List of Texas hurricanes (1980–present)

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Aerial view of damaged coastal property on the Bolivar Peninsula.
Damaged property caused by Hurricane Ike

From 1980 to the present, at least 69 tropical or subtropical cyclones affected the U.S. state of Texas. According to David Roth of the Weather Prediction Center, a tropical cyclone makes landfall along the coastline about three times every four years, and on any 50 mi (80 km) segment of the coastline a hurricane makes landfall about once every six years.[1]

The most active month is September, with 21 total storms, while no recorded storms have affected Texas during the months of December through May. While the most intense storm in terms of barometric pressure is Hurricane Allen in 1980, Hurricane Ike in 2008 caused the most fatalities and damages, with $19.3 billion in Texas and $37.6 billion in total damages and 84 deaths.[nb 1] The first storm to impact the state during the period is also Hurricane Allen in August 1980, with the most recent being Tropical Storm Don in 2011. In terms of wind speed, Hurricane Gilbert is the strongest storm to affect the state, producing maximum sustained winds equivalent to Category 4 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.[1]

During the 1980s, multiple tropical cyclones affected the state, of which six made landfall as hurricanes; three made landfall as major hurricanes.[1][nb 2] Hurricane Alicia is the most destructive hurricane of the decade, severely impacting the Greater Houston area. All three major hurricanes that impacted Texas during the 1980s were later retired by the World Meteorological Organization.[3] In contrast to the 1980s, during the 1990s, only one tropical cyclone, Hurricane Bret, made landfall on the Texas coast.[4] In the next decade five hurricanes would make landfall on Texas.[1] Hurricane Ike, the costliest hurricane to impact Texas, makes landfall during the decade. Other notable systems include Tropical Storm Allison and Hurricane Rita. In the 2010s, only one hurricane, Hurricane Alex, has affected Texas so far.

1980–1984[edit]

Infrared image of Hurricane Allen as it was just east of the Texas–Mexico border. While it has many banding features, it does not have an eye.
Hurricane Allen (1980) near landfall
  • September 5, 1980 – Tropical Storm Danielle makes landfall near Galveston Bay as a weak tropical storm. As it moves inland, it causes severe and widespread flooding across Texas. Areas are inundated by the rain, peaking at 18.29 in (465 mm) in Nederland.[7] One person is killed due to rains associated with Danielle.[8][9]
  • Mid-November, 1980 – Hurricane Jeanne over the Western Gulf of Mexico causes tides to rise up to 4 ft (1.2 m) above average along the Texas coast. Coastal flooding also occurs, with the worst being near Galveston. Minimal damage is reported.[10][11]
  • Late-August, 1981 – Tropical Depression Eight moves ashore northeast Mexico on August 29 and into the United States on August 30. As an ill-defined surface low, a large thunderstorm complex forms near its center that day, which unleashes very heavy rainfall in a 50 mi (80 km) wide band covering a 200 mi (320 km) path from Seguin to north of Houston. The highest rainfall amount reported is from Cheapside, where 18 in (460 mm) falls in a 24‑hour period ending on the morning of August 31. Five die in the town of Shiner due to the heavy rains.[12] Heavy rain in downtown Hallettsville causes floods and torrential rain, reaching a peak of 5 ft (1.5 m). Significant flooding also occurs along the Lavaca, Guadalupe, and Colorado rivers in Texas. Damages from the floods amount to nearly $21 million.[13]
  • October 13, 1981 – Hurricane Norma makes landfall on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but its remnants produce 21 in (530 mm) of rain near Dallas-Fort Worth, killing five.[14] Multiple tornadoes touch down in six counties in the region, injuring three.[15] Hurricane Norma causes $50 million in damages and kills three people in Texas.[16]
Infrared image of Hurricane Alicia as it makes landfall on the Texas coast. It has a pronounced, albeit small eye feature.
Hurricane Alicia (1983) at landfall
  • August 18, 1983 – Hurricane Alicia makes landfall near Galveston as a Category 3 hurricane. Alicia causes $2.6 billion in damage and 13 fatalities, along with an estimated 5,805 residential structures either heavily damaged or destroyed.[1][19] In advance of Alicia, offshore drilling platforms are evacuated.[20] At one point during the storm, the entire city of Galveston loses power, with 250,000 electricity customers in Houston losing power as well.[21] At the time, Hurricane Alicia is the costliest hurricane to impact Texas, not adjusting for inflation.[1] High rainfall totals are reported across Southeast Texas, with a peak of 9.5 in (240 mm) of rain in Liberty. The peak wind gust in Galveston is 102 mph (164 km/h).[19] An estimated storm surge of up to 12 ft (3.7 m) is estimated in Galveston Bay. Alicia also causes 23 tornadoes, concentrated around the Galveston and Tyler areas.[19][22]
  • August 28, 1983 – Hurricane Barry, a Category 1, makes landfall just south of Brownsville and forces the evacuation of 4,000 people, but causes minor damage.[23]
  • Mid-October, 1983 – The remnants of Hurricane Tico from the Eastern Pacific cause rainfall over much of Texas, most of which are in northern Texas where rainfall peaks at 9.59 in (0.244 m) in Quanah.[18][24] Numerous road closures take place due to the floods caused by the remnants of Tico.[25] In Val Verde County, 100 people are evacuated due to the heavy rain. Tico's remnants kill one person and cause $93 million in damages.[1]
  • Mid-September, 1984 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Edouard cause severe flooding in South Texas, where some isolated locations receive totals in excess of 20 in (510 mm).[26]

