List of Thai dishes

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Family breakfast in the Isan region

This is a list of selected dishes found in Thai cuisine.

Individual dishes[edit]

Note: The Thai script column is linked to how it is pronounced when available.

Rice dishes[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Chok โจ๊ก Rice congee Jok mu sap.JPG Of Chinese origin, it is a rice congee with minced chicken or pork. Mixing an egg in with the congee is optional.
Khao kan chin ข้าวกั๊นจิ๊น 2013 Khao kan chin.jpg North A dish of the Tai Yai (Shan people) of Burma and northern Thailand, it is rice that is mixed with pork blood and steamed inside a banana leaf. Khao kan chin is served with cucumber, onions and fried, dried chillies.[1]
Khao kha mu ข้าวขาหมู Khao kha mu 02.JPG Steamed rice is served with sliced pig's trotters which has been simmered in soy sauce and five spice powder. It is always served with a sweet spicy dipping sauce, fresh bird's eye chillies and cloves of garlic on the side. Boiled egg and a clear broth on the side are optional.
Khao khai chiao ข้าวไข่เจียว Omelet on rice Khao khai chiao songkhrueng.jpg A quick snack or breakfast, it is an omelet with white rice, often eaten with chilli sauce and cucumber. The variant shown in the image is khao khai chiao songkhrueang (Thai: ข้าวไข่เจียวทรงเครื่อง) where the omelet is topped with a minced pork and vegetable stir-fry.
Khao khluk kapi ข้าวคลุกกะปิ Fried rice with shrimp paste Khao.kluke.kapi-01.jpg Rice is fried with shrimp paste and served with sweet pork, sour mango, fried shrimp, chillies and shallots.
Khao mok kai ข้าวหมกไก่ Thai chicken biryani Khao mok kai.JPG The Thai version of a "chicken biryani". The name literally means "rice covered chicken". This Thai-Muslim dish is made by cooking rice together with the chicken curry.
Khao mok nuea ข้าวหมกเนื้อ Khao mok nuea.jpg The Thai version of a "beef biryani".
Khao man kai ข้าวมันไก่ Chicken rice 2013 Khao man kai Chiang Mai.jpg Rice steamed with garlic served with sliced chicken, chicken broth and a spicy dipping sauce.
Khao mu krop ข้าวหมูกรอบ Khao mu krop.jpg Rice and crispy pork that is often, as here in this image, served with boiled egg and a bowl of broth. The sauce that always comes with khao mu krop is here served separately in the bowl at the top of the image.
Khao mu krop mu daeng ข้าวหมูกรอบหมูแดง Khao mu krop mu daeng in Nong Khai.jpg Slices of mu krop (crispy pork) and mu daeng (red roast pork) served on rice, and often covered with a sticky soya and/or oyster-sauce based sauce. Very often, a clear soup, boiled egg, cucumber, and spring onion is served on the side. Sliced chillies in Chinese black vinegar and dark soy sauce are provided as a condiment for this dish.
Khao na pet ข้าวหน้าเป็ด Red roast duck on rice Khao na pet.JPG Boiled rice with roast duck and duck broth on the side. It is served with sliced chillies in soy sauce as a condiment.
Khao niao ข้าวเหนียว Glutinous or sticky rice Kin khao niao.JPG Khao niao is traditionally eaten using only the right hand. It is the staple food of Northern and Northeastern Thais.
Khao nuea op ข้าวเนื้ออบ Khao nuea op.jpg Rice with slices of baked beef, served with a spicy chilli dip.
Khao phat ข้าวผัด Thai fried rice Thaifriedrice.jpg Fried rice in Thailand can be made with different ingredients. Customarily served with fresh lime, cucumber, spring onions and nam pla phrik (chillies in fish sauce).
Khao phat amerikan ข้าวผัดอเมริกัน American fried rice American fried rice.jpg American fried rice is rice fried with onion, tomato, raisins and flavoured with ketchup. It is often garnished with some sausage, fried chicken and egg.
Khao phat kaeng khiao wan ข้าวผัดแกงเขียวหวาน Khao phat kaeng khiao wan.jpg Rice fried with green curry.
