||The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #19 (December 1985)
||Alistair Smythe was destined to finish what his father Spencer Smythe began, as well as avenging his father's death which he blamed on Spider-Man and J. Jonah Jameson. He created new Spider-Slayers and became one himself, adopting the name "the Spider-Slayer". He is also responsible for directly killing Marla Jameson, J. Jonah Jameson's wife. Smythe was killed by the Superior Spider-Man.
|Strange Tales #123 (August 1964)
||Abner Jenkins was a master mechanic at an aircraft parts factory who became dissatisfied with his boring, low paying job. Using his considerable mechanical knowledge, Jenkins built an armor-plated, strength-augmenting suit, a pair of gravity-defying wings, suction-fingered gloves, and a cybernetic control helmet. Calling himself the Beetle, Jenkins decided to use his battle-suit for fame, wealth, and adventure.
Later, as a member of the Thunderbolts, Abner became a hero in his own right and has taken the codename, Mach-V.
|Deadly Foes of Spider-Man #1 (May 1991)
||Leila Davis becomes Hardshell and continues to seek out revenge on the Beetle for everything he did to her husband. During her next encounter against the Beetle, Davis learned that her husband was alive after becoming a cyborg. The two went off to live together as husband and wife until Anthony’s cybernetic body broke down and he died once more. This time Davis was able to be at his side when he died. At the former base for the mutant team X-Factor, now the government’s Cliff’s Edge facility in Virginia, Davis began her training as the new Beetle.
|Captain America #607 (August 2010)
||Janice Lincoln is the daughter of the super power mobster Tombstone. Janice's mother was an ex-girlfriend of Tombstone during his early days in organized crime. Janice grew up a semi regular life with Tombstone in and out of her life usually showing up to help out with bills and schooling. However, Janice sought the thrill of her father's lifestyle. It was a few years later that Baron Helmut Zemo and the Fixer provided Janice with a suit of Beetle armor and a nano-virus as part of their plan to destroy the new Captain America. She is now a member of Boomerang's Sinister Six.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #10 (March 1964)
||Frederick Foswell was a small and timid reporter working for the Daily Bugle who aspired to be a crime boss. Taking on the identity of the Big Man, Foswell and his Enforcers attempted to take over the New York underworld.
|Marvel Team-Up #39 (November 1975)
||The daughter of the original Big Man, Janice Foswell sought to follow in the footsteps of her father and gain control of the New York underworld.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #182 (July 1978)
||Jackson Weele is a business man who has embezzled from his company who gets Tinkerer to create a large metal wheel that can climb up buildings, complete with guns and waldo-arms. With his new vehicle, Weele became the Big Wheel.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #419 (January 1997)
||Carlos LaMuerto is the most recent in a family line of superpowered vigilante martial artists, all posing as a single immortal figure. He currently serves as an ally and occasional adversary of Daredevil.
||Tales To Astonish #81 (July 1966)
||Fred Myers has no superhuman powers, but he has the strength, agility and endurance of a professional athlete from his days as a baseball player. He can throw projectiles with nearly unerring accuracy, and his aim is nearly the peak of what a non-superpowered human can accomplish.
Boomerang's most dangerous assets are, naturally, his arsenal of specialized boomerangs. He has modified and improved on them over the years, but the most common ones are exploding boomerangs (with enough explosive power to destroy an automobile), razor-bladed boomerangs, and boomerangs that release large doses of tear gas to disable a target.
||Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962)
||The man who murdered Peter Parker's beloved uncle, Ben Parker. Little is known about this common criminal except that he had a daughter named Jessica Carradine who became a love interest of Spider-clone, Ben Reilly. The Burglar, once discovering Peter Parker and Spider-Man were the same, suffered a fatal heart attack.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #209 (October 1980)
||Calypso Ezili is a psychopathic voodoo woman who was associated with Sergei Kravinoff, aka Kraven the Hunter.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #342 (December 1990)
||Dr. Elias Wirtham is a vigilante and physician who tends to others in the New York underworld. He serves as an ally and occasional adversary of Spider-Man.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #360 (April 1992)
||Carnage was the combination of a symbiote spawned from the original Venom symbiote and a crazed serial killer, and former cell mate of Eddie Brock, Cletus Kasady. He thrived on murder and chaos and was many times stronger than Spider-Man. After nearly being killed by the Sentry, he was brought back by Industrialist Michael Hall, in a bid to use the Carnage symbiote to create an army of super-soldiers. He was later deemed brain dead upon being lobotomized by the Scarlet Spider before undergoing a transformation by the Wizard.
|Spectacular Spider-Man #25 (December 1978)
||The first Carrion was originally an extremely decayed and superpowered clone of Dr. Miles Warren (the Jackal).
|Spectacular Spider-Man #149 (April 1989)
||The second Carrion was a college student named Malcolm McBride who had discovered a genetic virus which mutated him into Carrion, who had all the powers and memories of the original Carrion.
|Spider-Man: Dead Man's Hand (1997)
||While examining the corpse of Miles Warren, Dr. William Allen was infected with an extremely powerful version of the Carrion virus. Using its power to manipulate the minds of others, Carrion III went on a killing spree in New York City. It was only by using Warren's old scientific notes that Spider-Man managed to cure Dr. Allen of the Carrion plague.
A fourth Carrion appeared assisting the Jackal with his new Spider Human-Mutant Hybrid cloning experiments. This Carrion's identity and origins remain a mystery, but may be another clone of Miles Warren.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963)
||Dmitri Smerdyakov was a Russian spy with a knack for disguises. He was the very first colorful supervillain Spidey ever faced and was later revealed to be the half-brother and former servant of Kraven the Hunter. Chameleon was employed by the Green Goblin to execute the cruel plan of creating Life Model Decoys of Peter's parents.
|Amazing Spider-Man #26 (July 1965)
||Nick Lewis, Sr. was one of several mob bosses who tried to take over New York City and unite all of its organized crime, predating the Kingpin by several issues. He was originally partnered with The Green Goblin, but they severed their partnership after they revealed their identities to each other. (The Green Goblin in fact never revealed his identity to Crime-Master; as revealed in an issue of Untold Tales of Spider-Man, he instead implicated his friend J. Jonah Jameson as the true identity of the Goblin). The Crime-Master attempted to kill Spider-Man, but was gunned down by New York City policemen and died before he could reveal the Green Goblin's identity.
|Marvel Team-Up #39 (November 1975)
||Nick Lewis Jr. adopted his father's Crime Master guise as a would-be avenger of his father's death.
||Web of Spider-Man #86 (March 1992)
||The fourth Hobgoblin, Jason Macendale, wanting power, attempted to sell his soul to the demon N'astirh during the Inferno Crisis. An amused N'astirh declined Macendale's soul and instead grafted a demon to Macendale, "without a catch". Unfortunately for Macendale, the fusion of himself and the demon gave him a hideous appearance and drove him insane. After months of fighting for control of Macendale's body, the demon physically tore himself from Macendale and, christening itself the Demogoblin, set off to purge the world of "sinners".