1985–1989[edit]

  • October 11, 1985 – The remnants of Hurricane Waldo produce rainfall over most of West Texas, with multiple rain totals of at least 5 in (130 mm).[27]
  • Late-October 1985 – Hurricane Juan dumps up to 10 in (250 mm) of rain in extreme southeastern Texas, peaking at 12.84 in (326 mm) in Alto, killing one coastal resident.[28][29] The rains cause widespread floods that lead to road closures, and gusty winds cause some power outages.[30] Coastal flooding is also reported as a result of high tides caused by Juan.[30]
  • June 26, 1986 – Hurricane Bonnie makes landfall near High Island in Southeast Texas as a Category 1 hurricane, killing four people in Texas[1] and producing heavy rainfall that causes street flooding. Rainfall peaks at 13 in (330 mm), with many areas picking up at least 10 in (250 mm).[31] Bonnie also spawns four tornadoes in Texas.[32]
  • Early-October, 1986 – The remnants of Hurricane Paine produce widespread rainfall over western and northern Texas, most of which receives at least an inch of rain, with 10.39 in (264 mm) in Wellington.[18][36]
  • October 22, 1986 – The remnants of Hurricane Roslyn produce rainfall over much of southern and eastern Texas, with the heaviest totals along the middle Texas coast, where rainfall totals exceeds 10 in (250 mm).[37] Roslyn causes low-water crossings and streams to flood.[38]
Satellite image of a tropical cyclone in the Western Caribbean Sea. It covers a large area and has a pinhole eye.
Hurricane Gilbert at peak intensity
  • August 10, 1987 – An unnamed storm makes landfall near High Island, Texas, producing over 1 in (25 mm) of rain to eastern portions of the state, peaking at 4.25 in (108 mm) in Umbarger.[18][39][40]
  • August 12, 1988 – Tropical Storm Beryl produces heavy rainfall over East Texas. Some areas receive 11.8 in (300 mm) of rain, causing localized flash flooding.[41][42][43]
  • September 17, 1988 – Hurricane Gilbert makes landfall in northern Mexico with winds of 135 mph (217 km/h) and causes tides to rise up to 5 ft (1.5 m) above normal.[1][46] As a result, beach erosion is reported on Padre Island.[46] Rainfall peaks at 7.45 in (189 mm) in Anson.[18] Minor wind damage is reported from Gilbert. Twenty-nine tornadoes are recorded across Texas, with the worst damage in San Antonio. Gilbert causes three deaths in Texas, all resulting from tornadoes in San Antonio.[47][48] Damages from Gilbert total to $50 million.[1]
  • Late-June 1989 – Tropical Storm Allison makes landfall near Freeport, causing three deaths in the state.[49][50] Tropical Storm Allison produces torrential rainfall across the state, with amounts of more than 10 in (250 mm) over much of the upper Texas coast, peaking at 20.28 in (515 mm) in Orange.[18][51] Storm surge from the storm measures 7 ft (2.1 m) in Trinity Bay.[46] As a result beach erosion is reported on Padre Island.[52] Allison causes an estimated $400 million in Texas alone.[51]
  • August 1, 1989 – Hurricane Chantal makes landfall as a minimal hurricane at High Island, Texas, causing two deaths from flash flooding.[1][53]
  • October 16, 1989 – Hurricane Jerry affects the Galveston area as a minimal hurricane. The storm kills three people when a car is blown off Texas Route 87 near Sea Rim State Park. Jerry causes $70 million in damage and kills three.[1][55]

