List of Subaru engines

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Subaru uses a four or five character code to identify all of their engines.[1]

  • The first letter is always E standing for engine (before the introduction of FB engine series)
  • The second letter is the engine's family.
  • Next come two digits indicating the engine's displacement (or revision before 1989)
  • The optional fifth character is an identifier to mark revisions, (ex: turbo, DOHC, Fuel Injection, etc.)

Two Cylinder[edit]

EK[edit]

The EK series is a straight twin two-stroke cycle with early air-cooled versions later replaced with water-cooled configurations in 1971. The engine was upgraded to a four-stroke SOHC in 1973 to meet Japanese Government emission regulations.

The (Japanese: Subaru EK series) was used from 1958 until 1989 in most Kei car models.

Two-strokes[edit]

Air Cooled two-stroke

EK31
  • EK31: 356 cc Bore & Stroke = 61.5 x 60 mm
  • maximum output 16 PS (12 kW; 16 hp) at 4,500 rpm (1958.05-1960.02)
  • maximum output 18 PS (13 kW; 18 hp) at 4,700 rpm (1960.02-1964.07)
  • maximum output 20 PS (15 kW; 20 hp) at 5,000 rpm (1964.07-1968.08)
  • compression ratio = 6.5:1

Used in the Subaru 360 (1958–1968) and Sambar (1961–1970).

  • EK51: 423 cc Bore & Stroke = 67.0 x 60.0 mm
  • maximum output 23 PS (17 kW; 23 hp) at 5,000 rpm
  • compression ratio = 6.5:1

Used in the Subaru 450 (MAIA) Japan & North America (1960–66)

  • EK32: 356 cc Bore & Stroke = 61.5 x 60 mm
  • maximum output 25 PS (18 kW; 25 hp) at 5,500 rpm (1968.08-1970)
  • maximum output 36 PS (26 kW; 36 hp) at 7,000 rpm (1968.11-1970)
  • compression ratio = 7.5:1
  • Used in the Subaru 360 and 360 Young SS, 1968-70.

  • EK33: 356 cc Bore & Stroke = 61.5 x 60 mm
  • compression ratio = 6.5:1 (standard) 7.5:1 (Young SS & Sport Edition)
  • maximum output 26 PS (19 kW; 26 hp) at 5,800 rpm (R-2 Van K41, Sambar K55/K64)
  • maximum output 30 PS (22 kW; 30 hp) at 6,500 rpm (R-2)
  • maximum output 36 PS (26 kW; 36 hp) at 7,000 rpm (R-2 SS)
  • maximum output 32 PS (24 kW; 32 hp) at 6,500 rpm (R-2 Sport Edition)

Used in the Subaru R-2 1969–1971 and Subaru Sambar 1970–1973

Water Cooled Two-stroke cycle

  • EK34: 356 cc Bore & Stroke = 61.5 x 60.0 mm
  • compression ratio = 6.5:1
  • maximum output 28 PS (21 kW; 28 hp) at 5,500 rpm (Sambar K71/K72/K81)
  • maximum output 32 PS (24 kW; 32 hp) at 6,000 rpm (R-2, Rex)
  • maximum output 35 PS (26 kW; 35 hp) at 6,500 rpm (Rex TS)
  • maximum output 36 PS (26 kW; 36 hp) at 7,000 rpm (R-2 GSS)
  • maximum output 37 PS (27 kW; 36 hp) at 6,500 rpm (Rex GSR)

Used in the Subaru R-2 1971.10-1972.07, Subaru Rex 1972.07-1973.10, Subaru Sambar 1973.02-1976.02

Four-strokes[edit]

Water Cooled four-stroke SOHC with SEEC emissions system (later SEEC-T), alloy block and head.[2]

  • EK21: Bore x Stroke mm = 66.0 x 52.4
  • Piston displacement = 358 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.5:1
  • maximum output 28 PS (21 kW; 28 hp) at 7,500 rpm (Rex Van K42, Wagon K26, Rex sedan 75.12-76.05)
  • maximum output 31 PS (23 kW; 31 hp) at 8,000 rpm (73.10-75.12 Rex)

Used in the Subaru Rex K22 from 1973.10–1976.05, Subaru Sambar February 1976-May 1976

