Satellite of SaturnTethys trojan
Leda
Jupiter XIII (13)
ca. 10 11 Satellite of JupiterHimalia group
Ferdinand
Uranus XXIV (24)
ca. 10 5.4 Satellite of Uranus
Margaret
Uranus XXIII (23)
ca. 10 5.4 Satellite of Uranus
149 Medusa ca. 10 8 Main-belt asteroid
Romulus
Sylvia I
ca. 10 4 Asteroid moon of 87 Sylvia
Ymir
Saturn XIX (19)
ca. 10 Satellite of Saturn
Trinculo
Uranus XXI (21)
ca. 10 3.9 Satellite of Uranus
Cupid
Uranus XXVII (27)
ca. 10 3.8 Satellite of Uranus
S/2004 N 1 ca. 10 Satellite of Neptune
2002 Euler ca. 10 5.5 Asteroid
Adrastea
Jupiter XV (15)
Adrastea.jpg
ca. 10 2 Satellite of Jupiter
Kiviuq
Saturn XXIV (24)
ca. 10 Satellite of Saturn
2000 Herschel ca. 10 Main-belt asteroid[55]
Tarvos
Saturn XXI (21)
Tarvos from Cassini.jpg ca. 10 Satellite of Saturn
S/2006 (624) 1
Hektor I
ca. 10 Asteroid moon of 624 Hektor
2685 Masursky
Asteroid 2685Masurky.gif
ca. 10 5–11 Asteroid
(65407) 2002 RP120 ca. 5 3.1 Damocloid (retrograde) & possible ejected SDO
Bestla
Saturn XXXIX (39)
ca. 5 Satellite of Saturn
Kerberos
Pluto IV
ca. 10 Satellite of Pluto
Petit-Prince
Eugenia I
ca. 5 1.2 Asteroid moon of 45 Eugenia
Deimos$
Mars II
Deimos-MRO.jpg
ca. 5 1.48 Satellite of Mars
951 Gaspra
951 Gaspra.jpg
6.1 ± 0.4 [56] 2–3 Asteroid
Ijiraq
Saturn XXII (22)
ca. 5 Satellite of Saturn
S/2002 (121) 1
Hermione I
ca. 5 1.6 Asteroid moon of 121 Hermione
1P/Halley
Halley's Comet, 1910.JPG
ca. 5 0.03[57] Comet (75.3 year period)
S/2001 (107) 1
Camilla I
ca. 5 1.5 Asteroid moon of 107 Camilla
Styx
Pluto V
ca. 10 Satellite of Pluto
Mab
Uranus XXVI (26)
ca. 5 Satellite of Uranus
Erriapus
Saturn XXVIII (28)
ca. 5 Satellite of Saturn
26858 Misterrogers ca. 5 Asteroid
Callirrhoe
Jupiter XVII (17)
ca. 5 Satellite of Jupiter
Themisto
Jupiter XVIII (18)
ca. 5 0.69 Satellite of Jupiter
Daphnis
Saturn XXXV (35)
Daphnis raw 2010 cropped.jpg
3.9±0.8 0.084[53] Satellite of Saturn
Remus
Sylvia II
ca. 5 0.2 Asteroid moon of 87 Sylvia
S/2003 (379) 1
Huenna I
ca. 5 Asteroid moon of 379 Huenna
9P/Tempel
PIA02127.jpg
2.8[58] 0.075 Comet
S/2003 (130) 1
Elektra I
ca. 5 0.4 Asteroid moon of 130 Elektra
S/2004 (45) 1
Eugenia II
ca. 5 Asteroid moon of 45 Eugenia
118401 LINEAR ca. 5 0.23 Main-belt comet
4179 Toutatis
Toutatis.jpg
ca. 5 0.05 Near-Earth asteroid
2867 Šteins
Steins.png
2.65 km[59] AsteroidE-type
3200 Phaethon ca. 5 0.14 AsteroidApolloB-type
3753 Cruithne < 5 .13 Asteroid & quasi-satellite of Earth
5535 Annefrank
Asteroid 5535 Annefrank.jpg
< 5 Asteroid
19P/Borrelly
Comet Borrelly Nucleus.jpg
2.4[60] Comet (6.85 year period) (Jupiter family)
2P/Encke
Comet Encke.jpg
< 5 Comet (3.3 year period)
C/1996 B2
Comet Hyakutake
Hyakutake Hubble.gif
< 5 Comet[61]
81P/Wild
Wild 2
Wild2 3.jpg
< 5 Comet
Pallene
Saturn XXXIII (33)
N00163156.jpg
< 5 0.043 Satellite of Saturn
Polydeuces
Saturn XXXIV (34)
Dione C
Polydeuces.jpg
< 5 0.03 Satellite of SaturnDione trojan
17P/Holmes
17pHolmes 071104 eder vga.jpg
< 5 Comet
(53319) 1999 JM8
Asteroid 1999 JM8.gif
1.75[62] Asteroid
Methone
Saturn XXXII (32)
Methone PIA14633.jpg
1.6 ± 0.6 0.019 Satellite of Saturn
(285263) 1998 QE2
(285263) 1998 QE2, Goldstone, May 30, 2013.jpg
< 5 Near-Earth asteroid—Binary
4055 Magellan
CCD image of asteroid 4055 Magellan.png
< 5 AsteroidAmorV-type
9969 Braille
PIA01345.jpg
< 5 Asteroid
132524 APL
Asteroid 2002 JF56.jpg
< 5 Asteroid
(6178) 1986 DA < 5 0.002 AsteroidAmorM-type