||Infinity War #1 (June 1992)
||A magically created clone of Spider-Man, the Doppelganger was created by the Magus to kill Spider-Man.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #3 (July 1963)
||Dr. Otto Octavius is a respected scientist, one of the world's foremost experts in radiation who used four mechanical arms in his experiments, which bonded with his nervous system after an explosion, transforming him into Doctor Octopus. He combines physical power with mad genius and is a founding member and leader of the Sinister Six. Doctor Octopus exchanged minds with Spider-Man, who perished in Octavius's former degenerating body, and Doctor Octopus now controls Peter Parker's body, with free access to Peter's memories, and has assumed his life as Spider-Man. Technically, he is the second villain to actually kill Spider-Man, the first being Morlun. (see more later down the list.)
|The Amazing Spider-Man #406 (October 1995)
||During the Clone Saga, Dr. Otto Octavius (Doctor Octopus) is killed by Kaine and is replaced not long after by Carolyn Trainer, daughter of Seward Trainer and adoring student of Octavius. She obtains a set of four tentacles identical to Octavius' and made use of a personal force-field that kept anything from hitting her. She took the name Doctor Octopus in honor of her beloved instructor but is later known as Lady Octopus.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #9 (February 1964)
||An emotionally stunted man with an inferiority complex, Maxwell Dillon is struck by lightning while working on power lines and discovers that he has a superhuman control over electricity. Donning a green and yellow lightning-themed costume, he goes on to battle Spider-Man numerous times.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #103 (December 1971)
||Gog is an alien that was saved from death by Kraven the Hunter when Gog was a baby. Kraven raised him and Gog became a huge monster with super strength and bracelets that allow interdimensional teleportation. He would later become a Sinister Six member.
||Superior Spider-Man #16 (October, 2013)
||With his identity as Hobgoblin revealed to the public, Phil Urich desperately makes excuses as his Daily Bugle co-workers turn against him. Superior Spider-Man learns of Phil's location and arrives at the Daily Bugle and fights with an unstable Phil bringing the fight outside where Superior Spider-Man disarms him. He seems to consider giving Phil a public execution, but Phil is freed from a prison transport by Green Goblin who upgrades his armor and weapons. Green Goblin asks only for full dedication to Phil's only identity from here on as the Goblin Knight. Goblin King trains Goblin Knight who has become anxious to jump into action against Superior Spider-Man. Goblin King reprimands Goblin Knight that it was his fault that he had to shut down his Goblin Protocols to avoid being detected by Superior Spider-Man. Goblin King states that Goblin Knight has given him an idea.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #14 (July 1964)
||Originally a normal scientist and ambitious businessman, Norman Osborn uses an experimental formula which explodes, but gives him superpowers and also drives him insane. When Spider-Man thwarts his plans to take over as crime boss of New York City, he dedicates himself to utterly destroying Spider-Man's life. He is the first supervillain to discover Spider-Man's secret identity. Their mutual animosity becomes personal when Osborn kills Gwen Stacy, Parker's long-time girlfriend and first true love. He is apparently killed by his own glider, but the formula allows him to heal. He is generally acknowledged to be Spider-Man's nemesis and worst enemy, and also is responsible for the murder of Ben Reilly, the disappearance of Peter Parker's infant daughter, his son Harry's spiral into madness and eventual death, and masterminding the entire Clone Saga. Some of these events were changed from the 'One more Day' storyline.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #136 (September 1974)
||Harry Osborn, Norman's son and Peter Parker's best friend, eventually dons his father's old costume and continues his mission of hate against Spider-Man after his father's apparent death.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #175 (December 1977)
||Harry's therapist Bart Hamilton also dons the costume temporarily until he dies.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #509 (Aug 2004)
||Before her death, Gwen Stacy and Norman Osborn had an affair and Gwen became pregnant with twins: Gabriel and Sarah. Gabriel, like his sister, were born with the goblin formula in their system. Due to this, they both age much faster than a normal human, appearing as adults despite being around 9 years old. After a second dose of Goblin formula, Gabriel took the mantle of Grey Goblin and became very much insane.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #549 (February 2008)
||Lily Hollister transforms into Menace rather than putting on a costume, because of exposure to a more advanced goblin-formula. Menace bears a strong resemblance to the Green Goblin/Hobgoblin villains and uses the same style of Goblin Glider.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #139 (December 1974)
||Maxwell Markham is a professional wrestler who competed using the nom de guerre of the Grizzly. His violent actions brought him to the attention of J. Jonah Jameson whose article got Maxwell expelled from wrestling. Ten years later, he met with the Jackal who gave him a grizzly bear suit and an exoskeleton harness that amplified his strength and durability. He used this harness to attack the Daily Bugle in an attempt on revenge against Jameson for ruining his wrestling career.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #113 (October 1972)
||Hammerhead is a member of organized crime and is closely associated with the Maggia crime family. Hammerhead distinguishes himself from other villains in that he dresses up and acts like a gangster from the 1920s. Due to an injury he suffers in which his skull is reinforced with metal, his head has a flat shape to it. Was upgraded by Mister Negative with an adamantium skeleton in exchange for being his enforcer.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #238 (March 1983)
||A millionaire fashion designer and criminal named Roderick Kingsley acquires the Green Goblin's weaponry and uses them to further his own ambitions after the Goblin's seeming death during a battle with Spider-Man. He modifies Osborn's original formula to give himself superhuman strength without becoming insane. He was responsible for the deaths of Donovan, Macendale, and Leeds, who all assumed the Hobgoblin mantle to remove suspicions of Kingsley's involvement.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #238 (September 1983)
||Arnold "Lefty" Donovan is a petty thug in the employ of Kingsley who briefly became the Hobgoblin after he was exposed to Norman Osborn's Goblin formula.
|Marvel Team-Up #138 (February 1984)
||Kingsley later brainwashes Ned Leeds, a reporter working for the Daily Bugle, to act as a stand-in on many occasions and fool the underworld into thinking that Leeds is the Hobgoblin.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #289 (June 1987)
||Jason Macendale, formerly the supervillain Jack O'Lantern, also uses the Hobgoblin identity for a time before being killed by the original Hobgoblin, Roderick Kingsley.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #649 (January 2011)
||Phil Urich, who was previously retired from being the superhero version of the Green Goblin, became romantically interested in reporter Norah Winters. In order to impress Norah, he breaks into one of Norman Osborn's lairs where he encounters Daniel Kingsley posing as his brother Roderick, the original Hobgoblin. Urich kills Daniel in self-defense and takes on the Hobgoblin mantle. He partners with the Kingpin as one of his top agents while as Urich is employed for the Daily Bugle and uses a robotic flying camera to capture the Hobgoblin's activities that he sells to the Bugle, similar to Peter's approach to capturing photos of himself as Spider-Man. The real Roderick Kingsley later returns intending to kill Urich, but ends up agreeing to let him continue in the role in return for a cut of the profits. After having his identity publically revealed by the Superior Spider-Man, he was taken in by the Goblin Cult and dubbed the "Goblin Knight".