Khao phat kaphrao mu ข้าวผัดกะเพราหมู Basil fried rice with pork Khao phat kraphao mu.jpg Rice fried with a certain variety of Thai basil called kaphrao (Ocimum tenuiflorum), sliced pork and chillies.
Khao phat nam liap หนำเลี๊ยบข้าวผัด Khao phat nam liap.jpg Rice fried with nam liap, the fruit of the Canarium album, also known as "Chinese olives".
Khao phat nam phrik long ruea ข้าวผัดน้ำพริกล่องเรือ Khao phat nam phrik long ruea.jpg Central Rice fried with Nam phrik long ruea (lit. "boat journey chilli paste") and pieces of khai khem (salted duck's eggs). Fried, sliced, sweet Chinese sausage called kun chiang (Thai: กุนเชียง) are also served here with some sliced cucumber on the side.
Khao phat nam phrik narok ข้าวผัดน้ำพริกนรก Khao phat nam phrik narok.jpg The name literally means "rice fried with chilli paste from hell". The rice is fried with nam phrik narok, a very spicy chilli paste made with fried catfish, grilled onion and garlic, grilled (dried) chillies, sugar, fish sauce and shrimp paste. Here it is served with mu yang (grilled pork) and nam chim chaeo, a spicy dipping sauce.
Khao tom ข้าวต้ม Thai rice soup Khao tom pla 01.jpg Boiled rice in a light broth, usually with minced pork, chicken or fish. It is often eaten for breakfast.
Khao tom kui ข้าวต้มกุ๊ย Plain rice congee Khao tom kui.jpg Plain rice is cooked to a porridge and eaten as the staple together with a variety of side dishes.

Noodle dishes[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Bami haeng pet บะหมี่แห้งเป็ด Egg noodles served "dry" with duck Bami haeng.jpg Egg noodles served "dry" with slices of braised duck, and often, as shown on the image, together with "blood tofu". The broth is served on the side. It is originally a Chinese dish.
Bami mu daeng บะหมี่หมูแดง Egg noodle soup with red roast pork Bami mu daeng kiao.JPG Originally a Chinese dish, it is now common in Thailand. Often served with chillies in vinegar, and dried chilli flakes. The version shown in the photo also contains kiao kung (Thai: เกี๊ยวกุ้ง; prawn wontons).
Khanom chin kaeng khiao wan kai ขนมจีนแกงเขียวหวานไก่ Khanom chin kaeng kiao wan kai.jpg This noodle dish consists of green chicken curry served over khanom chin, fresh Thai rice noodles. It is usually accompanied by a selection of raw vegetables and herbs on the side. The chicken meat used in this particular version is chicken feet.
Khanom chin nam ngiao ขนมจีนน้ำเงี้ยว Khanom chin nam ngiao supoe.jpg North A speciality of Northern Thailand, it is Thai fermented rice noodles served with pork or chicken blood tofu in a sauce made with pork broth and tomato, crushed fried dry chillies, pork blood, dry fermented soy bean, and dried red kapok flowers.
Khanom chin namya ขนมจีนน้ำยา Khanom Jeen Nam Yaa.jpg Central Thai rice noodles served with a fish based sauce called nam ya.
Khanom chin sao nam ขนมจีนซาวน้ำ Central Cold rice noodles served as a salad with thick coconut milk, finely chopped pineapple, sliced raw garlic and Thai chillies, pounded dried prawns, shredded ginger, lime juice, fish sauce and sugar.
Khao soi ข้าวซอย Northern Thai curry noodles Khao soi Chiang Mai.jpg North Boiled as well as crispy fried egg noodles (bami) are served in a curry soup. The version with chicken is called khao soi kai, with beef it is called khao soi nuea.
Khao soi Mae Sai ข้าวซอยแม่สาย Khao soi Mae Sai.JPG North Khao soi Mae Sai is the name in Chiang Mai of a certain type of khao soi that is more common in Chiang Rai province, in the area along the border with Burma and Laos (Mae Sai is a border town in Chiang Rai province). It is a spicy soup-like dish, similar to the broth used in khanom chin nam ngiao, containing soft, wide rice noodles, pork ribs, congealed pork blood and minced pork. Tomatoes and fermented soy bean give it its specific taste. Sliced raw cabbage and bean sprouts are served on the side.