Examples of objects below 1 km (1000 m) in radius[edit]

Satellites of Jupiter
Satellites of Saturn
Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Neptune

In the asteroid belt alone there are estimated to be between 1.1 and 1.9 million objects with a radius above 0.5 km,[63] many of which are in the range 0.5–1.0 km. Countless more have a radius below 0.5 km.

Very few objects in this size range have been explored or even imaged. The exceptions are objects that have been visited by a probe, or have passed close enough to Earth to be imaged. Radius is by mean geometric radius. Number of digits not an endorsement of significant figures. Mass scale shifts from × 1015 to 1012 kg, which is 1015 grams (Petagram - Pg).

Body Image Mean
radius
(m)
Mass
×1012 kg
Type of object
1620 Geographos
Geographos.jpg
885[64] 4 Near-Earth asteroidApollo
1862 Apollo 850 5.1 Near-Earth asteroidApolloQ-type
(214869) 2007 PA8 ≈800[65] Near-Earth asteroidApollo
100000 Astronautica ≈800[66] Inner main-belt asteroid[67]
Dactyl
Ida I
Dactyl-HiRes.jpg 700 Asteroid moon of 243 Ida
1566 Icarus 700 2.9 Near-Earth asteroidApolloU-type
4769 Castalia 700[68] 1.3 Near-Earth asteroidApollo
(137108) 1999 AN10 650 Near-Earth asteroidApollo
(29075) 1950 DA
1950da color 150.jpg
600 3[note 2] Near-Earth asteroidApollo
(66391) 1999 KW4
1999 KW4 animated.gif
600 2.33 Mercury-crosser asteroidAten
46P/Wirtanen 600 Comet
103P/Hartley
Hartley 2
495296main epoxi-1-full full.jpg 570±80 0.3[69] Comet (6.46-year period)
3908 Nyx 520 5 Near-Earth asteroidAmorV-type
14827 Hypnos 450[70] Comet (dormant)[71]
2062 Aten 450[72] 0.76 Near-Earth asteroidAten
2007 CA19 432 1.2 Near-Earth asteroidApollo
6489 Golevka 350[73] Near-Earth asteroidApollo
25143 Itokawa 346 0.0358 Near-Earth asteroidApollo
2004 XP14 300 Near-Earth asteroidApollo
(144898) 2004 VD17 290 3[74] Near-Earth asteroidApollo
Aegaeon
Saturn LIII (53)
Aegaeon (2008 S1).jpg
250 Satellite of Saturn
2005 YU55[75]
308635
2005YU55-20111107.jpg
180[76] Near-Earth asteroidApolloPHO[77]
4660 Nereus
Nereus.jpg
165[78] Near-Earth asteroidApollo
99942 Apophis 2004MN4 Sormano.gif 162.5[79] 0.05[74] Near-Earth asteroidAtenPHO
S/2009 S 1
PIA11665 moonlet in B Ring cropped.jpg
150 Satellite of Saturn
2010 TK7 150 Earth trojanApollo
2007 TU24
2007 TU24 radar image 20080128.jpg
125[80] Near-Earth asteroidApolloPHO
2002 JE9 100 NEAApolloPHO
2010 XC15 100 NEAApolloPHO
1994 WR12 65[81] 0.002[74] Near-Earth asteroidAten
2009 FD 65[82] 0.0028[82] Near-Earth asteroidApollo
2008 HJ [ 18 [83] 0.000005 [83] Near-Earth asteroid & fast rotator (42 s)[83]
367943 Duende
2012 DA14
Radar-2012DA14-Goldstone.jpg 15 Near-Earth asteroid
1998 KY26 Asteroid 1998 KY26.faces model.jpg 15[84] Near-Earth asteroid & fast rotator (10 m)