||The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #10 (1976)
||Richard Deacon was born in Newark, New Jersey. He was a small-time criminal who was shot by the police and left for dead after his unsuccessful kidnapping attempt, which was foiled by Spider-Man. Stumbling into the laboratory of Dr. Harlan Stillwell (whose brother Farley Stillwell created the Scorpion for J. Jonah Jameson), Deacon coerced the scientist into saving his life. Overhearing an offer Jameson made with Stillwell to fund the creation of a new superhero, Deacon insisted he be the subject of the experiment. Stillwell imprinted the genetic coding of a common fly onto Deacon, empowering him and healing him of his bullet wounds. Deacon killed Harlan Stillwell and used his newfound powers to further his criminal ambitions. He first used Jameson as bait to get revenge on Spider-Man, but due to his inexperience he was no match for the web-slinger and he was defeated.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #212 (January 1981)
||Morris Bench works on a cargo ship until an accident transforms him into a being of pigmented water, able to control his own liquid body. He has since been a frequent antagonist of Spider-Man and an occasional ally/enemy of the Sandman whom he once accidentally merged with and became a mud monster.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #129 (February 1974)
||Dr. Miles Warren is an Empire State University biology professor who becomes infatuated with Peter Parker's girlfriend, Gwen Stacy. After she dies during a battle between Spider-Man and the Green Goblin, Warren becomes a demented geneticist and clones both Gwen Stacy and Peter Parker. He gains enhanced strength and agility by combining the genetic material of an actual jackal with his own. He fancies to genetic tampering of Spider-Man DNA which first results in the Clone Saga and the later infestation of Spider-Island where millions of New Yorkers develop manifestations of Spider-Man's radioactive powers. His current machinations include cloning new Spider Human-Mutant Hybrids.
||Machine Man #19 (February 1981)
||Jason Philip Macendale, known as the original Jack O'Lantern, has no super powers but wares a flaming pumpkin mask and hurls explosive grenades while flying on a disc glider or hopping about on a "pogo platform". He later became the second Hobgoblin and the Demogoblin incarnate. Macendale was killed by Kingsley, the original Hobgoblin, before he could reveal his identity.
|Captain America #396 (Jan 1992)
||Steven Mark Levins, A second Jack O'Lantern who fought Captain America and Spider-Man under the employ of the Red Skull. This version of the character was subjected to much controversy, due to the fact that several years after his introduction he was rebranded "Mad Jack" and was heavily featured in the pages of Spectacular Spider-Man during the late 1990s. Mad Jack was ultimately revealed to be the duo of ex-Mysterio Daniel Berkhart and Mysterio's cousin, Maguire Beck.
||Web of Spider-Man #119 (December 1994)
||Kaine was the first clone of Peter Parker created by Professor Miles Warren who also doubles as the Jackal with only one genetic flaw: he is slowly degenerating due to clone degeneration. His Spider-sense is altered to precognitive see fateful events in the future. His fate was met at the hands of the Kravinoff family, unknowing to Kravinoffs, was the man in the Spider-Man costume, which resulted in the resurrection of Kraven the Hunter during "Grim Hunt". Kaine was the Jackal's Spider-Human hybrid henchman, the Tarantula, during Spider-Island. When cured of his degeneration and mutations, he ventured on to become the Scarlet Spider using a costume he developed prior to Spider-Island.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #81 (February 1970)
||Frank Oliver was the first Kangaroo but only had two overall appearances in The Amazing Spider-Man #81 and 126. #126 showed the Kangaroo off with his "powered-up" powers courtesy of Dr. Jonas Harrow, the man also responsible for Hammerhead's hard head. Unfortunately, the powers, not to mention radiation poisoning, got the best of Frank and it killed him.
|Spectacular Spider-Man #242 (January 1997)
||A second Kangaroo, Brian Hibbs, jumped onto the scenes in Spectacular Spider-Man #242 with a very brief appearance. Brian Hibbs showed up again as a member of the Legion of Losers along with teammates Grizzly, Gibbon, and the Spot.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #50 (July 1967)
||Wilson Fisk is the most powerful crime boss in the New York City criminal underworld. While primarily an enemy of Daredevil, he has also attempted to kill Spider-Man on countless occasions. After Spider-Man revealed that he was Peter Parker in cooperation with the Superhuman Registration Act, Kingpin sent a sniper after him, only for Peter's Aunt May to be hit instead. An enraged Spider-Man attacked the Kingpin in prison, defeating him in one-on-one combat for the first time.
|Kraven the Hunter
|The Amazing Spider-Man #15 (August 1964)
||Perhaps the most respected big game hunter in the business, Sergei Kravinoff eventually set on a quest to capture the most elusive prey there is - Spider-Man. He initially committed suicide after believing he defeated Spider-Man after burying his adversary alive. Kraven was later resurrected by his family in a bid to restore honor to the Kravinoff family. Due to the sacrifice of Kaine. rather than Spider-Man, during the resurrection, Kraven now bestows the curse of the "unlife" where due to the totemistic nature of his rivalry with Spider-Man, can only die now at the hands of Spider-Man himself.
|Spider-Man #47 (June 1994)
||Vladimir "Vlad" Kravinoff, the son of the original Kraven, is trained by his father's servant and his father to become a hunter akin to his father. Taking the name Grim Hunter, Kravinoff sought to hunt both Spider-Man and the webslinger's foes. He met his first untimely end at the hands of Kaine, only later to be resurrected as a humanoid lion to be euthanized by his resurrected father.
|The Spectacular Spider-Man #243 (February 1997)
||Alyosha Kravinoff continued his father's legacy after his death. Despite having once a playboy status, he continued a vendetta regarding his father's death, and would eventually go back and forth between hero and villain. He was later killed by his half-sister, Ana, as she would carry on the Kravinoff legacy.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #565 (September 2008)
||Teenager, Ana Tatiana Kravinoff, takes her father's legacy as a new version of Kraven the Hunter in the Kraven's First Hunt arc and after her father's resurrection dubs herself the Grim Huntress. She currently serves her father in a tormenting Kaine, the Scarlet Spider.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #8 (January 1964)
||The Living Brain was created by the International Computing Machines Corporation and billed as the most intelligent computer and robot in existence, capable of solving virtually any question asked of it.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #6 (November 1963)
||When he lost his arm during a war, Dr. Curt Connors felt like he lost a half of himself. Obsessed with regaining his lost limb, Connors creates a serum from reptilian DNA, in hopes of gaining reptile-like regeneration abilities. He regains his arm, but at a price: he becomes a humanoid lizard, with a savage personality. He eventually evolved and permanently became the Lizard as a result of the transformation. He also became more violent, devouring his own son Billy. Connors' personality later regained control, but he remains trapped in reptilian form.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #36 (May 1966)
||Norton G. Fester was always a poor scientist, and was considered a crackpot by his colleagues. One day, however, he found an unusual meteor that crashed into the Earth. Excited by his discovery, Fester searched for funding into a project, but investors went for more commercial ventures. Fester decided to continue without funding, and while chiseling the meteor, he struck a pocket of gas. Immersed in the strange compound, he discovered that he now had super strength and agility thanks to the meteor's powers. Fester decided to devote his time and new powers to crime from then on. Calling himself the Looter, he struck banks and offices everywhere, finally trying to steal a similar meteorite in case his powers wore off, however Spider-Man then captured him.