Khao soi nam na ข้าวซอยน้ำหน้า Khao soi nam na.jpg North Somewhat similar to khao soi Mae Sai, this variant from the eastern part of Chiang Rai Province is made with wide rice noodles in a clear pork broth. A spoonful of nam phrik ong (a sauce made from minced pork, tomato, fermented soy bean or shrimp paste, and dried chillies) is heaped on top of the noodles (nam na literally means "with sauce on top").
Kuaichap ก๋วยจั๊บ Kuaichap.JPG Originally a Teochew Chinese dish (Chinese: 粿汁), it is a soup of pork broth with rolled up rice noodle sheets (resulting in rolls about the size of Italian penne), pork intestines, "blood tofu", and boiled egg.
Kuai-tiao nam ก๋วยเตี๋ยวน้ำ Wide rice noodle soup A soup of wide rice noodles, often with minced pork, pork balls or fish balls.
Kuai-tiao nuea pueay ก๋วยเตี๋ยวเนื้อเปื่อย Kuaitiao nuea pueay.JPG A beef noodle soup with slices of very tender beef (nuea pueay).
Kuai-tiao phat khi mao ก๋วยเตี๋ยวผัดขี้เมา Drunken noodles Sen yai phat khi mao.jpg Spicy fried wide rice noodles.
Kuai-tiao rat na ก๋วยเตี๋ยวราดหน้า Wide rice noodles in gravy Kuai-tiao rat na mu.JPG Central Fried wide rice noodles with beef, pork, chicken or seafood in a thickened gravy.
Kuai-tiao ruea ก๋วยเตี๋ยวเรือ Boat noodles Central Rice noodles with beef or pork (and sometimes offal) in a brown broth which contains cinnamon, star anise and sometimes blood. It is spicy and sour.
Mi krop หมี่กรอบ Thai crispy fried noodles Mee krob (หมี่กรอบ).jpg Deep fried rice vermicelli with a sweet and sour sauce.
Phat Mama ผัดมาม่า Phat mama.jpg Mama (Thai: มาม่า) is the most popular brand of instant noodles in Thailand and the brand name is commonly used, instead of the generic bami kueng samret rup (Thai: บะหมี่กึ่งสำเร็จรูป), to designate instant noodles. The particular version in the image has been stir-fried "drunken noodle"-style.
Phat si-io ผัดซีอิ๊ว Noodles stir-fried with soy sauce Pad see ew.jpg Usually wide rice noodles fried with chicken or pork, and soy sauce.
Phat thai ผัดไทย Noodles pad Thai Phat Thai kung Chang Khien street stall.jpg Stir fried medium size rice noodles (sen lek) with fish sauce, sugar, lime juice or tamarind pulp, ground peanuts, egg, bean sprouts, and Chinese chives (kuichai), combined with pork, chicken, seafood, or tofu.
Phat wun sen ผัดวุ้นเส้น Stir-fried glass noodles Fried cellophane noodles with shrimp Pad woon sen kung.jpg Glass noodles are stir-fried with egg and vegetables, and a variety of ingredients such as meat, seafood, or with vegetarian alternatives.
Sapaketti phat khi mao สปาเกตตีผัดขี้เมา Sapaketti phat khi mao.jpg A Thai fusion dish where the name literally means spaghetti fried "shit-drunk" (khi mao = extremely drunk). An explanation is that any dish fried this way is easy to make, spicy, and uses whatever ingredients are available at that time; great after a night out drinking when still hungry.
Tom yam boran ต้มยำโบราณ Tom yam boran.jpg Central Tom yam boran is noodles served in a thick spicy sour sauce or broth, with crushed dried chillies, chopped peanuts and blanched vegetables such as bean sprouts. This version is bami mu tom yam boran: with egg noodles and pork.
Yen tafo เย็นตาโฟ Yen tafo.jpg The Thai version of the Chinese noodle dish Yong Tau Foo is slightly sweet, sour, salty and spicy.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Chim chum จิ้มจุ่ม Chim chum.jpg A Thai style hot pot served in an earthenware pot where the ingredients (meats, vegetables, mushrooms, noodles) are cooked in a clear herb broth of lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaves. Additionally, the broth can contain other herbs such as kaphrao (Thai holy basil), spices such as chillies, or in addition be partially meat based, using, for instance, pork ribs as one of the base ingredients. It is served with one or more nam chim (dipping sauces).
