List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene

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This is a list of extinct animals of South America. Animals that became extinct in the Holocene period in South America.

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 AD)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Amazonian Smilodon
Smilodon populator
10000 BC.
Northern South America Amazonian Smilodon
Antifer
Antifer crassus
11000 BC.
Argentina, Brazil and Chile --
Arctotherium
Arctotherium sp.
11000 BC.
South America Arctotherium bonariense
Canis nehringi
8000 BC.
South America --
Cuvieronius
Cuvieronius sp.
4000 BC.
South America Cuvieronius
Dire Wolf
Canis dirus
11000 BC.
South America Dire Wolf
Ground Sloths
Catonyx
Eremotherium
Glossotherium
Lestodon
Megatherium
Nematherium
Nothrotherium
Scelidotherium 
6000 BC.
South America Eremotherium
Glyptodontidaes
Doedicurus
Eleutherocercus
Glyptodon
Hoplophorus
Lomaphorus
Panochthus
11000 BC.
South America Glyptodon
Hippidion
10000 BC.
South America Hippidion
Macrauchenia
Macrauchenia sp.
10000 BC.
South America Macrauchenia
Neochoerus
Neochoerus sp.
10000 BC.
South America --
Stegomastodon
Stegomastodon sp.
10000 BC.
South America Stegomastodon
Stout-legged Llama
Palaeolama mirifica
10000 BC.
South America --
Theriodictis
Theriodictis sp.
11000 BC.
Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay --
Toxodon
Toxodon sp.
16500 BC.
South America Toxodon platensis
Xenorhinotherium
Xenorhinotherium bahiensis
10000 BC.
Brazil and Venezuela --

Recent extinctions (1500 AD to present)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Candango Mouse
Juscelinomys candango[1]
1960
Brazil --
Caribbean Monk Seal
Monachus tropicalis[2]
1952
Caribbean Sea Caribbean Monk Seal
Darwin's Rice Rat
Nesoryzomys darwini[3]
1929
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Falkland Island Wolf
Dusicyon australis[4]
1876
United Kingdom (Falkland Islands) Falkland Island Wolf
Indefatigable Galapagos Mouse
Nesoryzomys indefessus[5]
1930s
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Giant Vampire Bat
Desmodus draculae [6]
Unknown
Bolivia, Brazil & Venezuela --
Machu Picchu Arboreal Chinchilla Rat
Cuscomys oblativus[7]
1500s
Peru --
Peruvian Viscacha
Lagostomus crassus[8]
Before 1910
Peru --
Red-bellied Gracile Opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus[9]
1962
Argentina --
Vespucci's Rodent
Noronhomys vespuccii[10]
1503?
Brazil --

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
One-striped Opossum
Monodelphis unistriata) [11]
1899
Argentina & Brazil --
Pacific Degu
Octodon pacificus[12]
1994
Mocha Island, Chile --
Zuniga's Dark Rice Rat
Melanomys zunigae [13]
1942
Peru --

Birds[edit]

Colombian Grebe
Podiceps andinus
1970
Colombia --
Darwin's Ground Finch
Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris
1957
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Niceforo's Pintail
Anas georgica niceforoi
1952
Colombia --
Red-throated Wood-rail
Aramides gutturalis
1843
Peru Red-throated Wood-rail

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Antioquia Brush Finch
Heliangelus zusii
1971
Colombia --
Bogota Sunangel
Heliangelus zusii
1907
Colombia --
Eskimo Curlew
Numenius borealis
1939 (South America), 1962 (North America)
Brazil and Argentina Eskimo Curlew
Glaucous Macaw
Anodorhynchus glaucus
1960s
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay Glaucous Macaw
Hooded Seedeater
Sporophila melanops
1823
Brazil --
Letitia's Thorntail
Discosura letitiae
1852
Bolivia Letitia's Thorntail
Táchira Antpitta
Grallaria chthonia
1956
Venezuela --
Turquoise-throated Puffleg
Eriocnemis godini
1850
Colombia and Ecuador Turquoise-throated Puffleg

Amphibians[edit]