Currently most of the objects of mass between 109 kg to 1012 kg (less than 1000 teragrams (Tg)) listed here are near-Earth asteroids. (See also: List of NEAs by distance from Sun.) 1994 WR12 possesses less mass than the Great Pyramid of Giza, 5.9 × 109 kg.

For more about very small objects in the Solar System, see Meteoroid, Micrometeoroid, and Interplanetary dust cloud. (See also Visited/imaged bodies.)

Surface gravity[edit]

The surface gravity at the equator of a body can in most cases be accurately calculated using Newton's law of universal gravitation and centrifugal force.

The gravitational acceleration at the equator is given by Newton's law of universal gravitation. The formula that follows from this law is:

a_g = G \frac{m}{r^2}

where

ag is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration
G is the gravitational constant
m is the mass of the celestial body
r is the equatorial radius of the celestial body (if this varies significantly, the mean equatorial radius is used)

The magnitude of the outward acceleration due to centrifugal force is given by

a_c = 4\pi^2\frac{r}{T^2}

where

T is the rotation period of the celestial body

The surface gravity at the equator is then given by

g = a_g - a_c
= \frac{G m}{r^2} - \frac{4\pi^2r}{T^2}

Notes[edit]

Using equatorial radius and assuming body is spherical
Using three radii and assuming body is spheroid
* Radius is known only very approximately
R Radius has been determined by various methods, such as optical (Hubble), thermal (Spitzer), or direct imaging via spacecraft
9 Unknown radius, generic assumed albedo of 0.09
$ Well studied asteroid or moon where the dimensions and mass are very well known. Asteroid sizes and masses taken from James Baer's (Bio) personal website.
M Mass has been determined by perturbation. For asteroids, see James Baer's personal website.
A Assumed mass
P Mass calculated assuming Pluto's density of 2.0 g/cm3
Note: For many of the well-determined moons, radii were taken from the JPL Solar System Dynamics page.
O Radius has been determined with Asteroid occultation
  1. ^ Densities of those KBOs whose masses are uncertain are assumed to be 2.0 in line with Pluto
  2. ^ 3000 x 10^9 kg

