List of loanwords in Tagalog

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The Tagalog language has developed a unique vocabulary since its inception from its Austronesian roots. According to lexographer Jose Villa Panganiban, "of the 30,000 root words in the Tagalog language, there are close to 5,000 from Spanish, 3,200 from Malay and Chamorro, 1,500 from English, 1,500 from both Hokkien (Min Nan) and Yue Chinese dialects, 300 from Sanskrit and Pali, 200 from Arabic, and a few hundred altogether from other languages".[citation needed] Some linguists[who?] claim that borrowings from Malay and Chamorro cannot be ascertained at this time, as words from the Old Austronesian language and those from Malay and Chamorro are still ambiguous and too similar to be distinguished.

Spanish[edit]

Spanish has bequeathed the most loan words to Tagalog. According to linguists,[which?] Spanish (5,000) has even surpassed Malayo–Indonesian (3,500) in terms of loan words borrowed.[citation needed] About 40% of informal conversational Tagalog is practically made up of Spanish loanwords. An example is the sentence below, wherein Spanish–derived words are in italics (original in parentheses):

"Puwede (Puede) ba akong umupo sa silya (silla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) habang nasa biyahe (viaje) tayo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?" ("May I sit in the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?")

Most have retained their original spelling, pronunciation, and definition such as basura, delikadesa ("delicadeza" in Spanish), and demokrasya ("democracia"), or as in the examples, a close, indigenised variant.

Others have morphed like 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag. '–nin'), which has inconspicuously developed into another pure Tagalog–sounding word. Another one is maamong kordero (from Sp. amo & cordero). Combined together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix added. The compound word batya't palo–palo, a must word in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick" or "beater", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all. Others are umpisa (empieza), pulubi (pobre), pader (pared).

Some have acquired an entirely new meaning, such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch"), which means "object of desire"; sospechoso is the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" as in the original; imbyerna (invierno) once meant 'winter' but is now a word for "bummer"; insekto ("insecto"), which still means "insect" but also refers to a "pesty clownish person"; or even sigue, a Spanish word for "continue" or "follow", which is now widely understood to mean "all right" or "go ahead".

Others use Spanish prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other languages, without which the word can not be completed and convey its meaning. For example, pakialamero (from Tag. pakialam, "to meddle" and the Sp. suffix –ero, masculine subject); same as majongero ("mahjong", a Chinese word and the Sp. suffix –ero). Daisysiete is a corruption and portmanteau of the English "daisy" and the Spanish diecisiete ("seventeen"), now meaning a sweet and sexually desirable underaged (below 18, hence the number) female. Bastusing katawán (Sp.: basto & Tag.: katawan) is an example of a two-word term for a bombshell body

Even after the Spanish era, Tagalog is still being influenced by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit along its own terms, viz., alaskadór ("Alaska" + Sp. suffix '–ador'); barkada (from Sp.: barca,"boat" to "clique"); bérde ("verde"="green", nuanced to "toilet humour" or "blue joke"); which are not readily understood in Spain or any Latin American country. In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e. "boksingero" (from Eng. "boxing") instead of using the Spanish "boxeador". Or "basketbolista" (from Eng. "basketball"), instead of borrowing from Spanish "baloncesto" to make it say "baloncestista" or "baloncestador" (although basketball "básquetbol" in many Latin American countries).

Here are the examples of Spanish–derived Tagalog words in the following format: Word (Etymology – Original Definition/s if different from Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) – Nuanced Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.