  • EK22: Bore x Stroke mm = 74.0 x 57.0, SEEC-T emissions system
  • Piston displacement = 490 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.0:1
  • maximum output 28 PS (21 kW; 28 hp) (Rex 5 Van K43, Sambar 5 K75/76/85)
  • maximum output 31 PS (23 kW; 31 hp) at 6,500 rpm (Rex 5 K23)

Used in the Subaru Rex 1976.05–1977.05, Subaru Sambar 5 from May 1976 until March 1977

  • EK23: Bore x Stroke mm = 76.0 x 60.0
  • Piston displacement = 544 cc
  • Compression ratio = 8.5:1
  • Two valves per cylinder
  • maximum output 31 PS (23 kW; 31 hp) at 6,200 rpm (Rex)
  • maximum output 28 PS (21 kW; 28 hp) at 6,200 rpm (Rex Van, Sambar)
  • maximum output 31 PS (23 kW; 31 hp) at 6,000 rpm (Rex 2nd gen & Rex Combi)
  • maximum output 30 PS (22 kW; 30 hp) at 6,000 rpm (Rex 3rd gen)

Used in the Subaru Rex from 1977.05–1989, Subaru Sambar 1977–1990

  • EK23 ThreeValve: Bore x Stroke mm = 76.0 x 60.0
  • Piston displacement = 544 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.0:1
  • Two valves per cylinder
  • maximum output 34 PS (25 kW; 34 hp) at 6,000 rpm (Sambar)
  • maximum output 36 PS (26 kW; 36 hp) at 7,000 rpm (Rex)

Used in the Subaru Rex Viki from 1986 to 1989, Subaru Sambar 1989–1990

  • EK23 Turbo Bore x Stroke mm = 76.0 x 60.0
  • Piston displacement = 544 cc
  • Compression ratio = 8.5:1
  • Two valves per cylinder
  • Hitachi-made 36 mm turbines
  • maximum output 41 PS (30 kW; 40 hp) at 6,000 rpm

Used in the Subaru Rex Combi (1983–1986)

  • EK23 ThreeValve Turbo Bore x Stroke mm = 76.0 x 60.0
  • Piston displacement = 544 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.0:1
  • Three valves per cylinder (two intake, one exhaust)
  • Hitachi-made 36 mm turbines
  • maximum output 36 PS (26 kW; 36 hp) at 7000 rpm

Used in the Subaru Rex VX (1986–1989)

  • EK23 ThreeValve Supercharger Bore x Stroke mm = 76.0 x 60.0
  • Piston displacement = 544 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.0:1
  • Three valves per cylinder (two intake, one exhaust)
  • Water-cooled intercooler
  • maximum output 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) at 6400 rpm

Used in the Subaru Rex Supercharger (1988–1989)

  • EK42 Bore x Stroke mm = 78.0 x 69.6
  • Piston displacement = 665 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.5:1
  • Two valves per cylinder
  • maximum output 31 PS (23 kW; 31 hp) (Subaru 700)
  • maximum output 37 PS (27 kW; 36 hp) at 6400 rpm, low octane version
  • maximum output 35 PS (26 kW; 35 hp) at 6400 rpm (M70, Mini Jumbo, Sherpa), high octane version

Used in the Subaru Rex and Sambar/700 (export only, 1982–1989)

Three Cylinder[edit]

The EF series engine is a liquid-cooled three-cylinder, four-stroke, with SOHC. It is not compliant with Japanese Government regulations concerning displacement of kei cars with a current maximum limit of 660 cc. The EF appeared while the EK was being replaced by the EN05.

Subaru EF-12 Engine

Subaru EF engine[edit]

  • EF10: Bore x Stroke mm = 78.0 x 69.6
  • Piston displacement = 997 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.5:1
  • Two valves per cylinder

SOHC 2V, 55 hp at 5,200 rpm 1984–1987 Subaru Justy

  • EF12:Bore x Stroke mm = 78.0 x 83.0
  • Piston displacement = 1189 cc
  • Compression ratio = 9.1:1
  • Three valves per cylinder

SOHC 3V, 66-73 hp 1987–1994 Subaru Justy

Four Cylinder[edit]

All of Subaru's four-cylinder engines (except the EN series) are liquid-cooled, horizontally opposed boxer four-strokes.

Subaru EA engine[edit]

The EA was used from 1966 until 1994 in most models. It is a basic two-valve-per-cylinder design with siamese ports and three main crankshaft bearings. Engines with overhead camshafts were installed with two timing belts, whereas vehicles with overhead valves used timing gears exclusively.

