List of Spanish monarchs

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This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. The forerunners of the monarchs of the Spanish throne were the following:

These lineages were eventually united by the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon (king of the Crown of Aragon) and Isabella I of Castile (queen of the Crown of Castile). Although their kingdoms continued to be separate, with their personal union they ruled them together as one dominion. Ferdinand also conquered the southern part of Navarre and annexed it to what was to become Spain. Isabella left her kingdom to her daughter Joanna of Castile. Ferdinand served as her regent during her insanity; though rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced by Joanna's husband Philip the Handsome, he resumed his regency after Philip's death. In 1516, after Ferdinand II's death, his daughter Joanna inherited the kingdom of Aragon, but was kept prisoner at Tordesillas as insane. As Joanna's son, the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, did not want to be merely a regent, he was proclaimed king of Castile and Aragon jointly with his mother in Brussels. Subsequently, Castilian and Aragonese Cortes alleged oath to him as co-king with his mother. Upon her death, he became sole King of Castile and Aragon, and the thrones were thereafter united permanently.

Kingdom of Spain (1479–1873)[edit]

House of Trastámara (1516–1555)[edit]

Under Isabella and Ferdinand, the kingdoms of Castilla and Aragon were united.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Joanna
(1479-11-06)6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555(1555-04-12) (aged 75) 26 November 1504 12 April 1555 Daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon House of Trastámara Joanna of Castile and Aragon (later: Joanna of Spain)

House of Habsburg (1516–1700)[edit]

Main article: Habsburg Spain
Further information: Philippine Dynasty

Under Joanna and Charles I, the two thrones of Castile and Aragon were finally united under one monarch.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Charles I
(1500-02-24)24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558(1558-09-21) (aged 58) 14 March 1516 16 January 1556
(abdicated)
Son of Joanna and Philip I of Castile Habsburg Carlos I of Spain
Philip II
(1527-05-21)21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598(1598-09-13) (aged 71) 16 January 1556 13 September 1598 Son of Charles I Habsburg Felipe II of Spain
Philip III
(1578-04-14)14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621(1621-03-31) (aged 42) 13 September 1598 31 March 1621 Son of Philip II Habsburg Felipe III of Spain
Philip IV
(1605-04-08)8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665(1665-09-17) (aged 60) 31 March 1621 17 September 1665 Son of Philip III Habsburg Felipe IV of Spain
Charles II
(1661-11-06)6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700(1700-11-01) (aged 38) 17 September 1665 1 November 1700 Son of Philip IV Habsburg Carlos II of Spain

House of Bourbon (1700–1808)[edit]

In the year 1700 Charles II died. Charles' will named the 16-year-old Philip, the grandson of Charles' sister Maria Theresa of Spain, as his successor.[1] Upon any possible refusal the Crown of Spain would be offered next to Philip's younger brother Charles, Duke of Berry, or, next, to Archduke Charles of Austria.

Both claimants, Philip and Charles, had a legal right to the Spanish throne due to the fact that Philip's grandfather, King Louis XIV of France and Charles's father, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, were sons of Charles' aunts, Anne and Maria Anna. Philip had the better claim because his grandmother and great-grandmother were older than Leopold's. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and her descendants as part of her marriage contract. This was countered by the French branch's claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid.[2]

After a long council meeting where the Dauphin spoke up in favour of his son's rights, it was agreed that Philip would ascend the throne.[3] Following this war broke out and Archduke Charles was also proclaimed king of Spain, as Charles III in opposition to Philip V. He was proclaimed in Vienna,[4] and also in Madrid in the years 1706 and 1710. Charles renounced his claims to the Spanish throne in the Treaty of Rastatt of 1714, but was allowed the continued use of the styles of a Spanish monarch for his lifetime.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Philip V
(1683-12-19)19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746(1746-07-09) (aged 62) 16 November 1700 14 January 1724
(abdicated)
Great-grandson of Philip IV Bourbon Philip V of Spain
Louis I
  • the Beloved and the Liberal
  • Spanish: Luis I
(1707-08-25)25 August 1707 – 31 August 1724(1724-08-31) (aged 17) 14 January 1724 31 August 1724 Son of Philip V Bourbon Louis I of Spain
Philip V
(1683-12-19)19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746(1746-07-09) (aged 62) 6 September 1724 9 July 1746 Father of Louis I Bourbon Philip V of Spain
Ferdinand VI
(1713-09-23)23 September 1713 – 10 August 1759(1759-08-10) (aged 45) 9 July 1746 10 August 1759 Son of Philip V Bourbon Fernando VI of Spain
Charles III
  • the Enlightened and the King-Mayor
  • Spanish: Carlos III
(1716-01-20)20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788(1788-12-14) (aged 72) 10 August 1759 14 December 1788 Son of Philip V Bourbon Carlos III of Spain
Charles IV
(1748-11-11)11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819(1819-01-20) (aged 70) 14 December 1788 19 March 1808
(abdicated)
Son of Charles III Bourbon Charles IV of Spain
Ferdinand VII
  • the Desired, later El Rey Felón (The Felon King)
  • Spanish: Fernando VII
(1784-10-14)14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833(1833-09-29) (aged 48) 19 March 1808 6 May 1808
(abdicated)
Son of Charles IV Bourbon Fernando VII of Spain