Tagalog Spanish Meaning Traditional word(s)
Abante Avante Ahead,
Forward
Pasulong
Ahente Agente Agent Kinatawan
Ahensya Agéncia Agency Sangay, Sukursal
Ambisyoso Ambicioso Ambitious Mapaglunggati
Arina Harina Flour Galapong (rice flour), Gawgaw (corn starch)
Abiso Aviso Warning Babala
Baryo Barrio Village Nayon, Bar
Bisikleta Bicicleta Bicycle
Biyolohiya Biología Biology Haynayan (buhay-hanayan)
Bodega Bodega Warehouse Kamalig, Pintungan
Departamento Departamento Department Kagawaran
Diyos Dios God Bathala (via Sanskrit), Panginoon
Edukasyon Educación Education Pag-aaral
Eskwela Escuela School Paaralan
Estudyante Estudiante Student Mag-aaral
Garahe Garaje Garage Taguan
Gwapo Guapo Handsome Makisig
Giyera Guerra War Digmaan
Hustisya Justicia Justice Katarungan [1]
Hapon Japón Japan
Hotel Hotel Hotel
Ingles Inglés English
Intinde Entiende Understand Unawa
Kalye Calle Street Daan
Kapasidad Capacidad Capacity Kakayahan
Kabayo Caballo Horse
Karne Carne Meat Laman
Kolehiyo Colegio College Dalubhasaan
Kotse Coche Car Sasakyan
Kultura Cultura Culture Kalinangan
Kumusta Cómo estás How are you? (general greeting) Gaano ka ngayon?, Anong balita?
Kwento Cuento Story Salita, Katha
Lingwistika Lingüística Linguistics Dalubwikaan
Litrato Retrato Picture Larawan, Talaksan
Luho Lujo Luxury Karangyaan
Matematika Matemática Mathematics Sipnayan (isip-hanayan)
Memorya Memoria Memory Alaala
Monarkiya Monarquía Monarchy Karajahan (via Bahasa Melayu)
Mundo Mundo World Daigdig
Nasyonalista Nacionalista Nationalist Makabayan, Makabansa
Numero Número Number Bilang
Olanda Holanda Netherlands
Operasyon Operación Operation Pagpapatakbo, Pagkakatistis, Nasalarangan
Ordinansa Ordinanza Ordinance Kautusan, Kabatasan
Oras Horas Time,
Hour
Ospital Hospital Hospital Bahay-pagamutan
Pamilya Familia Family Angkan
Pilipinas Filipinas Philippines
Pista Fiesta Feast Kaarawan
Probinsya Provincia Province Lalawigan
Pulis Policía Police
Pwede Puede Can Maari
Pwersa Fuerza Force Lakas, Bika, Hukbo
Realidad Realidad Reality Katotohanan
Relo Reloj Wristwatch
Republika República Republic
Reyna Reina Queen Hara
Sabon Jabón Soap
Sapatos Zapatos Shoes
Silya Silla Chair Upuan, Salong Pwet, Salumpuwit
Siyensiya Ciencia Science Agham
Suspetsa Sospechar Suspect Pinaghihinalaan
Suwerte Suerte Luck Mapalad
Syampu Champu Shampoo
Tableta Tableta Tablet
Tsinelas Chinelas Slippers
Tsismis Chismes Gossip Satsat
Teknolohiya Tecnología Technology
Yelo Hielo Ice

English[edit]

English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:

Tagalog English Traditional Word(s)
Awtomobil Automobile Sasakyan
Awdiyo Audio Tunog
Biskwit Biscuit
Bidyo Video
Bolpen Ballpoint pen
Byu View Tanaw
Biswal Visual Paningin, Nakikita
Direk Director Tagapangasiwa
Ekonomiks Economics
Indibidwal Individual Bawat isa
Interbyu Interview Pakikipanayam
Iskor Score
Iskrin Screen
Ispiker Speaker Mananalumpati
Isports Sports Laro
Istampid Stampede Pagpapanakbuhan
Katsup/Ketsap Ketchup
Keyk Cake
Nars Nurse Sisiwa
Kompyuter Computer
Perpyum Perfume Pabango
Sayt Site
Websayt Website Pook-sapot

Note that the first syllable of loanwords from Spanish that start with /aw/ are also sometimes pronounced and spelled /o/ (e.g. 'otonomiya' rather than 'awtonomiya') due to the predominance of English pronunciation.
Also note, that Filipinos do a lot of code-switching. Which means, using English terms and phrases in the middle of a speech/conversation done in Tagalog.