|Man Mountain Marko
||The Amazing Spider-Man #73 (June 1969)
||Michael Marko was and remains an affiliate of numerous organized-crime entities, including the Maggia. He was originally introduced as the right hand man of Silvermane. He was allied with Silvermane, Caesar Cicero, Eel I, and Nightshade. His most frequent enemies are Spider-Man, Power Man, Iron Fist, Thunderbolt, and Boomerang.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #124 (September 1973)
||John Jameson was a supporter of Spider-Man, no matter what his dad J. Jonah Jameson said. John used to be an astronaut, which is how he discovered a gem on the moon. He kept it and made a pendant out of it on Earth. When he wore it during the full moon he turned into a werewolf creature that has sharp teeth, claws, superhuman strength, speed, agility, healing, stamina, and heightened senses. His intelligence is based upon the moon. Regardless of the moon phase, Man-Wolf is a bloodthirsty monster.
||Marvel Team-Up Vol 1 #92 (April 1980)
||Alan Fagan was born in Madison, Wisconsin. He is the nephew of the third Mister Fear, Larry Cranston. When Larry seemingly died, Alan came into possession of his fear gas and other equipment. Unlike the other Mister Fears, Fagan's primary adversary was Spider-Man, not Daredevil.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #546 (January 2008)
||Martin Li is a seemingly good-willed philanthropist who runs a soup kitchen in Chinatown, the F.E.A.S.T. Project (Food, Emergency Aid, Shelter and Training). Secretly, however, he is also a notorious Chinatown crimeboss. He was responsible for curing Eddie Brock of the cancer that resulted from years of being attached to the symbiote, resulting in the birth of Anti-Venom.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #28 (September 1965)
||Mark Raxton was born in New York City. He was a scientist who could not wait to use his skills to become rich, and once worked at Osborn Industries, Inc., as the laboratory assistant to Dr. Spencer Smythe, creator of the Spider-Slayers. Raxton and Smythe developed an experimental new liquid metallic alloy for the Spider-Slayers from a radioactive meteor, but Raxton attempted to steal it and sell it for his own profit. In the ensuing fight with Smythe in the laboratory, Raxton spilled the liquid alloy all over himself, his skin absorbing it and turning golden. He was later cured by Harry Osborn.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #101 (October 1971)
||Michael Morbius, a Nobel Prize-winning biochemist, attempts to cure himself of a rare blood disease with an experimental treatment involving vampire bats and electroshock therapy. He instead becomes afflicted with a far worse condition that mimics the powers and bloodthirst of vampirism. Morbius now has to digest blood in order to survive and has a strong aversion to light. He gains the ability to fly, as well as superhuman strength and healing abilities.
||The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2 #30 (June 2001)
||Morlun is from a race called the Ancients, that feed on "totem" people like Spider-Man. While Spider-Man is learning the true intentions of totemistic hunters from his new friend Ezekiel, Morlun readies for his next hunt: Spider-Man. His original hunt was for Ezekiel who also had spider-powers like Peter. Morlun is the first villain to have officially "killed" Spider-Man; Doctor Octopus later did in the controversial 700th issue of the Amazing Spider-Man.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #13 (June 1964)
||A disgraced stuntman and special effects artist named Quentin Beck dons an extravagant and theatrical costume as Mysterio and seeks to discredit and frame Spider-Man. Even after losing their initial battle, he continues to menace Spider-Man, both alone and as a member of the Sinister Six. He appeared to have committed suicide after failing to drive Daredevil insane, but later resurfaces. His fate remains unknown as he used technology to become the 'Avatar' Mysterio in the Ultimate Universe, where he is currently trapped.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #141 (February 1975)
||After Beck's apparent demise, Daniel Berkhart temporarily adopts the identity. There was some confusion to this Mysterio's identity until Spider-Man: The Mysterio Manifesto hinted that it was Daniel Berkhart, an old friend of Beck and a previous Jack-O-Lantern who had taken over the mantle of Mysterio during a period when Beck had previously faked his death, and has reassumed it after Beck's death.
|Spider-Man/Black Cat: The Evil that Men Do #1 (August 2002)
||Teleporting mutant Francis Klum also briefly becomes Mysterio, before Beck returns from the dead.
||Spider-Man Swing Shift (Free Comic Book Day, 2007)
||A Spider-Man fanboy who has special powers than can enhance motorized vehicles.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #256 (September 1984)
||Thomas Fireheart is the latest in this line of men, used in mystic ceremonies and selective breeding to create a perfect warrior, with the ability to turn into a powerful humanoid mountain lion werecat. He was operating as a mercenary and had been hired by The Rose to kill Spider-Man, but was thwarted by Upton.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #41 (October 1966)
||Aleksei Sytsevich is a poor immigrant from Russia who became a New York thug under the alias Alex O'Hirn. He participated in an experiment that bonded a super-strong polymer to his skin and gave him enhanced strength, speed, and stamina. After losing his wife, Oskana, at the hands of a second Rhino, he began to lose compassion and morality as he ventured into Doc Ock's (Big Time era) Sinister Six. He drowned by taking Silver Sable with him.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #83 (April 1970)
||Richard Fisk, the son of crime lord Wilson Fisk, is an antihero who has adopted several identities over the years, most notably The Rose. Although his goals are noble ones, the methods he uses cause more harm than good.
||The Defenders #51 (September 1977)
||Career criminal Anthony Davis hired the Tinkerer to build him a battlesuit. Upon testing the suit by himself, the Beetle broke into his workshop and the two battled, resulting in Davis becoming the Beetle's prisoner. The Beetle wanted Davis to wear the suit so they could fight Spider-Man together, and convinced Davis to do so because of the deadly explosive weapons built inside the suit.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #4 (September 1963)
||While on the run from the law, the escaped convict William Baker (under the alias Flint Marko) finds himself on a remote beach during a nuclear weapon testing. His cells are spliced with sand molecules by the radiation, and his body becomes a mass of a sand-like substance and can replicate into multiple personalities of himself.