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Atelopus ignescens[14] Unknown
Ecuador Atelopus ignescens
Atelopus longirostris[15]
1989
Ecuador --
Atelopus vogli[16] 1933
Venezuela --
Spiny-knee Leaf Frog
Phrynomedusa fimbriata[17]
1920s
Brazil --

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Chile Darwin's Frog
Rhinoderma rufum[18]
1980
Chile --

Reptiles[edit]

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Charles Island Tortoise
Chelonoidis nigra nigra[19]
1850
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) --
Pinta Island Tortoise
Chelonoidis nigra abingdonii[20]
June 24, 2012
Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) Lonesome George

Fish[edit]

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Greasefish
Rhizosomichthys totae[21]
Unknown
Colombia --
Titicaca Orestias
Orestias cuvieri[22]
1930s
Lake Titicaca, Bolivia and Peru Titicaca Orestias

Mollusks[edit]

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Biotocus turbinatus
Unknown
Brazil Biotocus turbinatus
Digerus gibberulus
Unknown
Brazil --
Littoridina gaudichaudii
1933
Ecuador Littoridina gaudichaudii
Megalobulimus cardosoi
Unknown
Brazil --

Worms[edit]

Insects[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • BirdLife International (2005) Species factsheet: Calyptura cristata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/3/2006
  • IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 March 2006.
  • Maas, P.H.J. 2005. Rediscovered Animals. The Extinction Website. Downloaded from http://extinct.petermaas.nl on 25/3/2006
  1. ^ Leite, Y. & Patterson, B. (2008). "Juscelinomys candango (Candango Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  2. ^ Kovacs, K. (2008). "Monachus tropicalis (Caribbean Monk Seal, West Indian Monk Seal, West Indian Seal)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  3. ^ Tirira, D., Dowler, R., Boada, C. & Weksler, M. (2008). "Nesoryzomys darwini (Darwin's Galapagos Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  4. ^ IUCN SSC Canid Specialist Group (2008). "Dusicyon australis (Falkland Island Wolf, Falklands Wolf)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  5. ^ Tirira, D., Dowler, R., Boada, C. & Weksler, M. (2008). "Nesoryzomys indefessus (Indefatigable Galapagos Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  6. ^ Turvey, S. (2008). "Desmodus draculae (Giant Vampire Bat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  7. ^ Pacheco, V., Zeballos, Z., Vivar, E. & Dunnum, J. (2008). "Cuscomys oblativa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  8. ^ Amori, G. & Schipper, J. (2008). "Lagostomus crassus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  9. ^ Diaz M. & Barquez, R. (2008). "\Cryptonanus ignitus (Red-bellied Gracile Mouse Opossum, Red-bellied Gracile Opossum)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  10. ^ Weksler, M. & Costa, L. (2008). "Noronhomys vespuccii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  11. ^ Flores, D. & Teta, P. (1996). "Monodelphis unistriata (One-striped Opossum, One-striped Short-tailed Opossum, Single-striped Opossum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  12. ^ Ojeda, R. & Bidau, C. (2008). "Octodon pacificus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  13. ^ Zeballos, H. & Vivar, E. (1996). "Melanomys zunigae (Zuniga's Dark Rice Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  14. ^ Santiago Ron, Luis A. Coloma, Stefan Lötters, William Duellman, Martín R. Bustamante, Wilmar Bolívar, Enrique La Marca (2004). "Atelopus ignescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  15. ^ Martín R. Bustamante, Wilmar Bolívar, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Fernando Castro, Jose Vicente Rueda, Stefan Lötters, Andrés Acosta-Galvis (2004). "Atelopus longirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  16. ^ Stefan Lötters, Enrique La Marca, Miguel Vences (2004). "54561". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  17. ^ Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz, Bruno Pimenta (2004). "Phrynomedusa fimbriata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  18. ^ Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Helen Díaz-Paéz, Ramón Formas (2010). "Rhinoderma rufum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  19. ^ Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group (1996). "Chelonoidis nigra ssp. nigra (Charles Island Tortoise)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  20. ^ Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group (1996). "Chelonoidis nigra ssp. abingdoni (Abingdon Island Tortoise)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  21. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Rhizosomichthys totae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  22. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Orestias cuvieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  23. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Megadytes ducalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  24. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Rhantus orbignyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 

External links[edit]