Mu kratha หมูกระทะ Mu kratha.jpg Mu kratha resembles a combination of a Korean barbecue and a Chinese hot pot. Meat (most often pork) is grilled in the centre while the vegetables and other ingredients, such as fish balls, cook in the soup. It is served with a variety of nam chim (Thai dipping sauces).
Nam phrik kapi kap pla thu thot[2] น้ำพริกกะปิกับปลาทูทอด Nam phrik pla thu872.jpg Fried pla thu served with nam phrik kapi, a pungent dip made mainly from shrimp paste and chillies, and raw, steamed and/or fried vegetables (often pieces of cha-om omelet). It is eaten with khanom chin (Thai rice noodles) or steamed rice. Although the name of this dish is often shortened to nam phrik pla thu, this actually refers to a certain type of chilli paste in which pla thu is used as an ingredient.
Pa thong ko ปาท่องโก๋ Chinese Thai vendor.jpg The Thai version of the Chinese crullers called youtiao, they tend to be smaller than the Chinese original. Most often eaten with sweetened condensed milk or with Thai coconut jam, they can also be served with chok, Thai rice congee.[3]
Suki สุกี้ Thai suki A Thai variant of the Chinese hot pot, it is mainly eaten as a meal on its own.

Shared dishes[edit]

Curries[edit]

See also: Thai curry
Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Chin hum จิ๊นฮุ่ม Chin hum.jpg North It is a slowly stewed meat curry from northern Thailand. This particular version is made with beef.[4]
Chuchi pla kaphong ฉู่ฉี่ ปลากะพง Central A semi-dry red curry with fried Snapper.
Chuchi pla thu sot ฉู่ฉี่ปลาทูสด Chuchi pla thu sot.jpg South A semi-dry curry made with fresh (i.e. unsteamed and unsalted) pla thu (Rastrelliger brachysoma). The version in the image was made at a southern Thai restaurant.
Kaeng cha-om แกงชะอม Kaeng chaom.JPG North A northern Thai curry with cha-om (the young leaves of the Acacia pennata) and dried fish.[5] This particular version also contained a mix of different types of mushroom.
Kaeng fak sai kai แกงฟักใส่ไก่ Kaeng fak sai kai.JPG North A northern Thai curry made with winter melon and chicken. It is also known under the name kaeng fak khio.[6]
Kaeng dok salae แกงดอกสะแล Kaeng dok salae.jpg North A northern Thai curry that is made from the unopened flower buds of the shrub Broussonetia kurzii (J. D. Hooker) Corner. These flower buds are only available in northern Thailand from mid-February until late March.
Kaeng hangle แกงฮังเล Kaeng hangle.jpg North A Burmese influenced curry of stewed meat (usually pork), peanuts, dried chillies and tamarind juice but without coconut milk. Thin strips of fresh ginger are added in before serving.
Kaeng het แกงเห็ด Kaeng het.jpg North A northern Thai curry made with pork and a variety of mushrooms.
Kaeng ho แกงโฮะ Kaeng ho.jpg North A Northern Thai dish where one or more types of curry are refried with glass noodles and other ingredients such as kaffir lime leaves, lemongrass and bamboo shoots. At least one of the curries used in this recipe should be the Northern Thai pork curry called kaeng hangle.
Kaeng kari แกงกะหรี่ Yellow curry Kaeng kari kai.JPG It is a Thai-Muslim dish which is mostly known in the West as "Thai yellow curry". It is of Indian origin and is often made with chicken and potatoes. It can also be made with other meats or seafood.
Kaeng khae แกงแค Kaeng khae-963.JPG North A spicy curry of herbs, vegetables, cha-om leaves (a kind of acacia tree), and meat (chicken, water buffalo, pork or frog). It does not contain any coconut milk.