1990–1994[edit]

Satellite image of a tropical cyclone in the northeast Pacific ocean. The hurricane has a ragged eye.
Hurricane Lester (1992) off Baja California
  • August 24, 1992 – The remnants of Hurricane Lester, which originated from the East Pacific, cause rainfall in North Texas, amounting up to 3 in (76 mm) in locations and peaking at 3.54 in (90 mm) in Chisos Basin.[18][58]
  • June 20, 1993 – Tropical Storm Arlene makes landfall near Padre Island. Heavy beach erosion occurs as a result of the storm. Arlene causes $55 million in damage and its flooding rains kill one person.[59][60]
  • September 14, 1993 – Hurricane Lidia moves into Texas before being absorbed by a cold front near Austin.[61] Lida's remnants cause moderate rainfall across the state, peaking at 7.3 in (190 mm) in Denton.[18] The combination of the front and the hurricane's remnants trigger tornadoes, and one causes more than $8 million in damages. Five people are injured in Arlington after a roof is torn off their hotel.[62]
  • Mid-October 1994 – The remnants of Hurricane Rosa cause severe flooding in Texas.[63] In some locations the flood is considered a 100-year event, peaking at 29.40 in (747 mm) in Cypress.[63] The floods kill 22 people and cause $700 million in damages.[63]

1995–1999[edit]

  • July 31, 1995 – Tropical Storm Dean makes landfall near Freeport. Dean drops nearly 17 in (430 mm) of rain in Monroe City.[64] The rainfall results in moderate localized damage.[65]
  • August 12, 1995 – Tropical Storm Gabrielle makes landfall just south of the Texas–Mexico border as a strong tropical storm, producing rainfall in southern Texas, peaking at 6.26 in (159 mm) in Weslaco.[66] Slight storm surge associated with Gabrielle floods beaches along the southern Texas coast.[18][67]
  • August 23, 1996 – Hurricane Dolly makes landfall near Tampico, Mexico.[70] The storm causes beneficial rainfall in southern Texas, peaking at 5.53 in (140 mm) in Corpus Christi, providing drought relief to the area.[70]
  • October 4, 1996 – Tropical Storm Josephine forms just offshore of the Texas coast, bringing heavy rain to the state. Rainfall peaks at 10.81 in (275 mm) in Brownsville.[18] The storm, although remaining offshore, causes severe beach erosion across much of the coast.[71] Several houses are lost and up to 65 ft (20 m) of shore-front property on Galveston Island is eroded.[71]
  • August 23, 1998 – Tropical Storm Charley makes landfall near Port Aransas. Severe inland flooding occurs in Val Verde Country and 13 people are killed. Del Rio records 17 in (430 mm) of rain in 24 hours from the storm, a city record and the most rainfall from a tropical cyclone in Texas since Tropical Storm Claudette in 1979.[72]
  • September 11, 1998 – Tropical Storm Frances makes landfall north of Corpus Christi on September 11 as a moderately strong tropical storm. Rainfall causes large amounts of flooding in southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana, peaking at 21.76 in (553 mm) in Goose Creek.[18] As a result of the rains, many rivers and bayous overflow.[73] Due to the storm, tides are 5 ft (1.5 m) above average.[74] Frances causes an estimated total of $500 million in property damage.[75]
  • Mid-October 1998 – Moisture associated with the remnants of Hurricane Madeline results in flooding in Central Texas.[76] The event breaks numerous rain records in the region, including the wettest month for San Antonio since records began in 1885.[73] In addition, 15 rivers exceed the previously known peak flow.[73] The floods kill 31 people.[76] and cause $1.5 billion in damages.[77]
  • August 23, 1999 – Hurricane Bret makes landfall as a Category 3 hurricane on Padre Island, becoming the first major hurricane to hit Texas since Hurricane Alicia in 1983.[78] As it approaches landfall, large swells cause minor beach erosion along the coast. Along with rainfall from Bret, beaches in Matagorda County are closed due to the high water level.[79] Further inland, heavy rainfall occurs across South Texas, reaching 13.18 in (335 mm) in Sarita.[80] At the height of the storm, power outages cut electricity to an estimated 64,000 customers.[81] Due to the small size of Bret and its landfall in a relatively unpopulated region of the Texas coast, damages from Bret total just $15 million, but it causes four deaths, all of which are attributed to a semi-trailer truck jackknifing in Laredo.[82]