||Tales of Suspense #51 (March 1964)
||Ebenezer Laughton was an expert escapologist and contortionist at a circus until he turned to a life of crime. He armed himself with a pitchfork and trained killer crows to become the Scarecrow. After going in and out of jail multiple times from losing to heroes like Spider-Man he became criminally insane, and a mass murderer. He would later on get super powers, including the power to induce fear into his victims.
||Spider-Man: The Power of Terror #2 (February 1995)
||Elaine Colls is a mental patient at Bellevue Hospital in Hell's Kitchen. She is chosen by Silvermane to become the new Scorpion after the retirement of the original; however, she opted to call herself Scorpia.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #20 (January 1965)
||Private investigator Mac Gargan was paid by J. Jonah Jameson to undergo an experimental animal mutation therapy, imbuing him with super strength, speed, and endurance at the cost of his sanity. Donning a scorpion-based costume, he set out to defeat Spider-Man numerous times and take revenge on Jameson for taking away his humanity. Gargan was also the third Venom and imposed as the Dark Spider-Man during Dark Reign. Gargan has since separated from the Venom symbiote, and was given a new Scorpion suit by Alistair Smythe.
|Scourge of the Underworld
||Iron Man #194 (May 1985)
||The Scourge is originally depicted as an individual vigilante dedicated to the assassination of criminals. This person, whose true name has never been revealed, is seen over the course of several months murdering known supervillains. The Scourge approaches a supervillain in disguise, shoots him or her with an explosive-tipped bullet.
||Venom: Lethal Protector #4 (1993)
||AKA Donna Diego, Scream was one of the five Life Foundation Symbiotes that were forcefully spawned from the Venom symbiote. She was their unofficial leader.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #46 (March 1967)
||A burglar and safe-cracker gifted with a head for engineering, Herman Schultz develops a pair of gauntlets capable of throwing incredibly powerful vibrational blasts. He wears a gold and brown quilted costume to protect himself from the vibrations of his gauntlets.
||Spider-Man Unlimited #1 (May 1993)
||Shriek is a dangerous and criminally insane villainess with the ability to manipulate sound in a number of elaborate ways. She once allied herself with Carnage and several other supervillains who went about New York on a killing spree.
Shriek's origins and real name are uncertain. She was named Sandra Deel in her earliest appearances, but named Frances Louise Barrison in later appearances.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #73 (Jun 1969)
||Silvio Manfredi, given the name "Silvermane" for his near-white hair, is a professional criminal originally from Sicily. He started his criminal career in an organized crime group called the Maggia. He later had his brain, face and vital organs transplanted into a powerful cybernetic body.
||Avengers vol. 1 #70 (November 1969)
||James Sanders first appears under the codename Whizzer, as a member of the Squadron Sinister. Several years after the Squadron Sinister disbands, James Sanders decides to return to crime in a new costume as the Speed Demon and battles Spider-Man.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #25 (June 1965)
||A robotic and arachnid expert convinced by Jameson's editorials that Spider-Man was a menace. Smythe created multiple Spider-Slayers to catch and destroy Spider-Man, but fell gravely ill from being exposed to radiation. His son Alistair later takes up his legacy.
||The Spectacular Spider-Man #222 (1995)
||During the Clone Saga, in addition to Ben Reilly and Kaine, a third significant clone of Spider-Man was introduced: Spidercide. He died during a battle with Spider-Man, Ben, and Kaine. Scrier recovered his remains and reanimated him, granting him the ability to turn into other materials and shapes in the process. The Jackal is currently using Kaine's DNA to produce Spidercide 2.0.
||The Spectacular Spider-Man vol. 3 #15 (December 2004)
||Adriana Soria is the first female marine in combat during World War II. Adriana and a number of other soldiers are exposed to radiation at Bikini Atol in an attempt to create more super-soldiers. All but Adriana die during this experiment. The mental strain of the experiment unhinges Adriana's mind and she is placed in a military asylum and forgotten. Adriana is a latent mutant who's radiated genetic structure made her into an insect human hybrid, who appears human. Queen surfaces in New York with the ability to control anyone with "insect genes" including those with retrograde DNA pieces. She is able to mutate the DNA in Spider-Man resulting in his becoming a monstrous spider creature before reverting mostly to his original form (Spider-Man gains the ability to generate organic webs). It was Queen's hope that this monstrous spider would give birth to a child for her. Queen is seemingly killed by an explosion when Spider-Man defeated her though her body was never found. She later reappears during the "Spider-Island" storyline, where she teams-up with the Jackal and infects the citizens of New York City, giving them all spider powers before turning them into giant spiders. Later, she is seemingly killed by Kaine after she became a Spider-God.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #25 (June 1965)
||Spider-Slayers are robots designed to hunt down or kill Spider-Man first designed by Spencer Smythe then carried on by his son Alistair Smythe who then turned into the Ultimate Slayer himself (see list of Spider Slayers).
||The Spectacular Spider-Man #98 (January 1985)
||Jonathon Ohnn can enter himself through holes, or portals to the Spot dimension and he can throw them as a weapon from his body. Spider-Man fell over laughing when the Spot first announced his name, but underestimated Ohnn and was defeated in their first fight. However, he later defeated him by tricking him into throwing too many spots and leaving his body unprotected.
||Marvel Team-Up #19 (March 1974)
||Dr. Vincent Stegron was hired by S.H.I.E.L.D to assist Dr. Curt Connors in studying dinosaur DNA from the Savage Land. Obsessed with the experiments Connors did to create the Lizard, Stegron stole the DNA samples and injected himself with them. He then transformed into a hominid dinosaur and became bent on reclaiming the earth for the dinosaurs.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #37 (June 1966)
||Stromm was Norman Osborn's college professor, and became his partner in OsCorp Industries. His early research was on a chemical that would provide enhanced strength in its test subjects (and would eventually turn Osborn into the Green Goblin). Osborn, wanting the formula for himself, discovered that Stromm had been embezzling funds from OsCorp, and turned Stromm over to the police. After several years in prison, Stromm was released and tried to kill Norman Osborn for revenge using evil robots. He was stopped by Spider-Man and seemingly died of a heart attack.