Kaeng khanun แกงขนุน Kaeng kanun CM.jpg North A northern Thai curry made with boiled whole jackfruit, pork, tomatoes and chopped chakhan (Piper interruptum; "pepper vine").[7]
Kaeng khiao wan แกงเขียวหวาน Green curry Thai green chicken curry and roti.jpg Central A coconut curry made with fresh green chillies and flavoured with Thai basil, usually with chicken (kaeng khiao wan kai) or fish balls (kaeng khiao wan luk chin pla).
Kaeng khilek แกงขี้เหล็ก Kaeng khilek.jpg This creamy curry has as its main ingredient the leaves and flower buds of the Senna siamea tree (khilek in Thai).
Kaeng khua แกงคั่ว Kaeng khua het fang.jpg Central A type of Thai curry which uses a larger amount of turmeric in the paste than is usually the norm. A popular preparation is with prawns and pineapple. This particular version is called kaeng khua het fang (Thai: แกงคั่วเห็ดฟาง): with straw mushrooms.
Kaeng khua mu bai chamuang แกงคั่วหมูใบชะมวง Kaeng khua mu bai chamuang.JPG Central A thick central Thai curry with pork and the leaves of chamuang or Garcinia cowa, a tree related to the mangosteen.
Kaeng kradang แกงกระด้าง Kaeng kradang.jpg North A pork curry aspic (jelly) from northern Thailand which is eaten cold.
Kaeng lueang แกงเหลือง Kaeng lueang.JPG South A sour spicy curry that does not contain coconut milk and is yellow in colour due to the use of turmeric, often with fish and vegetables, such as bamboo shoots as in the version in the photo. In southern Thailand it is called kaeng som but due to it being different from the central Thai kaeng som, it is called kaeng lueang ("yellow curry") elsewhere. It should not be confused with what is known as "yellow curry" outside of Thailand.
Kaeng matsaman แกงมัสมั่น Massaman curry Kaeng matsaman kai.JPG South A thick, Indian style curry containing coconut milk, usually of stewed beef or, as in the image, chicken. This curry contains roasted dried spices that are rarely found in other Thai curries.
Kaeng om แกงอ่อม Kaeng om 01.jpg North A spicy Lanna "curry" with meat and several kinds of vegetables, and without any coconut milk. The version shown in the photo is with chicken.
Kaeng pa แกงป่า Jungle curry North Traditionally made with wild boar, most often pork or chicken is used nowadays. This curry, as most curries from northern Thailand, does not contain coconut milk.
Kaeng phak bung sai pla แกงผักบุ้งใส่ปลา Kaeng phak bung sai pla.jpg North A northern Thai curry made with "morning glory" and fish. This particular version uses catfish.
Kaeng phak kat cho kraduk mu แกงผักกาดจอกระดูกหมู Kaeng phak kat cho kraduk mu.jpg North A somewhat spicy soup/curry (kaeng) made with cabbage (phak kat cho, a variety of Brassica rapa chinensis) and pork ribs (kraduk mu). As is usual with Northern Thai "curries", it does not contain any coconut milk.
Kaeng phak lueat แกงผักเลือด Kaeng phak lueat.JPG North A northern Thai curry made with the leaves of the Ficus virens. This version is with pork.
Kaeng phak siangda แกงผักเซียงดา Kaeng phak siangda.jpg North A northern Thai curry made with the leaves of the vine Gymnema inodorum and dried fish. In this particular version, snakehead fish is used.[8]
Kaeng phak wan pa แกงผักหวานป่า Kaeng phak wan.JPG North A Northern Thai curry made with the leaves of the woody plant Melientha suavis Pierre, glass noodles and dried fish.[9]
Kaeng phanaeng แกงพะแนง Phanaeng curry Phanaeng kai.jpg Central A so-called dry, Indian influenced coconut curry with beef (phanaeng nuea, Thai: พะแนงเนื้อ), chicken, pork or seafood such as soft shell crab.
Kaeng phet แกงเผ็ด Red curry Kaeng phet mu.jpg Central A spicy red curry made with dried chillies, containing coconut milk. It can be made with different meats, seafood or tofu, in combination with (several types of) eggplant(s) and sometimes other vegetables. Fresh green peppercorns and Thai basil are often added to enhance the flavour.