2000–2004[edit]

Aerial helicopter image of flooding in an urban area at the confluence of two bayous. The water level nearly reaches treetops.
Flooding in Houston caused by Tropical Storm Allison (2001)
  • September 9, 2000 – Tropical Depression Nine makes landfall near Sabine Pass, with maximum sustained winds of 30 mph (48 km/h). Minimal damage is reported.[84]
  • June 5, 2001 – Tropical Storm Allison makes landfall near Freeport. It stalls over eastern Texas for several days, dropping extreme amounts of rain which leads to catastrophic flooding.[85] Allison causes flash flooding in the area, producing widespread street flooding and filling nearby bayous to severe levels.[86] Rainfall peaks at 36.99 in (940 mm) at the Port of Houston.[87] The Texas Medical Center is severely damaged, with losses of up to $2 billion. Patient evacuations and medical services are disrupted due to power outages caused by the storm.[87] Allison causes an estimated $4.8 billion in damages, nearly all of it related to freshwater flooding in the Greater Houston region.[85] Tropical Storm Allison causes 23 deaths in the state,[88] and is the only non-hurricane strength storm to have its name retired.[89]
  • August 9, 2002 – Tropical Storm Bertha makes landfall as a tropical depression near Kingsville, causing isolated rainfall throughout the state.[90][91]
  • September 7, 2002 – Tropical Storm Fay makes landfall near Port O'Connor, where it causes heavy rainfall and $450,000 in damage.[92] Rainfall peaks at 18.49 in (470 mm) in Fowlerton.[18] Fay causes five tornadoes, one of which injures three people. Much of the impact takes place in Brazoria County, where over 2,300 homes are damaged.[93]
  • July 15, 2003 – Hurricane Claudette makes landfall at Matagorda Island near Port O'Connor as a strong Category 1 storm, with maximum sustained winds of 90 mph (140 km/h). Claudette is responsible for one direct death. Inland towns in Texas sustain significant wind damage. Estimated damages total up to $181 million.[95]
  • August 16, 2003 – Hurricane Erika makes landfall in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas as a minor Category 1 hurricane, causing minor coastal damage and beach erosion in parts of southern Texas.[96]
  • August 31, 2003 – Tropical Storm Grace makes landfall near San Luis Pass with maximum sustained winds of 40 mph (64 km/h), causing heavy rainfall along the Texas coast and resulting in $113,000 in total damages.[97]
  • September 22, 2003 – Hurricane Marty from the East Pacific makes landfall in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. Rainfall associated with the remnants of Mary affects western Texas.[98]
  • September 20, 2004 – As the remnants of Hurricane Javier move northeast through northwest Mexico, 1 in (25 mm) of rain is reported in western Texas.[99]
  • September 24, 2004 – Four days after Hurricane Javier affected the state, Hurricane Ivan, having regenerated into a tropical storm in the Gulf of Mexico, makes landfall near Cameron, Louisiana, as a tropical depression. Over 7 in (180 mm) of rain is dropped on eastern Texas.[100]