Stromm had made plans for his death, however, by arranging to have his brain waves transferred to a robot double. Now calling himself Robot Master, Stromm returned in Spectacular Spider-Man vol. 1, #68 (July 1982). After being defeated and destroyed, Stromm returned several times as a cyborg sometimes known as Gaunt.
||Champions #14 (July 1977)
||A former Nazi scientist, Fritz Von Meyer became a bee keeper in South America. When a colony of mutated bees devoured him, his consciousness was absorbed into them, becoming a living swarm.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #134 (July 1974)
||As a revolutionary terrorist and government operative, Anton Miguel Rodriguez is expelled from his small organization and went on to the other repressive side of the government where they created the identity of the Tarantula for him and to serve as his country's counterpart to Captain America.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #2 (May 1963)
||Originally thought to be an alien from Amazing Spider-Man #2, the Tinkerer turned out to really be a brilliant man named Phineas Mason who is at the top his game in creating mechanical devices, mostly for supervillains.
||Web of Spider-Man #36 (March 1988)
||Lonnie Thompson Lincoln is an African American albino who became a hitman and mob enforcer known as Tombstone. He gained super strength and nigh-invulnerable skin after exposure to an experimental gas. He has personal ties to Spider-Man supporting character, Robbie Robertson.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #299 (April 1988)
||When Spider-Man rid himself of the alien symbiote costume he acquired during the Secret Wars, it bonds with reporter Eddie Brock, who hates Spider-Man for causing him to lose his job and reputation. The symbiote, known as Venom, gives Brock all of Spider-Man's powers, protection from his Spider-Sense, and the knowledge of Parker's secret identity. Brock would later gain a new symbiote and face-off against Mac Gargan as Anti-Venom.
|Marvel Knights Spider-Man #7 (December 2004)
||When Brock decides to turn his life around, the symbiote is sold at auction to Angelo Fortunato. Fortunato uses the Venom identity only briefly before the symbiote - disgusted by his cowardice - abandons him, causing his death.
|Marvel Knights Spider-Man #9 (February 2005)
||After leaving Fortunato, the symbiote attaches itself to Mac Gargan, the super-villain formerly known as the Scorpion. While being held at the Raft the symbiote was forcibly removed from him and given to Flash Thompson.
||Captain America #272 (August 1982)
||Edward Whelan was genetically altered by Arnim Zola, who was in league with the second Baron Zemo, as part of a failed plot to destroy their mutual foe, Captain America. He later went on to battle the combined forces of Captain America and Spider-Man, the latter of whom needed help from Captain America to defeat him. In order to prove his superiority over his hated foe in the Kraven's Last Hunt storyline, Kraven the Hunter (who was impersonating Spider-Man in a version of his black costume) went on to personally confront Vermin and single-handedly defeated him. After Spider-Man freed himself from a coffin which Kraven buried six feet under, Kraven released Vermin so Spider-Man would be forced to chase after him in order to prevent him from harming anyone. It was then that Kraven took the opportunity to end his own life. Vermin went on to menace Spider-Man a number of times since being recaptured, as well as frequently being an inmate at the Ravencroft Institute for the Criminally Insane.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #2 (May 1963)
||The elderly Adrian Toomes turned to a life of crime after his business partner cheated him. With a self-invented anti-gravity pack, wings for faster flying, and a birdlike costume, he became the high-flying, lowdown Vulture.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #48 (May 1967)
||"Blackie" Drago is a prison cellmate of Toomes' who tricks Toomes and steals the Vulture harness and costume. He uses the suit to make money through air piracy.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #127 (December 1973)
||Clifton Shallot is a university professor who gained an altered face, teeth, and fingernails and donned his own Vulture costume.
|The Amazing Spider-Man #592 (April 2009)
||Jimmy Natale was a mob cleaner who was transformed into a cannibalistic vulture creature who has a mutated jaw that spits acid and has developed real wings who mercilessly kills and eats criminals. Was killed by the Punisher.
|Will o' the Wisp
||The Amazing Spider-Man #167 (April 1977)
||Jackson Arvad was a scientist who specialized in electromagnetic research. He was working late one night, and caused an accident as he was so tired. A gravimetric power surge made him plunge into a self-sustaining magnetic field, causing Arvad's molecules to gradually disperse. He gained ghostly powers and became one of Spider-Man's eeriest enemies.
||Marvel Team-Up #131 (July 1983)
||Lorina Dodson, a criminal robbing various fast food joints, most notably "Kwikkee Burgers," armed with a giant heavily armed robotic rabbit, genetically altered killer bunny rabbits, an umbrella that fires explosive and razor tipped carrots, and a pair of rocket boots.
||Lethal Foes Of Spider-Man #4 (July 1984)
||Originally, Aaron Nicholson was a very loyal hitman of the Kingpin known as the Answer, but later became an unconscious being of energy.
||The Sensational Spider-Man (1998)
||Armada is a technology-using mercenary hired by Mysterio during the second-act of the Clone Sage.
||Marvel Team-Up vol. 1 #16 (December 1973)
||Basil Elks is a petty thief who breaks into a museum to steal what he believes is an ordinary emerald - but is in fact a Kree artifact called the Alpha Stone. Elks gains multiple superpowers, when the stone shatters, by one of the museums security guards. Basilisk realizes that the Alpha Stone has a twin - the Omega Stone - which he becomes determined to find so as to increase his powers. Basilisk comes into conflict with Captain Marvel (who is seeking the Stones), Spider-Man, Mister Fantastic, and finally the Mole Man in his underground lair.
||Untold Tales of Spider-Man #2 (October 1995)
||While investigating illegal toxic waste dumping in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, James "Jimmy" Santini got lost after his father either fell to his death or was shot in the back by polluters (the details of his death are unknown). Jimmy drank water that "tasted like metal", and was eventually rescued and taken to his mother. After some time, the chemicals took effect and he sprouted wings. His mother proclaimed him a demon and kicked him out of the house, and Jimmy began to live off of stealing, continuing to mutate and losing his humanity. He soon became a local urban legend known as Batwing. Spider-Man initially attempted to collect a bounty on him to work out his financial problems, but couldn't after he realized Santini was just a kid. Spider-Man eventually enlisted Dr. Connors' help to cure Santini of his mutation, and he has been active in recent years during the Civil War and the Skrull Invasion.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #255 (August 1984)
||Raul Chalmers is a jewel thief with a long international career. In his sixties, he yearns to pull off one last big heist so that he can retire for good to the French Riviera
||Web of Spider-Man #15 (June 1986)
||Nicholas Powell was looking for more thrill in his life. He decides to become a mercenary criminal-for-hire, incorporating his love of gambling into his work. Anyone who hires him would, instead of directly paying, bet his fee against him actually completing the mission.
||Spider-Man #49 (1994)
||Kateri Deseronto was once a government agent with the codename Coldheart. She has a bulletproof costume and with two swords, one to paralyze and the other to freeze objects. She is proficient in martial arts and sword fighting. After her son's death during a battle between the Hobgoblin and Spider-Man, she was deemed mentally unfit for field duty. Her clearance was revoked and she was forcibly retired. She later confronts both Spider-Man and Hobgoblin, in revenge, after stealing her costume back. Coldheart was arrested and imprisoned in the Raft, but later escaped. Hiding in Stamford with some other escaped convicts, she was eventually tracked down by the New Warriors. During the battle, Nitro used his powers and caused an explosion in the neighborhood, causing both the death of hundreds of people, the New Warriors, and presumably Coldheart as well.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #143 (April 1975)
||André Gerard, a French engineer working for NATO, Gerard had a falling out with his former employees, related to political decisions over implementing his research, based on the development of a weapon that generates high velocity tornado-like winds. Cyclone took his invention and used it for his own criminal ends, developing his costume and other weapons
||The Amazing Spider-Man #414 (August 1996)
||The Rose's confidante as well as his chief enforcer, Delilah helped battle to maintain control of part of the New York crime scene against the threat of the Black Tarantula. She had a role in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle: she was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, and helped set up the theft of Doctor Octopus' corpse for reanimation from the Hand.