Kaeng phet pet yang แกงเผ็ดเป็ดย่าง Red curry with roast duck Red roast duck curry.jpg Central Red curry with roast duck is the quintessential mix of the Thai (red curry) and Chinese (red roast duck) cuisines. This dish often also contains grapes and/or pineapple.
Kaeng pli แกงปลี Kaeng pli.jpg North A northern Thai curry made with chopped banana flower and pork.
Kaeng som แกงส้ม Kaeng som chaom thot.jpg Central A hot and sour Thai curry/soup made with tamarind paste and fish (often pla chon ["Snakehead fish"]). Kaeng som cha-om thot (Thai: แกงส้มชะอมทอด) is a version of the dish which features deep-fried cha-om (Acacia leaves) as one of its ingredients.
Kaeng tai pla แกงไตปลา Kaeng tai pla.JPG South A thick, spicy vegetable curry made with turmeric, a sauce made from fish innards (tai pla), and shrimp paste, containing roasted fish, bamboo shoots and eggplant.
Kaeng thae pho แกงเทโพ Kaeng thae pho.jpg Central One of the dishes mentioned in King Rama II's poem on Thai dishes, it is a central Thai curry originally made with the fatty belly part of the Pangasius Larnaudii (thae pho; shark catfish) but now more often belly pork is used as is the case with the version shown in the photo. The other main ingredient in this curry is phak bung Chin (Chinese water spinach).
Kaeng tun แกงตูน Kaeng tun.jpg A northern Thai curry made with the stalks of the Colocasia gigantea and (cat)fish. Colocasia gigantea is called tun (Thai: ตูน) in the northern Thai language and khun (Thai: คูน) in standard Thai.
Kaeng yot maphrao on sai kai แกงยอดมะพร้าวอ่อนใส่ไก่ Kaeng yot maphrao sai kai.JPG North A northern Thai curry made with "coconut heart" and chicken.[10] The taste of "coconut heart" is similar to bamboo shoots but much sweeter.
Kaeng yuak แกงหยวก Kaeng yuak.JPG North A northern Thai curry made with the tender core of the trunk of the banana plant.[11]
Khua kling คั่วกลิ้ง Khua kling.JPG South A very spicy, dry fried curry made with chopped meat (usually beef, chicken, pork or lamb) served with a large amount of shredded fresh kaffir lime leaves.
Khua kraduk mu คั่วกระดูกหมู Khua kraduk.JPG South A very spicy and, for Thai standards, "dry" curry with pork ribs. It is a Southern Thai speciality.
Yam chin kai ยำจิ๊นไก่ Yam chin kai sai hua pli.jpg North A curry dish from Northern Thailand containing chicken. The version in the image also contains sliced banana flower.[12]

Soups[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Kai tun ya chin ไก่ตุ๋นยาจีน Kai tun ya chin.JPG The name literally translates to "chicken stewed with Chinese medicine". It contains medicinal herbs, one of them the dried fruit of the wolfberry, a.k.a. goji berries (Thai: เก๋ากี้; kaoki). The dish is of Chinese origin.
Nam sup น้ำซุป Nam sup.jpg This is a clear broth, usually served together with khao man kai (chicken rice), khao mok (Thai biryani), khao kha mu (pork trotter simmered in soy sauce served with rice), khao na pet (red roast duck on rice), or khao mu daeng (red roast pork on rice). The broth can be made from chicken and/or pork, or it can be wholly vegetarian. The version served with duck is usually made from duck bones. It will often contain sliced hua chai thao (daikon; also known as phak kat hua in Thai) and hua chai po khem (a Chinese ingredient of dried and salted chopped turnip). Garlic, ginger, and pepper are often used as additional ingredients. It is most often garnished with fresh coriander leaves and/or spring onion.
Tom chuet ต้มจืด

แกงจืด

Clear vegetable soup Tom jued tahoo.jpg A light vegetable, chicken or pork broth with vegetables and celery, to which minced pork, soft tofu, seaweed, glass noodles and mushroom can be added. This soup can also be called Kaeng chuet (Thai: แกงจืดวุ้นเส้น).