Subaru EA82 Engine

Subaru EE engine (diesel)[edit]

Subaru unveiled the world's first boxer diesel engine to be fitted in a passenger car at the Geneva autoshow in 2007. This 2.0L DOHC engine, called the EE20,[3] has 147 HP and 258 lb-ft of torque, five main bearings and was released in Europe in 2008.

Subaru EJ engine[edit]

The EJ engine was introduced in the 1989 Subaru Legacy to replace the EA engines. It was designed from scratch with five main crankshaft bearings and four valves per cylinder and can be either SOHC or DOHC and one timing belt. The fifth digit is the only way to tell without seeing the engine.

Subaru EJ20H twin turbo
  • EJ15: 1483.4 cc SOHC, 1990–2003 JDM Subaru Impreza
  • EJ16: 90 hp at 5,600 rpm used in the 1993–2006 Subaru Impreza
  • EJ18: 1820 cc SOHC 110 hp at 5,600 rpm used in the 1993–1996 Subaru Impreza and Euro and JDM Subaru Legacy
  • EJ20: 1994.3 cc, available in Europe and Japan naturally aspirated at 115–190 hp and with a Turbo 220–280 hp used on Most Models, (2002–2005 WRX in the United States)
  • EJ22: 2212 cc, 135–280 hp used in the 1989–2001 Subaru Impreza and Subaru Legacy
  • EJ25: 2457 cc, 165–320 hp found in Most Models 1995–Present
  • EJ30: Special limited engine. Four were built by Subaru, but only 3 remain in working condition. There is no readily available technical or power information on these engines.

Generally the EJ-series can be divided into two versions: the Phase I engines (1989–1998) and the Phase II engines (1999–2010). The Phase II engines featured new cylinder heads and crankshafts with the thrust bearing located at crank bearing #5 instead of #3. The designation also changed from Phase I to Phase II. All Phase I engines have an alphanumerical suffix behind the standard EJXX designation, all Phase II engines have a numerical suffix behind the EJXX designation. Example:

Phase I: EJ15E, EJ15J, EJ16E, EJ18E, EJ20D, EJ20E, EJ20G, EJ20H, EJ20J, EJ20R, EJ20K, EJ221, EJ25D

Phase II: EJ151, EJ161, EJ181, EJ201, EJ202, EJ203, EJ204, EJ205, EJ206, EJ207, EJ208, EJ222, EJ251, EJ252, EJ253, EJ254, EJ255, EJ257

  • There's at least 1 exception from this rule - MY'07 EJ20F engine. Most likely F stands for bi-Fuel (engines prepared for LPG). This is unconfirmed info, based only on users' experience and observations.

Subaru EL engine[edit]

The (Japanese: Subaru EL engine) replaced the EJ15 and is used in the JDM Subaru Impreza 1.5R (series GD, GG, GE, GH) starting with model year 2006. It is based on the EJ engine and shares many components, like the crankshaft from the EJ25. It has DOHC cylinder heads with AVCS variable valve timing on the intake.[4][5]

  • Displacement: 1,498 cc
  • bore x stroke: 77.7 x 79 mm
  • compression ratio: 10.1
  • maximum horsepower: 110ps (81 kW) @ 6400 RPM
  • maximum torque: 14.7kgm (144Nm) at 3,200 rpm
  • AVCS

Subaru EN engine[edit]

The Subaru EN straight-4 engine was introduced in 1988 to replace the straight-two EK series engine that was originally engineered as an air-cooled engine and then was modified as a water-cooled engine used in the 1969–1972 Subaru R-2. The EN is used in all kei cars and kei trucks currently in production by Subaru.

Subaru FA engine[edit]

(Japanese: Subaru FA engine) The FA was developed from the FB engine, however, efforts to reduce weight while maintaining durability were the main goals of the FA engine. While the FA and FB engine share a common platform, the FA shares very little in dedicated parts with the FB engine, with a different block, head, connecting rods, and pistons.

FA20[edit]

Subaru FA20

The FA20 features both direct and port injection (Toyota's D-4S injection system) and Subaru AVCS variable valve timing system. It is used in the Subaru BRZ, and is identified by a Toyota engine family code known as the 4U-GSE, which is installed in the Toyota 86 and the Scion FR-S.[6] According to Subaru, 0W-20 oil is recommended.

