List of Swedish inventions
Swedish inventions are novel ideas and machines that have been pioneered in Sweden.
In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from professionals who had immigrated from mainland Europe. In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carolus Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members.
Sweden has a total of 33523 patents as of 2007 according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and only ten other countries have more patents than Sweden. Although a lot of patents cannot count as inventions. Therefore the number of patents per country is a relatively bad scale for measuring inventions that has been of progress to mankind.
- Christopher Polhem (1661–1751) was a Swedish scientist, inventor and industrialist. He made significant contributions to the economic and industrial development of Sweden, particularly mining. He reinvented the Cardan joint under the name of "Polhem knot" (Polhemknut) independently of Gerolamo Cardano, an Italian mathematician who invented the knot in 1545. His greatest achievement was an automated factory powered entirely by water; automation was very unusual at the time.
- Anders Celsius, (1701–44) was an astronomer and mathematician most famous for inventing the 100-point thermometer scale, widely used across the world.
- Sven Åderman is a Swedish inventor who created a musket capable of firing more rapidly than conventional weaponry of the late 18th century. This new musket was first used in the wars of King Karl XII. For his efforts King Frederick I of Sweden bestowed upon him the estate of Halltorps in the year 1723.
- Per Georg Scheutz (1785–1873) was a 19th-century Swedish lawyer, translator, and inventor, who is best known for his pioneering work in computer technology. The best known of his inventions is the Scheutzian calculation engine, invented in 1837 and finalized in 1843.
- Jonas Lidströmer (1755–1808), was a Swedish inventor and officer in the Royal Swedish navy. He is behind a large number of mechanical devices and innovations, such as steel grinderies, chip docks, compasses etc.
- Martin von Wahrendorff (1789–1861) was a Swedish diplomat and inventor. In 1837 Wahrendorff applied for patent on a new breech calculating, later known as the Wahrendorff breech. The first breech loaded Wahrendorff gun was manufactured at Åker in 1840.
From the 1870s, engineering companies were created at an unmatched rate and engineers became heroes of the age. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers are still internationally familiar.
- Jonas Offrell (1803–1863) was a Swedish priest who developed a revolver at the same time and independently of Samuel Colt.
- Martin Wiberg (1826–1905) is known as a computer pioneer for his 1875 invention of a machine the size of a sewing machine that could print logarithmic tables. Apart from this invention, Wiberg invented numerous other devices and gadgets, among these a cream separator and a pulse jet engine.
- Helge Palmcrantz (1842–1880), Swedish inventor and industrialist. In 1873 Palmcrantz patented the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun that later would be known as the Nordenfelt machine-gun.
- Willgodt Theophil Odhner (1845–1905) was a Swedish mechanic and inventor of the Odhner arithmometer, a mechanical calculator.
- Lars Magnus Ericsson (1846–1926) started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.
- Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.
- Gustaf de Laval (1845–1913) was a Swedish engineer and inventor who made important contributions to the design of steam turbines and dairy machinery. The most famous invention was the milk-cream separator. In 1883 he and others founded AB Separator (later Alfa Laval). He obtained over 100 patents in total.
- Carl Rickard Nyberg (1858–1939), inventor of the blowtorch. After Primus started producing blowtorches he also decided to make paraffin oil/kerosene cookers. The first model, called Viktoria, wasn't very successful, but the later Svea did better. Nyberg also worked on many other inventions, for instance steam engines, aeroplanes, boat propellers and various other machines. He was most famous as an aviation pioneer and he became known as "Flyg-Nyberg". From 1897 and onward, outside his home in Lidingö he built and tested his Flugan (The Fly).
- Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist (1862–1931) was a Swedish inventor. He designed the first sootless kerosene stove, operated by compressed air.
- Birger Ljungström (1872–1948) invented and designed a bicycle that had a free wheel and a rear-wheel brake (still the most common type in Sweden). His first prototype, completed in 1892, was later mass-produced under the name Svea. He and his brother Fredrik Ljungström (1875–1964) invented high-pressure steam boilers and a new type of steam turbine, the Ljungström turbine (patented in 1894). Other important inventions were the turbine-powered locomotive and the air preheater.
- Sven Gustaf Wingqvist (1876–1953) was a Swedish engineer, inventor and industrialist, and one of the founders of Svenska Kullagerfabriken (S.K.F.), one of the world's leading ball- and roller bearing makers. Sven Wingqvist invented the multi-row self-aligning radial ball bearing in 1907.