Tom kha kai ต้มข่าไก่ Coconut soup with chicken Tom kha gai.jpg Central A mild to spicy soup with coconut milk, galangal (kha) and chicken. Mushrooms can be added to the chicken or substitute it.
Tom khlong ต้มโคล้ง Tom khlong.JPG It is a spicy and sour soup somewhat similar to Tom yam. The sourness however does not derive from lime juice but through the use of tamarind juice. The version in the image contains fried smoked fish, tomato and mushrooms.
Tom mara ต้มมะระ Bitter melon soup Tom mara yat sai mu sap wunsen.jpg A clear soup made with bitter melon (also known as bitter gourd; Momordica charantia) of Chinese origin. It is often stuffed with minced pork or with minced pork mixed with glass noodles as on this image. The full name of the latter version would then be tom mara yat sai mu sap wunsen.
Tom phak kat dong mu ต้มผักกาดดองหมู Tom phak kat dong mu.JPG A soup of boiled pickled Chinese cabbage and pork ribs. This dish is Chinese in origin.
Tom saep ต้มแซ่บ Hot and sour Isan soup Tom saep.JPG Northeast A spicy soup made with stewed meat (usually pork, chicken or beef), roasted fresh herbs and spices, ground roasted rice, and generous amounts of lime juice and fresh herbs just before serving.
Tom som kraduk mu ต้มส้มกระดูกหมู Tom som kraduk mu.JPG Tom som translates to "sour soup". This particular version is a basic one with only pork ribs (kraduk mu) and it derives its sourness from lime juice. Other types of tom som can also use tamarind for acidity, or a combination of both lime and tamarind, and can be made from a multitude of ingredients: meats as well as seafood, and vegetables.
Tom yam ต้มยำ Tom yum soup Tom yum.jpg Central A hot and sour broth made from lemon grass, galangal, kaffir lime leaves, dried chillies and lime juice, usually with prawns (Tom yam kung) or chicken (Tom yam kai).
Tom yuea phai ต้มเยื่อไผ่ Tom yuea phai.jpg It is a clear broth with, amongst other ingredients, yuea phai ("bamboo fungus"; Phallus indusiatus)

Salads[edit]

See also: Thai salads
Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Koi pla ก้อยปลา Koi pla.png Northeast Minced or finely chopped raw fish in spicy salad dressing. It is a popular raw fish dish in Isan and a common source of infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian liver fluke).
Lap Isan ลาบอีสาน Larb Lap mu isan.JPG Northeast Northeastern style lap is a spicy and sour salad of minced raw or cooked meat (mainly pork, chicken or duck), shallots or onions, lime juice, fish sauce, chillies, ground roasted rice and mint.
Lap Lanna ลาบล้านนา Lap khua mu.JPG North Northern Thai lap is completely different from lap from northeastern Thailand. Northern Thai lap is made by mixing raw or cooked minced meat (mainly pork, beef, chicken or fish) with an elaborate mix of dry spices and herbs. The northern Thai lap does not contain lime juice or fish sauce. The version in the image is lap khua, meaning that the meat has been fried.
Lap nuea dip ลาบเนื้อดิบ Lap nuea dip.jpg North A northern Thai lap-style salad of sliced raw beef (the version in the image also shows slices of raw beef tripe) and ground, dried spices.
Mu nam tok หมูน้ำตก Moo nam tok.jpg Northeast A very spicy salad made with pork (mu) and somewhat identical to lap, except that the meat is cut into thin strips rather than minced.
Naem khluk แหนมคลุก Naem khluk 1.jpg Naem sausage (pork fermented with sticky rice)[13] is mixed with boiled rice and then deep-fried. The salad is made by crumbling the deep-fried balls and mixing in sliced shallots, dried chillies, fish sauce and lime juice. It is served with raw vegetables and herbs.
Nuea yang nam tok เนื้อย่างน้ำตก Nuea yang nam tok.jpg Northeast With a similar "dressing" as larb, this dish is made with sliced grilled beef. "Nam tok" means "waterfall" in Thai and it is thought that the meat juices should run out from the meat like a waterfall.