2005–2009[edit]

Image of an uprooted tree located between a house and a road
Damage from Hurricane Humberto (2007)
  • July 20, 2005 – Hurricane Emily makes landfall in Tamaulipas, Mexico, providing rainfall to drought-affected areas of southern Texas.[102] Rainfall peaks at 5.2 in (130 mm) in Mercedes, and is spread from about 1–3 in (25–76 mm) elsewhere.[103]
  • September 24, 2005 – Hurricane Rita makes landfall as a Category 3 hurricane on the border between Louisiana and Texas on September 24.[104] In preparation of its landfall, the largest evacuation in United States history takes place, with over 3 million people evacuating inland.[105] At one point during the storm, 1 million energy customers lose power due to outages.[106] Rita causes a peak of 10.48 in (266 mm) in Center.[18][107] Major flooding is reported in Port Arthur and Beaumont. Offshore oil platforms throughout Rita's path also suffer significant damage, though the refineries of Houston, originally thought to be at risk, escape the brunt of the storm. Many of the indirect deaths linked to Rita are caused by a single bus fire in mass evacuations out of Houston.[104] Rita causes 59 deaths in the state all told.[1]
  • September 2, 2006 – The remnants of Hurricane John, an East Pacific storm, cause moderate to heavy rainfall. In northern Texas, moisture from the storm combined with a cold front produces rainfall of over 4 in (100 mm), helping alleviate severe drought.[108][109]
  • September 16, 2006 – Hurricane Lane, another East Pacific storm, makes landfall in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. Lane's remnants combine with an upper level trough over southeast portions of the state, dropping over 5 in (130 mm) of rain in some locations.[110]
  • August 16, 2007 – Tropical Storm Erin makes landfall near Lamar as a minimal tropical storm. Rainfall peaks in Texas at 10.7 in (270 mm) in Sisterdale.[111] Erin causes nine deaths in the state and causes nearly $49 million in damages.[112][113]
  • September 13, 2007 – Hurricane Humberto rapidly intensifies before making landfall just west of the Louisiana–Texas border with winds of up to 90 mph, dropping up to 14.13 in (359 mm) of rain.[114] The storm kills one person and leaves $50 million in damage.[115]
Satellite image of a large tropical cyclone which has a developing eye feature
Hurricane Ike (2008) in the Gulf of Mexico
  • July 23, 2008 – Hurricane Dolly makes landfall at South Padre Island with winds near 100 mph. A storm surge of 4 ft (1.2 m) is observed across much of the coast of southern Texas.[116] Dolly's remnants cause coastal and inland flooding and over 12 in (300 mm) of rain in some locations, peaking at 15 in (380 mm) in Harlingen.[117] On South Padre Island, moderate structural damage, mostly to roofs, is reported. Tree and utility pole damage is widespread across Cameron County. Widespread power outages are reported across southern Texas as a result of Dolly.[116]
  • August 5, 2008 – Tropical Storm Edouard makes landfall near Port Arthur with winds near 65 mph. Edouard provides beneficial rain to a drought stricken central Texas.[118]
  • September 1, 2008 – Hurricane Gustav produces heavy rain to extreme East Texas as it makes landfall in Louisiana as a Category 2 hurricane.[119] The storm causes strong rip currents and minor overwash of the coast.[120]
  • September 13, 2008 – Hurricane Ike makes landfall at Galveston as a large Category 2 hurricane. Its large size contributes to a storm surge that is as high as 20 ft (6.1 m),[121] which inundates many of the barrier islands off the Texas coast. Many structures on the Bolivar Peninsula are destroyed.[122] Most notably, in Gilchrist, all but one house is destroyed by the storm surge.[123] The storm also causes heavy rains where it makes landfall, peaking at 18.9 in (480 mm).[124] At one point, the storm knocks out power to as many as an estimated 2.6 million people.[1] Ike is the one of most destructive hurricanes to ever hit Texas and one of the deadliest, causing $19.3 billion in damages and killing 84 people.[1]
  • October 13, 2008 – Hurricane Norbert causes moderate rainfall over West Texas after moving inland from the eastern Pacific.[125]
  • November 10, 2009 – Hurricane Ida causes minimal effects on Texas, producing high tides that lead to road closures.[126]