- Hans von Kantzow (born 1887) is known to have invented the steel alloy Kanthal. In 1931 AB Kanthal was founded for the exploitation of the invention.
- One of John Ericsson's (1803–89) most important inventions was ship propellers. Ericsson became widely famous when he built the Monitor, an armoured battleship that in 1862 triumphed over the Confederate States’ Merrimack in an American Civil War sea battle.
- Theodor Svedberg (1884–1971) invented the ultracentrifugation method for determination of molecular weights in 1924.
- Anders Knutsson Ångström, (1888–1981), was a Swedish physicist and meteorologist who was known primarily for his contributions to the field of atmospheric radiation. He is credited with the invention of the pyranometer, the first device to accurately measure direct and indirect solar radiation.
- Carl Munters (1897–1989), Swedish inventor, best known for inventing the gas absorption refrigerator. After inventing the foam plastic he started his own company and developed, among other things, new insulation materials, air conditioners and dehumidification devices. At his death, Munters had over a thousand patents.
- Arne Asplund (1903–1993) was inventor of the Defibrator pulping refiner and the defibrator-method (also called Asplund-method) for pulping wooden chips.
- Oscar Kjellberg was a Swedish inventor and industrialist. Founder of ESAB, in 1904, and Kjellberg Finsterwalde, in 1922. He invented the coated electrode used in manual metal arc welding (Swedish Patent: 27152, June 29, 1907), by dipping a bare iron wire in a thick mixture of carbonates and silicates. His pioneering of covered electrode development paved the road during the next twenty years in the research of reliable flux coated electrodes.
- Nils Alwall (1904–1986), a Swedish professor was a pioneer in hemodialysis and the inventor of one of the first practical dialysis machines. Alwall pioneered the technique of ultrafiltration and introduced the principle of hemofiltration. Alwall is referred to as the "father of extracorporeal blood treatment."
- Austria's Carl Hellmuth Hertz (1915—80) began research on ultrasound in medical examinations in the early 1950, thereby becoming known throughout the world. A Swedish physician, Inge Edler (b. 1911) told Hertz that he wanted to devise a non-invasive method for examining the heart. Echocardiography has revolutionized cardiovascular diagnostics. In 1977 Hertz and Edler received the American equivalent of the Nobel Prize in medicine, the Lasker Prize. The use of ultrasound in medical diagnostics is increasing sharply in a number of different fields.
- Harry Roberts is the co-inventor of julmust and founder of Roberts AB in Örebro, Sweden. After studying chemistry in Germany during the late 19th century he invented the soft drink together with his father Robert Roberts.
- Johan Richter (1901–1997) invented during the 1930s the continuous bleaching process for paper. Then during the WW2 he took on the more challenging continuous cooking process for pulp. Virtually all paper in the world is today produced with processes developed by Richter. He holds more than 750 patents.
- Nils Bohlin (1920–2002) was a Swedish inventor who invented the three-point safety belt while working at Volvo.
- Arvid Gerhard Damm (died 1927) was a Swedish engineer and inventor. He designed a number of cipher machines, and was one of the early inventors of the wired rotor principle for machine encipherment. His company, AB Cryptograph, was a predecessor of Crypto AG.
- René Malaise (1892–1978) was a Swedish entomologist, explorer and art collector who is mostly known for his invention of the Malaise trap and his systematic collection of thousands of insects.
- Although not initially invented by a Swede the design of the zipper was improved upon and patented by two Swedish-Americans, Peter Aronsson and Gideon Sundbäck.
- Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters in 1922, invented the absorption Refrigerator while they were still students at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. It became a worldwide success and was commercialized by Electrolux.
- Sven Wingquist (1876–1953) invented the self-aligning ball bearing in 1907. He founded a global company, SKF (AB Svenska Kullagerfabriken), still the world’s leading producer of industrial bearings.
- Arvid Palmgren (1890-1971) invented the spherical roller bearing in 1919 when working for SKF. This bearing could take considerably heavier loads than the self-aligning ball bearings, and was quickly adopted by heavy industries.
- Tetra Pak (1951) is an invention for storing, packaging and distributing liquid foodstuffs, for example, milk and juice. Erik Wallenberg (1915–99) was the main inventor, while businessman Ruben Rausing (1895–1983) developed and produced it. (See box). Several new package types have been added. The most ubiquitous is the Tetra Brik (1969).