Example 1:

English: "My birthplace is in Manila, Philippines. It is very hot but still quite nice over there."

Tagalog: "Ang pinanganakán ko ay sa Maynila, Pilipinas. Ang init-init doón, ngunit maganda naman."

Code-switched: ''Ang birthplace ko ay sa Manila, in the Philippines. It is very hot doón pero maganda."

Example 2:

English: "I am going to school now. The driver will arrive soon and I will not be late for my Biology class."

Tagalog: "Ako'y pupunta na sa eskwela. Malapit nang dumating ang tsuper kaya hindî ako mahuhulí sa klase sa Biolohiya."

Pure Tagalog: "Ako'y papasok na sa paaralan. Ang magpapatakbo ng sasakyan ay malapit na kaya hindi ako mahuhuli sa aral ng Haynayan." (no loanwords as much as possible, rarely used in actual conversation)

Code-switched: "Papasok na ako sa school. Malapit na ang driver kaya hindi ako male-late sa Biology class ko." (colloquial, often used)

Filipinos politicians and celebrities are known for code-switching. A severe, oft-ridiculed form of code-switching is Konyo English.

Cognates with Chamorro[edit]

Filipino language and culture is very similar to that of the Chamorro people on Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands, with many Philippine languages having similarities with the Chamorro language. These include numerous Spanish loanwords in both languages owing to a common history and religion as part of the Spanish East Indies until 1898. This shared colonial experience resulted in intermarriages between Filipinos and Chamorros that continue until the present, since it was to Guam that Filipino rebels were exiled by the Spanish rule of the Philippines.

This close relationship between Filipinos and Chamorros was expressed by Governor of Guam Ricardo J. Bordallo who said: "The Filipinos are akin to the Guamanians historically, culturally and linguistically, more so than any other people in Asia." Filipinos thus brought along with them latent lexical and cultural influences from India, China, and Arabia as well as present-day Malaysia and Indonesia as a product of ancient trade relations with these realms. These are only a few words from the thousands of cognates between the two languages:

Filipino Chamorro English
Abó Apu Ash
Abogado Abugadu Lawyer
Aga Maga Early
Ágila Agila Eagle
Agwát Achago Distance
Alahas Alahas Jewelry
Alambre Alamle Wire
Alkalde Atkadi Mayor
Alpombra Atformbra Carpet
Anino Anineng Shadow
Apelyido Apiyidu Family name
Apog Afok Lime
Apurá Apura Hurry
Araro Aruru Arrowroot
Araw Atdao Sun
Areglado Areklao Orderly
Armas Atmas Weapon
Asawa Asagua Spouse
Aso Asu Dog
Asukal Asukat Sugar
Ataul Ata'ut Casket
Atip Atof Roof
Atis Ates Sugar apple
Ayuno Ayunu Fasting
Baba Babas Chin
Baba Ebaba Low
Baboy Babuy Pig
Bagyò Pakyo Storm
Baka Baka Cow
Balsa Batsa Raft
Bangko Banko Bank
Bapór Bapot Ship
Baraha Balaha Playing cards
Barkilan Barakilan Rafter
Bastón Baston Cane
Bayabas Abas Guava
Gamót Åmot Medicine
Kamáy Kanai Hand
Mantikilya Mantikiya Butter
Ngipin Nifen Teeth
Pagaw Afagao Husky voice
Palanggana Palanggana Basin
Suso Susu Breast
Tuláy Tolai Bridge
Unan Alunan Pillow

Cognates with Malay/Indonesia[edit]

Tagalog is an Austronesian language and a close cousin of both Malay varieties in Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. Because of this close relationship, there are many cognates between the two languages stretching back many millennia. Many cognates were re-borrowed into the language when Old Malay became the official language of trade and documentation during the pre-Hispanic era of Philippine history, as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country five centuries later. This is a small sample of the thousands of cognates present between Tagalog and Malay.