2010–present[edit]

Satellite image of a tropical cyclone well inland. The storm is still very organized and has banding features.
Tropical Storm Hermine (2010) over Texas
  • June 30, 2010 – Hurricane Alex makes landfall at Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas in Mexico as a large Category 2 hurricane, bringing heavy rains, wind, and tornadoes to South Texas.[127] The hurricane's remnants also bring heavy rains to portions of the Rio Grande, causing it to exceed record levels.[128]
  • July 8, 2010 – Tropical Depression Two makes landfall on South Padre Island, dropping 1 to 3 in (25 to 76 mm) of rain in south Texas, peaking at 8.95 in (227 mm) in Chincorro.[129] However, there are no reports of damage.[130]
  • September 7, 2010 – Tropical Storm Hermine makes landfall in northeastern Mexico as a strong tropical storm with 65 mph (105 km/h) winds.[131] As the storm approaches the coast, a storm surge of 3.4 ft (1.0 m) is reported at Port Aransas. In the Rio Grande Valley, an estimated 35,000 homes lose power due to Hermine,[132] while in Bexar County, 100,000 energy customers lose power.[133] Farm crops in the Texas Coastal Bend are damaged by the strong winds and rain.[134] In addition, numerous roads are closed due to overwash. Hermine kills five and causes $240 million in damages in the state.[131]
  • July 30, 2011 – Tropical Storm Don makes landfall near Baffin Bay, Texas before quickly dissipating. The storm produces minimal rainfall in extreme southern Texas, peaking at 2.56 in (65 mm) in Bay City.[137] Cotton farms benefit from the minimal rainfall.[138]
  • Early-September 2011 – The outer bands of Tropical Storm Lee cause rain in eastern Texas, peaking at 3.97 in (101 mm) in Nederland.[18] Despite the rainfall, strong winds further inland caused by the storm helped ignite numerous wildfires in the state.[139] One of the fires, the Bastrop County Complex fire, destroys 1,700 homes and businesses, becoming the most destructive wildfire in Texas history, according to the Texas Forest Service.[140]
  • August 31, 2012 – Outer rainbands associated with Hurricane Isaac cause slight rainfalls in East Texas, peaking to at least 3 in (7.6 cm) near Galveston Bay.[141] Strong winds associated with Hurricane Isaac's thunderstorms knock down trees in Trinity County, where wind gusts peak at an estimated 65 mph (105 km/h).[142]
  • September 29, 2012 – Remnant moisture associated with Hurricane Miriam and Tropical Storm Norman bring rainfall over areas of Texas, slightly alleviating drought conditions. Rainfall in the state measures 1–4 in (25–102 mm). The strong rains cause flash floods. Combined with a surface trough, the moisture generates severe thunderstorms which later coalesce into a squall line, causing strong winds which cause numerous reports of window damage. A weather station near Paducah records a peak wind gust of 96 mph (154 km/h).[143]
  • Mid-September 2013 – As Hurricane Ingrid passes to the south, its outer rainbands drop isolated areas of heavy rainfall across South Texas. Rainfall totals from the bands are estimated to have peaked at approximately 3 in (76 mm) near the Texas border with Mexico.[144]
  • September 3, 2014 – Despite making landfall near Tampico, Mexico, the outer rainbands of Tropical Storm Dolly traverse South Texas, producing rainfall totals peaking at 2.91 in (7.4 cm) in Hidalgo County. After dissipating, moisture from the remnant system causes additional showers in the area. Urban flooding as a result of poor water drainage occurs in Brownsville, Edinburg, and McAllen. However, the heavy rainfall helps to alleviate some drought conditions in South Texas.[145]