  • Bore: 86 mm
  • Stroke: 86 mm
  • Displacement: 1,998 cc
  • Compression Ratio: 12.5:1
  • Power: 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 7,000 RPM
  • Torque: 20.9 kg·m (205 N·m; 151 lb·ft) at 6,400-6,600 RPM

FA20T[edit]

Subaru FA20F

A version with Subaru's own direct fuel injection and twin-scroll turbocharger was introduced in 2012 to the Japanese market for the Legacy GT DIT (direct injection turbo) sedan, the Legacy GT DIT Touring Wagon and the 2014 Subaru Levorg. This engine now also appears in the US market in the 2014-up Forester 2.0XT and the 2015-up WRX.

  • Bore: 86 mm
  • Stroke: 86 mm
  • Displacement: 1,998 cc
  • Compression Ratio: 10.6:1

Japanese output:

  • Power: 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) at 5,600 RPM
  • Torque: 40.8 kg·m (400 N·m; 295 lb·ft) at 2,000-4,800 RPM

American output:

- Forester XT:
  • Power: 250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS) at 5,600 RPM
  • Torque: 258 lb·ft (350 N·m; 36 kg·m) at 2,000-4,800 RPM
- WRX:
  • Power: 268 hp (200 kW; 272 PS) at 5,600 RPM
  • Torque: 258 lb·ft (350 N·m; 36 kg·m) at 2,000-5,000 RPM

Subaru FB engine[edit]

Subaru FB16

(Japanese: Subaru FB engine) An entirely new generation of boxer engine announced on 23 September 2010.[7] By increasing piston stroke and decreasing piston bore, Subaru aims to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy while increasing and broadening torque output over the previous generation engine.

The FB has an all new block and head featuring dual overhead cams with intake and exhaust variable valve timing (AVCS - Active Valve Control System), and a timing chain that replaced the timing belt. Moving to chain-driven cams is said to allow the valves to be placed at a narrower angle to each other and shrink the bore of cylinder from 99.5 mm to 94. It results in less unburned fuel during cold starts, thereby reducing emissions. Subaru is able to maintain the exterior dimension substantially unchanged by asymmetrical connecting rods like those in EZ36. The FB is only marginally heavier. Car and Driver is told direct injection will be added soon. Subaru claims a 28-percent reduction in friction losses, mainly due to lighter pistons and connecting rods.[8][9] The FB has a 10% improvement in fuel economy with the power coming on sooner and the torque band being broader.

  • FB16: 1,600 cc, DOHC, 78.8 mm bore x 82 mm stroke, 10.5:1 Compression Ratio,
Rated at: 84 kW (115PS) @5,600 rpm, 150 Nm (15.3 kgm) @4,000 rpm in (2012+ EUDM Impreza XV 1.6i)
  • FB20B: 1,995 cc, DOHC, 84 mm bore x 90 mm stroke, 10.5:1 Compression Ratio,
Rated at: 109 kW (148PS) @6,000 rpm, 196 Nm (20 kgm) @4,200 rpm in (2011+ JDM Subaru Forester),[10]
Rated at: 148 hp, 145 lb·ft (2012+ Subaru Impreza and Subaru XV)
  • FB20X: 1,995 cc, DOHC, 84 mm bore x 90 mm stroke, 10.5:1 Compression Ratio
Rated at: 148 hp, 145 lb·ft (2014+ Subaru XV Hybrid)
  • FB25B: 2,498 cc, DOHC, 94 mm bore x 90 mm stroke, 10.0:1 Compression Ratio.[11]
Rated at: 170 hp, 174 lb·ft @ 4,100 rpm (2011+ North American Subaru Forester, 2012+ North American Subaru Legacy[12])

Six Cylinder[edit]

All of Subaru's six-cylinder engines are of a liquid-cooled, Flat-6 four-stroke design.

Subaru ER engine[edit]

(Japanese: Subaru ER27) Subaru introduced its first six-cylinder engine in its Subaru XT sports car. This SOHC engine was based on the EA82, with two cylinders added to the back.

