State governments of India
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State governments in India are the governments ruling States of India, and the head of the council of ministers in a state is chief minister. Power is divided between central government and state governments. While central government handles military, external affairs etc., the state government deals with internal security (through state police ), and other state issues. Income for central govt. are through customs duty, excise tax, income tax etc., while state government income comes from sales tax (VAT), stamp duty etc.
Sarkaria Commission was set up to review the balance of power between states and the union. The centre can dissolve state government in favour of President's rule if necessary. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has higher autonomy compared to other states by Article 370.
State governments' legislatures are bicameral in six states and unicameral in the rest. All the members of lower house are elected for a five-year term, and one-third of the members of the upper house, in bicameral states, are elected every two years for a six-year term.
The Indian Constitution allows states to have either a unicameral or bicameral legislature. A state is said to be unicameral if it has only one house of parliament. The numbers in the brackets indicate the number of seats in the lower and upper house respectively. Most of the newer states are unicameral and only a few of the older states (6 states out of 28) still remain bicameral. In a state with a bicameral legislature, the lower house is called the Legislative Assembly or Vidhan Sabha and the upper house is called the Legislative Council or Vidhan Parishad. By law, the upper house can not be more than 1/3 the total size of the lower house but must have more than 40 seats (except in the case of the state of Jammu and Kashmir which is allowed by special legislation to have less than 40 seats in its Legislative Council.)
The upper house, Vidhan Parishad, has limited legislative powers, and was primarily intended for consultation and can not hold up legislation passed by the lower house, the Vidhan Sabha, for more than a few months. The lower house, Legislative Assembly, is composed of members directly elected from individual constituencies; while the upper house, the Legislative Council, consists of members elected by the Lower House, members nominated by the State government, and members elected from specially designated teacher's and graduate's constituencies.
|Uttar Pradesh||Bicameral||404 + 108|
|Maharashtra||Bicameral||289 + 78|
|Bihar||Bicameral||243 + 75|
|Karnataka||Bicameral||224 + 75|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Bicameral||89 + 36|
|Andhra Pradesh||Bicameral||294 + 90|
Many regional parties and national parties are in power in states of India. Coalition cabinet exists in some states.
State executive branches are headed by governors appointed by central government president and cabinet are also members. Cabinet size can be maximum of 15% the number of legislators in lower house, the law passed during Vajpayee's central government.