Monthly statistics[edit]

Number of recorded storms affecting Texas
Month Number of storms
June
7
July
7
August
19
September
23
October
13
November
2

Deadly storms[edit]

The following is a list of hurricanes with known deaths in the state.

Hurricanes causing known deaths in Texas
Name Year Number of deaths Notes
Ike 2008 84 [1]
Rita 2005 59 [1]
Allison 2001 23 [88]
Alicia 1983 13 [1]
Charley 1998 13 [72]
Erin 2007 9 [112]
Allen 1980 7 [1]
Eight 1981 5 [12]
Norma 1981 5 [14]
Hermine 2010 5 [131]
Bonnie 1986 4 [1]
Bret 1999 4 [82]
Allison 1989 3 [51]
Jerry 1989 3 [1]
Chantal 1989 2 [1]
Danielle 1980 1 [8]
Arlene 1993 1 [60]
Claudette 2003 1 [95]
Humberto 2007 1 [115]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ All damage totals are in the value of the USD during the storm's year of existence.
  2. ^ A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Texas Hurricane History (PDF). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  2. ^ Chris Landsea; Neal Dorst (ed.) (June 2, 2011). "A: Basic Definitions". Hurricane Research Division: Frequently Asked Questions (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. What is a super-typhoon? What is a major hurricane ? What is an intense hurricane ?. Retrieved December 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ National Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclone Naming History and Retired Names". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  4. ^ Berger, Eric; Houston Chronicle Publishing Company Division; Hearst Newspapers Partnership, L.P. (September 9, 2007). "Texas spins the wheel in hurricane roulette / After a lull that began in 1989, the law of averages is not considered favorable for state". The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c National Hurricane Center (1980). Hurricane Allen (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1980-prelim/allen/. Retrieved May 19, 2006.
  6. ^ Albert Ramon; KVUE Television, Inc., (May 13, 2011). "Remembering the 1980 tornado". Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  7. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. 
  8. ^ a b National Hurricane Center (1980). Tropical Storm Danielle (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1980-prelim/danielle/. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  9. ^ "Tropical Storm Danielle Strikes Texas". Indiana Gazette (Houston, Texas). Associated Press. September 6, 1980. p. 4. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  10. ^ Pessilier, Joseph M; National Hurricane Center (1980). Hurricane Jeanne (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1980-prelim/jeanne/prelim02.gif. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  11. ^ "Summary of Significant Floods in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1970 Through 1989". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Pattan, John; Slade Jr, Raymond M. "Major and Catastrophic Storms and Floods in Texas". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  13. ^ Federal Emergency Management Agency. "Significant Flood Events as of May 31, 2012". United States Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Norma (1981) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Storm Swamps Central Texas". Times Daily (Fort Worth, Texas). October 14, 1981. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  16. ^ Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas Weather Forecast Office. "Hurricanes and Tropical Storms That Have Affected North Texas From 1874 to 2009". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Clark, Gilbert B; National Hurricane Center (1982). Tropical Storm Chris (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1982-prelim/chris/. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Roth, David M.; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall for the Gulf Coast". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c National Hurricane Center (1983). Hurricane Alicia (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/alicia/. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  20. ^ "Hurricane Alicia Heads for Texas". The Gainesville Sun (Miami, Florida). Associated Press. August 17, 1983. p. 1. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Hurricane extracts 'billion-dollar' toll". Eugene Register-Guard (Galveston, Texas). United Press International. August 18, 1983. p. 1. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  22. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Alicia (1983) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  23. ^ National Hurricane Center (1983). Hurricane Barry (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/barry/. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
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