  • ER27: 2672 cc SOHC, 145 hp@5200 found in the 1987–1991 Subaru XT

Subaru EG engine[edit]

The (Japanese: Subaru EG33) engine was a direct replacement for the ER engine. The ER had been used only in the Subaru XT6, which was being replaced by the Subaru Alcyone SVX, and the company took the opportunity to create a new engine based on the more modern EJ rather than the EA engine series. As with the ER27 was to the EA82, Subaru took the EJ22 design and created a six cylinder version to make the new EG33. However, this four-valves-per-cylinder engine was DOHC, and valvetrain parts came from the not yet released EJ25D.

Subaru EZ engine[edit]

Subaru EZ36

The (Japanese: Subaru EZ series) was introduced in 1999 in the Japanese market, in the Subaru Outback, and in 2000 in the United States market. It is a flat-six, 24-valve, quad cam motor with an aluminium block and heads. The number of exhaust ports per cylinder varies. It is available in EZ30 and EZ36 variants. Though the second iteration of the EZ30D used from 2003 to 2009 was heavily updated from the early EZ30D used from 2001 to 2003, Subaru continued to identify it as EZ30D. "EZ30R" is a false engine code often used on the Internet for the later EZ30, but Subaru has never used it as an official engine code. The later EZ30D received new cylinder heads with 3 exhaust ports per head and variable intake valve timing. All use dual timing chains and coil-on-plug ignition.

  • EZ30D: 2999 cc DOHC, 220ps (161 kW) @6000 rpm, 289Nm@4400 rpm. Bore 89.2 mm, Stroke 80 mm. Compression 10.7:1. This version uses one exhaust port per head, a cable throttle, variable intake geometry, cast aluminium intake manifold, and has a 6500 rpm rev limit. It was only available with an automatic transmission. Found in the 2000–2002 Outback H6, Legacy GT30 and Legacy Lancaster 6.
  • EZ30D: 2999CC DOHC, 245ps (180 kW) @6600 rpm, 297Nm@4200 rpm. Bore 89.2 mm, Stroke 80 mm. Compression 10.7:1. This version had one exhaust port per cylinder, a drive-by-wire throttle, a black plastic intake manifold, VVL and AVCS. It was available in manual and automatic unlike the old EZ30D. Found in the 2003–2009 Legacy 3.0R, Outback 3.0R and 2006–2007 Tribeca Engine horsepower reported as 250 hp, in Subaru of America publications in 2005. It made its debut in the 2005 USDM model year.
  • EZ36D: 3629CC DOHC, 260ps (191 kW) @6000 rpm, 335Nm@4400 rpm. Bore 92 mm, Stroke 91 mm. Compression 10.5:1. Found in the 2010-current Legacy, Outback and 2008-current Tribeca. The EZ36D and the FB25 incorporate possibly the only implementation of an asymmetrical connecting rod in a modern application. The offset connecting rod was designed to allow additional displacement from the same exterior dimensions.[13]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Knowling (April 2, 2004). "2004 Engine Epic - Subaru Engines". AutoSpeed Magazine. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
  2. ^ Braunschweig, Robert; et al, eds. (March 14, 1974). "Automobil Revue '74" 69. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag SA. p. 483. 
  3. ^ "The New Subaru EE20 Boxer Turbo Diesel, In Detail". Jalopnik. 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2010-12-08. 
  4. ^ Subaru Technical Journal, No. 34 published in June 2007
  5. ^ Subaru Technical Journal, No. 33 issue published in June, 2006
  6. ^ Mark Vaughn. "Subaru shows production version of the BRZ". Autoweek.com. 
  7. ^ http://www.fhi.co.jp/english/contents/pdf_en_60853.pdf FHI Press Information, 23 Sep 2010
  8. ^ K.C. Colwell. "Examining Subaru's New FB-series Flat-Four". Car and Driver (Jan 2011 issue). 
  9. ^ Richard Bremner (2011-01-17). "Subaru Forester 2.0 XS review". AutoCar. 
  10. ^ http://www.subaru.com.au/about-subaru/news/breaking-news/2010/09/23/subaru-boxer-punches-harder/ Subaru Australia Breaking News, 23 Sep 2010
  11. ^ 2011 Subaru Forester & Impreza Owner's Manual
  12. ^ http://www.carsguide.com.au/site/news-and-reviews/car-news/subaru_reveals_new_boxer_engine CarsGuide, 28 Sep 2010
  13. ^ WardsAuto.com, May 1, 2007

See also[edit]

External links[edit]