List of Spanish inventions and discoveries

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The following list is composed of items, techniques and processes that were invented by or discovered by people from Spain.

Construction and architecture[edit]

  • Artificio de Juanelo by engineer Juanelo Turriano (1500-1585) in the 16th century, designed to supply the city with a source of readily available water by lifting it. At the time they were considered engineering wonders.[1]




Medicine and Genetics[edit]

Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1899) of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum



Pitcairn PCA-2 autogyro, build in the U.S. under Cierva license, 1961.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ The new model of the hydraulic machine known as El Artificio de Juanelo in three-dimensional computer simulation
  2. ^ "Biography of Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (1787–1853)". U.S. National Library of Medicine. 
  3. ^ Cintas, Pedro (2004). "The Road to Chemical Names and Eponyms: Discovery, Priority, and Credit". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 43 (44): 5888–94. doi:10.1002/anie.200330074. PMID 15376297. 
  4. ^ Schufle, Joseph A. (1975). "Juan Jose D'Elhuyar, Discoverer of Tungsten". Journal of Chemical Education 52 (5): 325. doi:10.1021/ed052p325.1. 
  5. ^ Weeks, M. E. (1968). Discovery of the Elements (7 ed.). Journal of Chemical Education. pp. 385–407. ISBN 0-8486-8579-2. OCLC 23991202. 
  6. ^ Fernando Salmón (2010). Robert E. Bjork, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-866262-4. 
  7. ^ D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 5.
  8. ^ "Milestones:Early Developments in Remote-Control, 1901 - GHN: IEEE Global History Network". 2007-03-15. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  9. ^ Randell, Brian. "From Analytical Engine to Electronic Digital Computer: The Contributions of Ludgate, Torres, and Bush". Retrieved September 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ Gaceta de la Actualidad Técnica. Year II, No. 14, September 1955
  11. ^ Giraud, Bibli. Sacr., II 334-336 (gives list of his writings)
  12. ^ Pagden, Anthony (1991). Vitoria: Political Writings (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought). UK: Cambridge University Press. p. xvi. ISBN 0-521-36714-X. 
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959". 
  14. ^ "History of Neuroscience". Society for Neuroscience. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  15. ^ "Pio del Rio Hortega". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  16. ^ 2011 “The love for truth. Life and work of Michael Servetus”, (El amor a la verdad. Vida y obra de Miguel Servet.), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarra, 607 pp, 64 of them illustrations, p 215-228 & 62nd illustration (XLVII)
  17. ^ a b The man who got Spanish women off their knees has died
  18. ^ (Spanish)manuel jalon inventor fregona
  19. ^ Spanish National Library - La Esfera, December 28, 1918
  20. ^ García, Manuel (1855). "Observations on the Human Voice". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 7: 399–410. doi:10.1098/rspl.1854.0094. JSTOR 111815. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  21. ^ Walsh, James J. Science in the Philippines, New York.
  22. ^ Warren, James Francis (2009). "Scientific Superman: Father José Algué, Jesuit Meteorology, and the Philippines under American Rule, 1897-1924." In Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of the Modern American State, Part VIII, University of Wisconsin Press.
  23. ^ Vector Flight
  24. ^ Garcia, Nicholas (2007). Mas alla de la Leyenda Negra. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia. pp. 443–454. ISBN 9788437067919. 
  25. ^ Cargill Hall, R. (1986). History of rocketry and astronautics: proceedings of the third through the sixth History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics, Volumen 1. NASA conference publication. American Astronautical Society by Univelt, p. 85. ISBN 0-87703-260-2
  26. ^ A steam powered submarine: the Ictíneo Low-tech Magazine, 24 August 2008
  27. ^ Humble 1981, p. 174.
  28. ^
  29. ^ Torres and his remarkable automatic devices. Issue 2079 of Scientific American, 1915