House of Bonaparte (1808–1813)[edit]

The only monarch from this dynasty was Joseph I, imposed by his brother Napoleon I of France after Charles IV and Ferdinand VII had abdicated. The title used by Joseph I was King of the Spains and the Indias, by the Grace of God and the Constitution of the State. He was also later given all of the titles of the previous kings. A government in opposition to the French was formed in Cádiz on 25 September 1808, which continued to recognize the imprisoned Ferdinand VII as king. This government was diplomatically recognized as the legitimate Spanish government by Britain and other countries at war with France.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Joseph I
  • the Intruder and Bottle Joe
  • Spanish: José I
(1768-01-07)7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844(1844-07-28) (aged 76) 6 June 1808 11 December 1813
(deposed)
Bonaparte José I of Spain

House of Bourbon (1813–1868)[edit]

Charles IV's eldest son was restored to the throne. Again the title used was king of Castile, Leon, Aragon,… by the Grace of God.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Ferdinand VII
  • the Desired, later El Rey Felón (The Felon King)
  • Spanish: Fernando VII
(1784-10-14)14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833(1833-09-29) (aged 48) 11 December 1813 29 September 1833 Son of Charles IV Bourbon Fernando VII of Spain
Isabella II
  • the One with the Sad Destinies
  • Spanish: Isabel II
(1830-10-10)10 October 1830 – 10 April 1904(1904-04-10) (aged 73) 29 September 1833 30 September 1868
(deposed)
Daughter of Ferdinand VII Bourbon Isabel II of Spain

House of Savoy (1870–1873)[edit]

After the Spanish Revolution of 1868 deposed Isabella II, there was established a provisional government and a regency headed by Francisco Serrano y Domínguez from October 8, 1868 until January 2, 1871, while a new monarch was sought. Amadeo was elected as king and the new title used was King of Spain, by the Grace of God and will of the nation.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Amadeo I
  • the Gentleman King
(1845-05-30)30 May 1845 – 18 January 1890(1890-01-18) (aged 44) 16 November 1870 11 February 1873
(abdicated)
Elected by Cortes Generales Savoy Amadeo I of Spain

Spanish Republic (1873–1874)[edit]

Kingdom of Spain (1874–1931)[edit]

House of Bourbon (1874–1931)[edit]

Isabella II's eldest son was restored to the throne as she had abdicated in his favour in 1870. Constitutional King of Spain.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Alfonso XII
  • the Peacemaker
(1857-11-28)28 November 1857 – 25 November 1885(1885-11-25) (aged 27) 29 December 1874 25 November 1885 Son of Isabella II Bourbon Alfonso XII of Spain
Alfonso XIII
  • the African
(1886-05-17)17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941(1941-02-28) (aged 54) 17 May 1886 14 April 1931
(abdicated)
Son of Alfonso XII Bourbon Alfonso XIII of Spain

Spanish Republic (1931–1939)[edit]

Spanish State (1936–1975)[edit]

On 1 October 1936 General Francisco Franco was proclaimed Leader of Spain (Spanish: Caudillo de España) in the parts of Spain controlled by the Nationalists (nacionales) after the Spanish Civil War broke out. At the end of the war on 1 April 1939 General Franco took control of the whole of Spain. In 1947, Franco proclaimed the restoration of the monarchy but did not allow the pretender, Juan, Count of Barcelona, to take the throne. In 1969, Franco declared that Juan Carlos, Prince of Spain, the Count of Barcelona's son, would be his successor. After Franco's death in 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded him as the King of Spain.

Kingdom of Spain (1975–present)[edit]

House of Bourbon (1975–present)[edit]

Alfonso XIII's claim descended (due to his two eldest sons' renunciations) to his third son, Juan of Bourbon, Count of Barcelona, who was passed over in favour of his eldest son, whose title is King of Spain. The Count of Barcelona renounced his claims in favour of his son in 1977, two years after Franco's death and Juan Carlos's accession.

Juan Carlos abdicated in favor of his son Felipe VI, who became King on 19 June 2014, with Felipe's older daughter Infanta Leonor next in succession. [5]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Juan Carlos I
(1938-01-05) 5 January 1938 (age 76) 22 November 1975 19 June 2014
(abdicated)
Grandson of Alfonso XIII Bourbon Juan Carlos I of Spain
Felipe VI
(1968-01-30) 30 January 1968 (age 46) 19 June 2014 Incumbent Son of Juan Carlos I Bourbon Felipe VI of Spain

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamen, Henry. "Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice". Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-300-08718-7 P6
  2. ^ Durant, Will. "The Age of Louis XIV". Simon and Schuster, New York 1963 P699
  3. ^ Kamen, Henry. "Philip V of Spain:: The King who Reigned Twice" Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-300-08718-7 P158
  4. ^ http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Charles_VI_of_the_Holy_Roman_Empire LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia
  5. ^ "Leonor becomes a crown princess". El Pais. 

External links[edit]