||Spider-Man: Invasion of the Dragon Men (Power Records Special, 1974)
||Demosthenes Q. Drake is a Nobel Prize winner in biology who was reported lost during an expedition in the Amazon years ago. This was actually a cover-up where he did an experiment that involved introducing iguana DNA into a human where he tested it on himself and become a humanoid dragon named Draco while masquerading as an alien with his army of robotic Dragon Men.
||The Spectacular Spider-Man #6 (May 1977)
||A fire-body who enters other bodies and hires them. He first entered the body of Morbius and hired him to attack Spider-Man. He later entered Spider-Man's body and hired him to attack Morbius.
||The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #5
||An assassin employed by the fascist Red Skull, who killed Spider-Man's parents. Spider-Man kills Finisher in self-defense by turning his own missile against him.
|Firebrand (Russ Broxtel)
||"Web of Spider-Man" Vol 1 #77 (June, 1991)
||Broxtel was a custodian at Stark Industries who would often work nights in order to access the computer files beneath the notice of the professional personnel. Broxtel then stole the plans for powered armor that relied on fire-based weapons of the villain Firebrand (Gary Gilbert.)
||Web of Spider-Man #15 (June 1986)
||The Foreigner is a mercenary and assassin. Although he has no superhuman abilities, he has trained his body to be in absolute peak physical condition.
|Vincente "Don" Fortunato
||Spider-Man #70 (May 1996)
||A mob boss affiliated with the Maggia and HYDRA, who attempts to fill the vacuum of power in the absence of the Kingpin.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #552 (March 2008)
||A drug addict named "Freak" is chased down by Spider-Man after he attempted to steal from the poor at the soup kitchen Spider-Man's Aunt May works at. He stumbles into a laboratory owned by Curt Connors and injects himself with animal gene fluids, thinking they were crystal meth. Freak then began to form a chrysalis around his body, emerging as a skinless monster. He blames Spider-Man and wants revenge.
|Fusion (Hubert and Pinky Fusser)
||The Amazing Spider-Man #208
||Hubert and Pinky Fusser are twins both born with dwarfism. One becomes a nuclear scientist, and one becomes janitor at the same privately owned research corporation where his brother works. When an accident strikes Hubert, his brother rushes to assist. The resulting radiation causes them to become one, a Fusion - a twin-headed radioactive being which contains both of their personalities. The brothers have superhuman strength, and they can glow and emit radiation.
|Fusion (Mr. Markley)
||Peter Parker: Spider-Man vol. 2 #30
||Mr. Markley is a millionaire who can get anything he wants. Markley can persuade people to do what he wants, to see what he wants, and to hear what he wants, controlling people's perceptions. After his son, Francis, dies as a result of trying to imitate Spider-Man, he takes revenge on Spider-Man as Fusion. He attacks and brutally beats Spider-Man by morphing his body parts into those of various heroes. Capturing and brutally torturing Spider-Man in an abandoned warehouse, Fusion is defeated when Spider-Man, realizing the nature of Fusion's powers, manages to pummel him into submission. When he next appears, Fusion, having teamed-up with Doctor Octopus, through a bizarre plot of dismembering and mind-controlling people, manages to get a device which allows him to track Spider-Man. Soon after gaining the device, Fusion is beaten horribly by the traitorous Doctor Octopus and is left for dead, but yet he survives.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #114 (October 1972)
||Jonas Harrow was disgraced as a surgeon and expelled from the medical profession for unorthodox experiments. Jonas Harrow is a genius surgeon, geneticist, cyberneticist, and machinesmith who has help to create Hammerhead and enhanced many other supervillains.
||The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2 #2 (as Shadrac)
||Gregory Herd wore a cybernetically enhanced costume that allowed him to control or "override" any other electronic device and worked as a mercenary for hire. He later became Shadrac.
||The Spectacular Spider-Man #4 (March 1977)
||Burt Kenyon was a costumed mercenary assassin. He was hired by the Maggia as their version of the Punisher. The Vulture had rejected the Maggia's offer before they hired the Hitman, so the Hitman was sent to humiliate the Vulture by killing Spider-Man before the Vulture could.
||The Spectacular Spider-Man #24
||Created by Bill Mantlo and Frank Springer, Hypno-Hustler can perform hypnosis with the aid of his guitar, and when teamed with his backup band, The Mercy Killers, can perform mass hypnosis. His boots can emit knockout gas on demand, and have retractable knives in the soles. The Hypno-Hustler also appeared in Spider-Man: Reign, a limited series set in the future, at the end of Spider-Man's career.
||The Spectacular Spider-Man #32 (July 1979)
||An iguana that can turn into a humanoid form with a hypnotic stare and all of the abilities of the Lizard (though not as skilled).
||Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man #3 (February 1977)
||Edward Lansky was a physics professor and vice-chancellor of Empire State University who turned to crime and became a criminal mastermind as a way to prevent budget cuts for higher education that would have negatively affected the university. Lansky created a unique special body suit with a padded inner lining, a power armor suit which utilized "gravity-pump circuitry" to allow him to manipulate photons for a variety of effects.
||Spectacular Spider-Man #143 (October 1988)
||Carlos and Eduardo Lobo grew up in poverty on the streets of Puebla de Zaragoza, Mexico, surviving by stealing and scavenging for food. As a teenager, Eduardo had fallen in love with a girl name Esmelda Valdez, the daughter of a wealthy ranch owner. The two had a romantic relationship until it was discovered by Esmelda's brother Ramon Valdez. One full moon night, Ramone and his men ambushed the two lovers and tried to drive Eduardo away by using whips on him. Pain and rage from this whipping triggered a mutant change in Eduardo's body. Carlos also discovered he was a mutant werewolf and the brothers turned to crime, using their powers to unite all the mobs of South Texas into Los Hermanos De La Luna. The Lobos were so successful that they not only gained a mansion in a Dallas suburb but drew the attention of the Arranger, the Kingpin's lieutenant. The Arranger used the Persuader to brainwash the Punisher into attempting an assassination of the Lobo Brothers. The plan failed thanks to Spider-Man's interference and the iron will of the Punisher, who ended up killing the Persuader instead. The Lobo Brothers knew who was responsible for the attempt and they vowed revenge.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #655 (March 2011)
||Marcus was a man who was with his wife when a bomb went off. Shrapnel damaged his brain and caused mental unstability. He sought vengeance. He became the Massacre! Portrayed in the "No One Dies" section of the "Big Time" story line in 2010-2011, by Dan Slott. Executed by the Superior Spider-Man in "Superior Spider-Man" #5.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #537 (February 2007)
||Jake Martino is a small-time hitman hired by the Kingpin to kill Aunt May, though he only succeeds in shooting and wounding her. Spider-Man resolves to straight-out murder Martino after discovering he was the shooter, but he is shot by another Kingpin assailant before Martino is able to give out the identity of his boss.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #138
||William Turner was a superhuman mutant with limited telepathic powers. He had an over sized cranium and was naturally extremely intelligent. Eventually, Mindworm attempted to reform but his problems were too difficult for him to control and he allowed himself to be killed by common street thugs to end his great suffering.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #156 (May 1976)
||Desmond Charne is a former holography technician who wanted to be a supervillain. To that end, he uses holograph technology which could make him invisible or create 3-D illusions.
||Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #4 (January 2006)
||A being composed of pirate spiders first seen in The Other, disguising herself as a human woman, she met Flash Thompson and developed a fixation on him. She is the incarnate of Eros.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #409 (March 1996)
||A pair of mercenaries who used a costume and gauntlets that gave them significant control over various magnetic properties.
||The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #36 (July 2009)
||Damon Ryder had his family killed in a fire apparently started by Ben Reilly while he was in Portland, Oregon. He has since then been obsessed with revenge on Reilly, and finds Peter Parker in Boston at the reunion with the Reilly family. Raptor then proceeds to attack and try to kill Peter, thinking he's really Ben Reilly. The full details on what happened in Portland still remain unclear. Raptor has arm claws (similar to Spider-Man's during "The Other" storyline), massive fangs, and super strength.
||Untold Tales of Spider-Man vol. 1 #1 (September 1995)
||Steven Hudak was a research chemist who was wrongfully accused of embezzlement by his employer. Swearing revenge, he created an armored suit containing flame-throwing equipment and taking the name "The Scorcher" he attacked his former place of employment.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #559
||Screwball's spectacular stunts and heists are all done for publicity and fame. She uses live streaming to get her videos online.
||Peter Parker: Spider-Man vol. 2 #4 (April 1999)
||A former S.H.I.E.L.D. agent operating as Sentry, Steward Ward is a double agent for Z'Nox aliens, who use Ward to aid in an invasion of Earth. Years later, as Z'Nox aliens found themselves on Earth during a brief period when it was designated an intergalactic prison, Ward is infected by Z'Nox life-form, mutating him into a half-human/half-alien being. Ranger subsequently sacrificed himself to destroy Ward.
||The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2 #46
||Shathra is, much as Spider-Man is rumored to be, a totem of the spider wasp. As spider wasps kill spiders, she escaped the astral world where she lived to find Spider-Man.
||The Spectacular Spider-Man #107 (October 1985)
||Well known for his murder of Captain Jean DeWolff, Stanley Carter was injected with drugs while with S.H.I.E.L.D. and had his strength & endurance increased.
||Peter Parker: Spider-Man vol. 2 #16 (2000)
||Don Callahan can shift between his human form and his mouthless squid-like form. Squid and his girlfriend Ms. Fortune battled Spider-Man on a rooftop, and several subsequent occasions.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #397 (January 1995)
||Angelina Brancale was the typical outcast in high school. As she grew older, she never expected to amount to anything, and grew increasingly depressed. Working as a secretary, she was chosen by Doctor Octopus to be the guinea pig for his new virtual reality invention. The test was a success, and Angelina mentally created Stunner, the beautiful, thin woman she always wished she was.
|Styx and Stone
||The Amazing Spider-Man #309 (November 1988)
||Gerald Stone was an idealistic scientist who wanted to find a cure for cancer. He conducted an illegal experiment on a homeless person named Jacob Eishorn. The experiment failed and Eishorn became a living cancer, who needed to kill to survive. Now calling himself "Styx", Eishorn enjoyed the killing of innocents. Feeling responsible for Styx, Stone built high-tech weaponry for himself and turned the two of them into a mercenary duo.
||Werewolf by Night #9 (September 1973)
||Arnold Paffenroth was once a wealthy business investor until the Las Veas mob swindled him out of all of his money. This resulted in him becoming an insane homeless person. At some point, the agency known as "Night Shift," outfitted Paffenroth with a sophisticated costume. Taking the name "Tatterdemalion" (a person dressed in ragged clothing), he snuck up on unsuspecting victims and proceeded to destroy their money, rather than steal it; an odd twist on mugging.
||Tangled Web of Spider-Man #1
||Carl King became the Thousand when he devoured a dead radioactive spider, which resulted in his transformation from a human being into a hive-minded swarm of a thousand spiders. Discovering his power to consume the innards of other human beings and use their skin like a suit after accidentally doing so to his mother, King proceeds to do the same to his father and, wanting to gain mastery of his new abilities, begins to consume and take over the bodies of various people, most of them homeless vagrants and children.
|Toro Negro ("Black Bull")
||The Amazing Scarlet Spider #2 (December 1995)
||El Toro Negro is a South American mercenary and antagonist of Spider-Man closely associated with the Great Game. The mercenary has enhanced strength, speed, durability, and agility, as well as a large arsenal of weapons. The character along with his partner Polestar, kill the superhero Nightwatch, and El Toro Negro follows by killing Polestar. He was last seen as a captive of his sponsor Justin Hammer, who told him that he would remove Torres' weaknesses — starting with his mind. Hammer then proceeded to forcibly lobotomize the immobilized Torres.
||Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #1 (October 2005)
||Tracer claims to be a "machine god" that the artificial intelligences of other machines created to worship, alleging that he becomes stronger over time since the more machines worship him the longer he operates.
||Peter Parker: Spider-Man #52
||Seward was the Jackal's trusty assistant and the Jackal couldn't have done all of his cloning without him. He was also manipulated by Norman Osborn in the shadows, and was responsible for switching the files convinving Peter Parker he was the clone, and Ben Reilly, was in fact the original. He was killed by Norman Osborn.
||The Amazing Spider-Man #329 (October 1990)
||Three Sentinels combined into one giant robot whose goal is to eliminate Spider-Man.
||Marvel Team-Up #48 (August 1976)
||Brian DeWolff was a former patrolman for the New York Police Department, who was shot by criminals and rescued by his father, using experimental technologies to restore Brian's health. This process gave Brian psionic abilities, including the ability to read minds, induce illusions in the minds of others, project psionic force bolts, and control the mind of another person (but he can only control one mind at a time), but left him with no mind of his own and susceptible to the mental domination of others.
There are plenty of Spider-Man villains that have gone outside the comic book genre and have been seen in media such as television, film, and video games. Some have been made specifically for TV. Most of Spider-Man's greatest enemies in the comics like the ones in the Central Rogues gallery as seen above have been adopted in most of Spider-Man media or other Marvel Comics related shows.