Tagalog word Malay word (M)/Indonesian Word (I) Meaning
Ako Aku I (first person)
Anak Anak Child
Ánim Enam Six
Apat Empat Four
Bobo Bodoh Stupid
Bahagi Bahagian (M)
Bagi (I)
Portion, Part
Balik Balik Return
Balimbing Belimbing Starfruit
Balitá Berita News
Balot Balut To wrap
Bangkay Bangkai Corpse, Carcass
Bangis Bengis Fierce, Ferocious
Bangon Bangun To Wake Up
Bansà Bangsa Nation
Batò Batu Stone
Bawang Bawang Garlic
Bayad Bayar Pay
Bibig Bibir Mouth
Bili Beli Buy
Bukas Buka Open
Bunso Bongsu (M)
Bungsu (I)
Youngest child
Buntis Bunting
Hamil (I)
Pregnant
Buwan Bulan Month, Moon
Buwaya Buaya Crocodile
Daán Jalan Street, Road
Dalamhati Dalam + hati Grief
Dahon Daun Leaf
Dingding Dinding Wall
Durián Durian Durian
Ganap Genap Adj. Exact
Gulay Gulai Vegetables
Gulong Gulung To roll
Guntíng Gunting Scissor
Halagâ Harga Price
Hangin Angin Wind
Harapan Hadapan In front
Hiram Pinjam To borrow
Ikaw Kau You
Itik Itik Duck
Itim Hitam Black
Kahoy Kayu Wood
Kalapatî Merpati Pigeon
Kambing Kambing Goat
Kami Kami We (excludes addressee)
Kanan Kanan Right
Kangkong Kangkung Kale
Kapag Kapan When
Karayom Jarum Needle
Kawali Kuali Frying pan, Wok
Kawani Kerani
Pramuniaga/i (I)
Clerk
Kita Kita We (Dual addressee)
Kusing Kucing Cat
Kulang Kurang Less
Kulong Kurung Jailed, Caged
Laban Lawan Oppose (v.), Opposition (n.)
Lagok Teguk Gulp
Lalaki Lelaki, Laki–laki Male
Landas Landasan
Lintasan (I)
Track (noun)
Langka Nangka Jackfruit
Langit Langit Sky, Heaven
Lasa Rasa Taste
Libo Ribu Thousand
Lima Lima Five
Luwalhati Luar + hati Glory
Mahal Mahal Expensive
Mangga Mangga Mango
Mangkok Mangkuk Bowl
Mukha Muka Face
Mulâ Mula From
Mura Murah Cheap
Pako Paku Nail
Palayok Periuk Cooking pot
Pangulo Penghulu President
Paso Pasu Flowerpot
Pasok Masuk Enter
Payong Payung Umbrella
Pili Pilih Choose
Pinggan Pinggan
Piring (I)
Plate
Pinto Pintu Door
Pulò Pulau Island
Putî Putih White
Rambután Rambutan Rambutan
Sabón Sabun Soap
Sakit Sakit Ill, Sick
Saksi Saksi Witness
Salamin Cermin Mirror
Samantala Sementara Meanwhile, While, Temporary
Sampalataya Percaya To believe
Sandata Senjata Weapon
Sarap Sedap Delicious
Sandok Senduk
Sendok (I)
Ladle
Silaw Silau Dazzled
Sintá Cinta Love (Possessive)
Siyasat Siasat Investigate
Sukat Sukat Measure
Sulat Surat Letter
Taas Atas Top
Takot Takut Afraid, Fear
Tali Tali String, Rope
Tamis Manis Sweet
Tanggal Tanggal To remove, To take off
Tanghali Tengah + hari Afternoon
Taon Tahun Year
Tawad Tawar To bargain, To ask for discount
Tulak Tolak Push, Shove
Tulong Tolong Help
Tusok Tusuk Pierce, Prick, Stab
Uban Uban Gray hair
Ulan Hujan Rain
Utak Otak Brain
Utang Hutang Debt

Sanskrit[edit]

The question has been raised about the origin of some words in the various dialects of the Philippines and their possible connection to ancient Buddhist and Hindu culture in the region.[1][2]