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mike Brown. "The Dwarf Planets". CalTech. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  2. ^ D. T. Britt; G. J. Consol-magno SJ; W. J. Merline (2006). "Small Body Density and Porosity: New Data, New Insights". Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVII. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  3. ^ a b "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL (Solar System Dynamics). 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  4. ^ Williams, Dr. David R. (2007-11-23). "Uranian Satellite Fact Sheet". NASA (National Space Science Data Center). Archived from the original on 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  5. ^ Mike Brown, How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system?[1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ NASA - Uranus Facts
  9. ^ Hyperphsics - The Sun
  10. ^ Exploring the spatial, temporal, and vertical distribution of methane in Pluto's atmosphere
  11. ^ "Size, density, albedo and atmosphere limit of dwarf planet Eris from a stellar occultation". European Planetary Science Congress Abstracts 6. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  12. ^ Brown, Michael E.; Schaller, Emily L. (15 June 2007). "The Mass of Dwarf Planet Eris". Science 316 (5831): 1585. Bibcode:2007Sci...316.1585B. doi:10.1126/science.1139415. PMID 17569855.  edit
  13. ^ Dwarf Planet Makemake Lacks Atmosphere (ESO: 21 November 2012) Average radius calculated from equatorial and polar diameters in the source
  14. ^ Alexandra C. Lockwood, Michael E. Brown, John Stansberry (2014). "The size and shape of the oblong dwarf planet Haumea". Earth, Moon and Planets. arXiv:1402.4456v1. 
  15. ^ a b Pedro Lacerda and David C. Jewitt - Densities of Solar System Objects from their Rotational Lightcurves (2006)- Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822
  16. ^ Santos-Sanz, P., Lellouch, E., Fornasier, S., Kiss, C., Pal, A., Müller, T. G., Vilenius, E., Stansberry, J., Mommert, M., Delsanti, A., Mueller, M., Peixinho, N., Henry, F., Ortiz, J. L., Thirouin, A., Protopapa, S., Duffard, R., Szalai, N., Lim, T., Ejeta, C., Hartogh, P., Harris, A. W., & Rengel, M. (2012). "TNOs are Cool": A Survey of the Transneptunian Region IV - Size/albedo characterization of 15 scattered disk and detached objects observed with Herschel Space Observatory-PACS
  17. ^ Brown, Michael E.; Fraser, Wesley C. (2010). "Quaoar: A Rock in the Kuiper belt". The Astrophysical Journal 714: 1547. arXiv:1003.5911. Bibcode:2010ApJ...714.1547F. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/714/2/1547. Retrieved 2010-04-01. 
  18. ^ Braga-Ribas et al. 2013, "The Size, Shape, Albedo, Density, and Atmospheric Limit of Transneptunian Object (50000) Quaoar from Multi-chord Stellar Occultations", The Astrophysical Journal, 773, 26 (2013 August 10)
  19. ^ Roatsch Jaumann et al. 2009, p. 765, Tables 24.1–2
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Wm. Robert Johnston (20 August 2011). "List of Known Trans-Neptunian Objects". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 2012-03-09. 
  21. ^ "Ceres". NASA fact sheet. NASA. 2014-04-02. Retrieved 2014-05-04. 
  22. ^ Carry, B.; Hestroffer, D.; Demeo, F. E.; Thirouin, A.; Berthier, J.; Lacerda, P.; Sicardy, B.; Doressoundiram, A.; Dumas, C.; Farrelly, D.; Müller, T. G. (2011). "Integral-field spectroscopy of (90482) Orcus-Vanth". Astronomy & Astrophysics 534: A115. arXiv:1108.5963. Bibcode:2011A&A...534A.115C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117486.  edit
  23. ^ J.A. Stansberry. "Physical Properties of Trans-Neptunian Binaries (120347) Salacia–Actaea and (42355) Typhon–Echidna". Elsevier. Retrieved 2012-04-27. 
  24. ^ M.E. Brown, 2013, "The density of mid-sized Kuiper belt object 2002 UX25 and the formation of the dwarf planets"
  25. ^ Marc W. Buie (2010-06-16 using 19 of 19 observations over 0.98 years (356 days)). "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 10KZ39". SwRI (Space Science Department). Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  26. ^ "2010 KZ39". IAU Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  27. ^ Schmidt, B. E., et al. (2008). "Hubble takes a look at Pallas: Shape, size, and surface" (PDF). 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX). Held March 10–14, 2008, in League City, Texas. 1391: 2502. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  28. ^ a b Russell, C. T.; et al. (2012). "Dawn at Vesta: Testing the Protoplanetary Paradigm". Science 336 (6082): 684. Bibcode:2012Sci...336..684R. doi:10.1126/science.1219381. 