- In the late 1950s, the first working Bottle Return Machine (or Reverse vending machine) was invented and manufactured by "Wicanders" from Sweden. 
- Håkan Lans (born 1947) is recognised as one of Sweden’s most outstanding inventors. Among his inventions is the digitizer, the predecessor of the computer mouse. He is also credited with the further development of the satellite-guided Global Positioning System (GPS) into the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Lans’s system has become world standard for shipping and civil aviation. He is also famous for a patent regarding computer graphics.
- Magnus Kellström (1941-) is an engineer graduated from Chalmers University of Technology that invented the toroidal roller bearing (also known as SKF CARB bearing). The bearing was introduced in 1995, and forms together with a spherical roller bearing a "self-aligning system".
- The energy saving light bulb was invented by a consortium at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm in 1973.
- In the 1990s, an ABB team under Mats Leijon developed a new generator, the Power Former, producing high-tension current directly to the network without transformer links.
- Arne Tiselius (1902–71) used electrophoresis in the 1940s to analyse various proteins. Tiselius’s work has been followed by other similar methods. All are important for medical and biological research. Tiselius received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1948.
- In 1958, Rune Elmqvist developed a small battery-powered pacemaker that can be inserted under the skin of a heart patient. It produces electrical impulses that help the heart muscle work normally. In the same year, Åke Senning at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm carried out the world’s first pacemaker operation.
- Peter Nordin (born 1965) is a Swedish computer scientist who has contributed to artificial intelligence, automatically generated computer programming, machine learning, and evolutionary robotics. He is currently (as of 2007) VP of Research at Institute of Robotics in Scandinavia AB (iRobis).
- In 1968, Lars Leksell (1907–86) invented the gamma knife for brain surgery. The ‘knife’ uses concentrated gamma radiation on the tumour or malformation. The method is bloodless and patients can often leave hospital on the day of the operation.
- The transmission of high voltage direct current, HVDC, is a method developed at ASEA (now ABB) under Uno Lamm(1904–89). ABB remains one of the leading makers of HVDC technology, now also used for terrain cable.
- Losec, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca.
- In 1973 Bengt Ilon invented the Mecanum wheel, a wheel which is capable of moving in any direction.
- In 1993, Dr. Vladimir Ronin invents the process to produce Energetically Modified Cement ("EMC Cement"), whilst at Luleå University of Technology.
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.
- Micro IP allows tiny gadgets such as car keys and credit cards to communicate using the Internet Protocols, for which Swedish scientist Adam Dunkels was recognized by American MIT’s Technology Review as one of the top 35 young inventors in the world.
- Patents By Country, State, and Year - All Patent Types (December 2007)
- Halltorps Gastgiveri Description, Halltorps Gasgiveri, Borgholm (2004)
- P.O. Nyström, Åminnelse-tal öfver Chefen för Kongl. örlogsflottans Mekaniska Stat, öfverstelöjtnanten och Riddaren av Kongl. Wasa Orden, Herr Jonas Lidströmer, Carlskrona, 1820.
- "Swedish inventions and discoveries" (PDF). Fact Sheet FS 91 e. Swedish Institute. January 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-29. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
- Kip Keen (2004-09-22). "Dim Sun Global dimming? Global warming? What's with the globe, anyway?". Grist Magazine.
- Hypertension, Dialysis, and Clinical Nephrology (1997). "Nordiska Njurdagar (Nordic Nephrology Days)". Hypertension, Dialysis, and Clinical Nephrology. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- Nils Alwall (1997). "Nils Alwall Lecture". Hypertension, Dialysis, and Clinical Nephrology. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- Arvid Carlsson (2000). "Arvid Carlsson, The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- BIOPRO Baden-Württemberg (2006). "Nils Alwall Prize 2006 awarded to scientist at the Medical Hospital in Heidelberg". The Biotech/Life Sciences Portal. Retrieved October 3, 2007.[dead link]
- "About Reverse Vending Machines". Reverse Vending. Retrieved 2014-10-19.
The First working Bottle Return Machine was invented and manufactured by "Wicanders" from Sweden used in the late 1950's.
- "Hedersdoktor". Chalmers University of Technology. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Innovation: Inventing tomorrow’s world".
- Design: the Swedish way
- Swedish inventions and discoveries 
- Innovation: Inventing tomorrow’s world