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning
Agham Agama Science
Asawa Swami Husband
Bathala Bathara Supreme Being
Balita Vartta News
Budhi Bodhi Conscience
Katha Gatha Fabrication,Tall Story
Diwata Devata Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Diwa Deva Spirit, Soul
Dukha Dukkha Poverty
Gadya Gaja Elephant
Guro Guru Mentor, Teacher
Laho Rahu Eclipse
Maharlika Mahardikka Nobility
Mahalaga Maharga Important
Mukha Mukha Face
Pana Bana Arrow
Saksi Saksi Witness
Sampalataya Sampratyaya Faith
Saranggola Layang gula (via Malay) Kite
Sutla Sutra Silk
Tala Tara Star

Tamil[edit]

Tagalog Tamil Meaning
Ano என்ன (Enna) What
Bagay வகை (Vakai) Thing
Dito இதோ (Itho) Here
Mangga மாங்காய் (Māngāi) Mango
Malunggay முருங்கை (Murungai) Moringa
Masaya மகிழ்ச்சியா (Makilcciyā) Happy
Kamay கை (Kai) Hand
Kas காசு (Kāsu) Cash, Money
Kuta கோட்டை (Kottai) Fort
Pintungan பெட்டகம் (Pettagham) Place to store things
Pooja பூஜை (Pūjai) Pooja
Puto பிட்டு (Puttu) Cake
Sadya சதி (Sathi) Intentional

Arabic[edit]

Tagalog Arabic Meaning
Alam Alham Knowledge, Understanding
Hiyâ Hayaa To feel shame, Blush
Hukom Hukum Judge
Salamat Slamah Thanks

Persian[edit]

Tagalog Persian Meaning
Alak Araq Liquor
Tsaá Chai Tea

Min Nan (Hokkien), Yue (Cantonese), and Mandarin (Chinese)[edit]

During the time when several Kingdoms existed in the area of what is now Luzon (in reference to the Luzon Empire or Kingdom of Tondo), diplomatic ties were established with the Ming dynasty. Contact also reached as far as the Sultan of Sulu. As a result, many Chinese words were adopted, such as:

Tagalog Min Nan, Yue and Mandarin Meaning
Apo 阿公/A–kong (H) Grandfather
Ate 阿姊/A–chí (H) Eldest sister
Bakyâ 木屐/ba̍k-kia̍h (H) Native wooden sandals
Baktaw 墨斗/ (H) Carpenter's ink marker
Batsoy 肉水/bah-chúi (H) Pork in soup
Bihon 米粉/bí-hún (H) Rice vermicelli
Bimpo 面布/ (H) Face towel
Bitsin 味精/bī-cheng (H) Monosodium glutamate
Daw/Raw /Tao (M) God, Way
Ditse 二姊/Dī–chí (H) Second eldest sister
Gising 叫醒/ (H) To wake up
Hikaw 耳鉤/hī–kau (H) Earrings
Hukbo 服務/ (H) Army
Hwepe 火把/ (H) Torch
Jusi 富絲/hù-si (H) Cloth made from pineapple fibre
Impò 阿媽/A–má (H) Grandmother
Ingkóng 阿公/A–kong (H) Grandfather
Kusot 鋸屑/ (H) Sawdust
Kuya 哥哥/ko–ko (C)/keh–ya (H) Eldest brother
Lawin 老鷹/lǎoyīng (M) Kite, Hawk
Lauriat 鬧熱/lāu-dia̍t (H) Lauriat
Lithaw 犁頭/ (H) Plow
Lumpia 潤餅/jūn-piáⁿ (H) Fried or fresh spring rolls.
Mami 肉麵/bah-mī (H) Meat and noodles in soup (Bam-i is also the name of another noodle dish)
Patì (H) Including
Pansit 便ê食/piān-ê-si̍t (H) Noodles with sauce
Petsay 白菜/pe̍h-chhài (H) Chinese cabbage
Pesa 白煠/sa̍h (H) Plain boiled
Pinse 硼砂/ (M)/ (H) Borax
Puthaw 斧頭/ (H) Ax
Santse 三姊/San–chí (H) Third eldest sister
Sitsit (H) Psst!
Siyansi 煎匙/chian-sî (H) Spoon-like metal spatula
Siopao/siyopaw 燒包/sio-pau (H) Meat-filled steamed bun
Sotanghon 苏冬粉/so-tang-hun (H) Cellophane noodles
Suahe 沙蝦/ (H) Greasyback shrimp
Suki 主客/chu–khe (H) Regular customer or usual store
Sungki 伸齒/chhun-khí (H) Malocclusion
Susi 鎖匙/só–sî (H) Key
Tanglaw 燈籠/deng long (M) Light
Tinghoy 燈火/ (H) Oil lamp
Tiho 等好/ (H) Gold bar (Chinese-Filipino colloquialism)
Tikoy 甜粿/Tih–ke (H) Chinese New Year's cake
Tingi (H) Selling at retail/per piece
Tokwa 豆干/tāu-koaⁿ (H) Tofu
Totso 豆油醋魚/tāu–iû-chhò͘-hî (H) Sautéed fish
Toyo 豆油/tāu–iû (H) Soy sauce
Tausi 豆豉/tāu-si (H) Beans fermented/in brine
Tingsim 燈心/ (H)/ (M) Lamp wick
Tuwabak 大目魚/ (H) Big-eyed herring
Ubak 烏墨/ (H) Black ink
Wansoy/Yansoy 芫荽/ (H)/ (M) Cilantro