  29. ^ "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL (Solar System Dynamics). 2006-07-13. Archived from the original on 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  30. ^ "JPL definition of Main-belt Asteroid (MBA)". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g M. Kaasalainen (2002). "Models of Twenty Asteroids from Photometric Data" (PDF). Icarus 159 (2): 369. Bibcode:2002Icar..159..369K. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6907. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  32. ^ [4]
  33. ^ a b J. Torppa et al. (2003). "Shapes and rotational properties of thirty asteroids from photometric data" (PDF). Icarus 164 (2): 346. Bibcode:2003Icar..164..346T. doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00146-5. 
  34. ^ JPL/NASA, 2012 Apr 26. Cassini Finds Saturn Moon Has Planet-Like Qualities
  35. ^ Durech., J.; Kaasalainen, M., Marciniak, A.; et al., "Physical models of ten asteroids from an observers' collaboration network", Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 465, Issue 1, April I 2007, pp. 331-337
  36. ^ [Planetary occultations: 2001 results|http://occsec.wellington.net.nz/planet/2001/plnres01.htm#Aurora]
  37. ^ F. Marchis et al. (2006). "Shape, size and multiplicity of main-belt asteroids I. Keck Adaptive Optics survey". Icarus 185 (1): 39. Bibcode:2006Icar..185...39M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.06.001. PMC 2600456. PMID 19081813. 
  38. ^ a b Grundy, W.M.; Stansberry, J.A.; Noll K.S.; Stephens, D.C.; et al. (2007). "The orbit, mass, size, albedo, and density of (65489) Ceto/Phorcys: A tidally-evolved binary Centaur". Icarus. arXiv:0704.1523. Bibcode:2007Icar..191..286G. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.04.004. 
  39. ^ Emelyanov, N.V.; Archinal, B. A.; A’hearn, M. F.; et al. (2005). "The mass of Himalia from the perturbations on other satellites". Astronomy and Astrophysics 438 (3): L33–L36. Bibcode:2005A&A...438L..33E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500143. 
  40. ^ Karkoschka, Erich (2001). "Voyager's Eleventh Discovery of a Satellite of Uranus and Photometry and the First Size Measurements of Nine Satellites". Icarus 151 (1): 69–77. Bibcode:2001Icar..151...69K. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6597.  edit
  41. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 566 Stereoskopia (1905 QO)". 2010-06-24 last obs. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  42. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 20461 Dioretsa
  43. ^ a b Carry, B. (December 2012), "Density of asteroids", Planetary and Space Science 73: 98–118, arXiv:1203.4336, Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009.  See Table 1.
  44. ^ Tedesco et al. (2004). "Supplemental IRAS Minor Planet Survey (SIMPS)". IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Planetary Data System. Retrieved December 29, 2008. 
  45. ^ Michalak, G. (2001). "Determination of asteroid masses". Astronomy & Astrophysics 374 (2): 703–711. Bibcode:2001A&A...374..703M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010731. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  46. ^ Bange, J.F; A. Bec-Borsenberger (1997). DETERMINATION OF THE MASSES OF MINOR PLANETS. p. 169. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  47. ^ Spitale, J. N.; et al. (2006). "The orbits of Saturn's small satellites derived from combined historic and Cassini imaging observations". The Astronomical Journal 132 (2): 692–710. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..692S. doi:10.1086/505206. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. 
  48. ^ Jonathan Amos - Asteroid Lutetia has thick blanket of debris (4 October 2010) - BBC News Archived 12 February 2011 at WebCite
  49. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 60558 Echeclus (2000 EC98)". 2008-05-07 last obs. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  50. ^ a b Thomas 2010.
  51. ^ Britt, D. T.; Yeomans, D. K.; Housen, K.; Consolmagno, G. (2002). "Asteroid Density, Porosity, and Structure". Asteroids III (Tucson: University of Arizona): 485–500. Bibcode:2002aste.conf..485B. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  52. ^ Thomas, P. C. (July 2010). "Sizes, shapes, and derived properties of the saturnian satellites after the Cassini nominal mission". Icarus 208 (1): 395–401. Bibcode:2010Icar..208..395T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.01.025.  edit