Japanese[edit]

During the era of several kingdoms in Luzon and the Visayas, trade was established with other Southeast- and East Asian countries (especially Japan and China).[3] Borrowings from Japanese were most likely from this trade,[citation needed] such as:

Tagalog Japanese Meaning
Dahan–dahan だんだん/dandan Slowly, Gradually
Haba 幅/haba Width, Breadth
Jack-en-poy じゃんけんぽん/jankenpon Rock-paper-scissors
Kaban 鞄/kaban Sack of rice
Kampay 乾杯/kanpai Cheers!
Karaoke カラオケ/karaoke A form of musical entertainment. Usually social in nature for Filipinos.
Katol 蚊取線香/katori-senkou Mosquito coil
Tamang-tama 偶々/tama-tama Coincidentally
Toto おとうと/otōto younger brother

Nahuatl (Aztec Mexican)[edit]

Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish and with the galleon trade with Mexico during the Hispanic era.

Tagalog Nahuatl Spanish English
Akuwete Achiotl Achiote Annatto seeds
Kamatsile Cuanhmochitl Guamáchili Sweet tamarind or Manila tamarind
Kamote Camotli Camote Sweet potato
Pitaka Petlacalli Petaca Coin purse
Sapote Tzapotl Chico sapote Sapodilla, now called Chico or Tsiko. However the word Zapote remained in the minds of Filipinos as a place i.e. Zapote, Cavite
Sayote Chayotli Chayote A Mexican squash
Sili Chilli Chile Chili pepper
Singkamas Xicamatl Jicama A sweet root crop (water chestnut)
Sukil Xochitl Suchil A flower
Tatay Tatl Tatay Father
Tiyangge Tianquiztli Tianguis Seasonal markets
Tsokolate Xocolatl Chocolate Chocolate
Tsonggo Chango Chango Monkey

Central American (Arawak–Taíno–Caribbean)[edit]

Tagalog Arawak/Taino Mexico Spanish English
Bayabas Guayabo (A) Guayaba Guava
Kasikwe Cacique Chief, Boss
Kaimito Caimito Starfruit
Mani Maní (T) Maní Peanut. Slang for clitoris
Mais Maíz (T) Maíz Maiz
Papaya Papáia (A) Papaya Papaya
Patatas Batata (T) Patata Potato


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Indian Origins of Filipino Customs". Vedic Empire. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  2. ^ "The Indian in the Filipino - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". Globalnation.inquirer.net. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  3. ^ "Ancient Japanese pottery in Boljoon town | Inquirer News". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. 2011-05-30. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 

External links[edit]