  53. ^ a b Porco, C. C.; et al. (2007). "Saturn's Small Inner Satellites: Clues to Their Origins". Science 318 (5856): 1602–1607. Bibcode:2007Sci...318.1602P. doi:10.1126/science.1143977. PMID 18063794. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. 
  54. ^ F. Marchis et al. (2003). "A three-dimensional solution for the orbit of the asteroidal satellite of 22 Kalliope". Icarus 165 (1): 112. Bibcode:2003Icar..165..112M. doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00195-7. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. 
  55. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 2000 Herschel
  56. ^ [5]
  57. ^ Using the volume of an ellipsoid of 15x8x8km * an assumed rubble pile density of 0.6 g/cm3 yields a mass (m=d*v) of ~3.02E+14 kg
  58. ^ P. Thomas - The Nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1: Shape & Geology From Two Flybys
  59. ^ H. U. Keller, et all - E-Type Asteroid (2867) Steins as Imaged by OSIRIS on Board Rosetta - Science 8 January 2010: Vol. 327. no. 5962, pp. 190 - 193 doi:10.1126/science.1179559
  60. ^ http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Com_19PBorrelly&Display=Facts&System=Metric
  61. ^ "Comet Hyakutake Home Page (JPL)". .jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  62. ^ Diane Ainsworth. "RADAR IMAGES CAPTURE BIG, SLOWLY TUMBLING ASTEROID". NASA/JPL Media Relations Office. Retrieved 2014-05-01. 
  63. ^ Tedesco, Edward; Metcalfe, Leo (April 4, 2002). "New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed" (Press release). European Space Agency. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  64. ^ Asteroid Data Archive, Archive Planetary Science Institute
  65. ^ NASA - 2007 PA8
  66. ^ Minor Planet No. 100,000 Named for Space Age 50th Anniversary (2007) - Space Ref, Quote: "..about a mile in size"
  67. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 100000 Astronautica
  68. ^ Alan Chamberlin. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". Ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  69. ^ Lisse, C. M.; Fernandez; Reach; Bauer; A'Hearn; Farnham; et al. (2009). "Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of the Nucleus of Comet 103P/Hartley 2". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 121: 968–975. arXiv:0906.4733. Bibcode:2009PASP..121..968L. doi:10.1086/605546. 
  70. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 14827 Hypnos (1986 JK)". Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  71. ^ Whitman, Kathryn; Alessandro Morbidelli and Robert Jedicke (2006). The Size-Frequency Distribution of Dormant Jupiter Family Comets. arXiv:astro-ph/0603106. Bibcode:2006Icar..183..101W. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.02.016. 
  72. ^ Benner, et al. - Radar Detection of Near-Earth Asteroids 2062 Aten, 2101 Adonis, 3103 Eger, 4544 Xanthus, and 1992 QN (1997)
  73. ^ Alan Chamberlin. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". Ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  74. ^ a b c Based on an assumed density of 2.6 g/cm3 as given at the NASA NEO impact risk page http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/risk/index.html Archived 12 February 2011 at WebCite
  75. ^ BBC - Giant asteroid passes near Earth - 9 November 2011
  76. ^ M.W. Busch et al. (March 31, 2012). "Shape and Spin of Near-Earth Asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) From Radar Images and Speckle Tracking". LPI. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  77. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser (2005 YU55)
  78. ^ Alan Chamberlin. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". Ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  79. ^ ESA (January 9, 2013). "Herschel intercepts asteroid Apophis". European Space Agency (ESA). Retrieved 2013-01-09. 
  80. ^ "NASA Scientists Get First Images of Earth Flyby Asteroid". NASA/JPL. 2008-01-25. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  81. ^ NASA - 1994 WR12 Earth Impact Risk Summary - 2011
  82. ^ a b 2009 FD Impact Risk
  83. ^ a b c BBC News - Record spin for newfound asteroid (2008) Archived 12 February 2011 at WebCite
  84. ^ Alan Chamberlin. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". Ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]