Phla kung พล่ากุ้ง Phla kung.jpg A spicy salad of prawns, sliced lemongrass, culantro and/or other herbs, and shallots, with a dressing of lime juice, sweet chilli paste (Nam phrik phao - optional), fish sauce, pounded garlic and bird's eye chili. The version shown in the image also contained minced pork.
Phla mu พล่าหมู Phla mu.jpg A spicy salad of sliced grilled pork, sliced lemongrass, mint, culantro (optional) and shallots, with a dressing of lime juice, sweet chilli paste (Nam phrik phao - optional), fish sauce, pounded garlic and bird's eye chili.
Phla nuea makhuea on พล่าเนื้อมะเขืออ่อน Phla nuea makhuea on.jpg A Thai salad made with medium rare beef and Thai aubergines. The sliced, raw eggplants are mixed in with the warm beef to soften them (makhuea on means "soft aubergine"). This particular version of the salad was served with a nam tok-style dressing.
Sa nuea sadung ส้าเนื้อสะดุ้ง Sa nuea sadung Lap Lung Noi.jpg North A northern Thai speciality, made with medium rare, thinly sliced beef. Other ingredients for this dish are the elaborate phrik lap Lanna spices-and-chilli mix, onions, some broth, and fresh herbs such as kraphao (holy basil) or phak phai (Vietnamese coriander) although this particular version was made using saranae (spearmint). This particular version also contained nam phia, the partially digested contents from the first of the four stomachs of cattle, for added flavour.[14]
Som tam khai khem ส้มตำไข่เค็ม Som tam khai khem.jpg A variation of the standard papaya som tam with salted eggs.
Som tam pla ra ส้มตำปลาร้า 2013 Tam Lao.jpg Northeast Regarded as the original som tam, this version of green papaya salad contains pla ra (a sauce of fermented fish), and very often also brined rice paddy crabs, and makok (the fruit of the Spondias mombin) besides the usual ingredients for som tam. It does not however contain peanuts. It is also known as som tam Lao or, for short, as just tam Lao after the Lao people of Laos and of the Isan region of Thailand.
Som tam pu ส้มตำปู Som tam pu.jpg Green papaya salad with brined rice paddy crabs.
Som tam Thai ส้มตำไทย Thai papaya salad Som tam thai.JPG Central Som tam Thai with peanuts, dried shrimp and palm sugar, is the central Thai variant of green papaya salad.
Tam khanun ตำขนุน Tam khanun.jpg North A spicy Northern Thai salad made with boiled green whole jackfruit which has been mashed with a mortar and pestle, and minced pork. It is normally eaten with sticky rice and (as seen on the image) with khaep mu (pork cracklings).
Tam makhuea ตำมะเขือ Tam makhuea.JPG North Chopped and then pounded grilled long green eggplant (makhuea yao; Thai: มะเขือยาว), grilled green chillies, raw garlic and salt put in a banana leaf package mixed together with hard-boiled egg. It's a speciality of Northern Thailand where it is traditionally eaten with sticky rice.
Tam mamuang ตำมะม่วง Tam mamuang pla haeng thot.jpg A som tam style salad with tangy unripe mango "au Julienne" as its main ingredient. The version in the image contains pla haeng thot, deep-fried sun-dried anchovies.
Tam maphrao on sen mi krop ตำมะพร้าวอ่อนเส้นหมี่กรอบ Tam maphrao on sen mi krop 01.jpg A som tam style salad made with the meat of a young coconut and served with crispy deep-fried thin Chinese rice noodles.
Tam mu yo ตำหมูยอ Tam mu yo.jpg A spicy Thai salad made with mu yo, a Thai pork sausage which is often also described in Thailand as "Vietnamese sausage". The dressing is somewhat similar to that of som tam.
Tam phonla mai ruam ตำผลไม้รวม Tam phonla mai ruam.jpg The fruits used in this particular salad show the fusion aspect of Thai cuisine, as it incorporates "modern" (for Thais) fruit such as apples and grapes besides traditional fruit such as pineapple and guava. The dressing is made with pounded garlic, sugar, chillies, dried shrimp, lime juice and fish sauce, and is similar to that of som tam.
Tam som-o nam pu ตำส้มโอน้ำปู Tam som-o nam pu.JPG North It is a spicy pomelo salad which uses crab extract as a flavouring. This black sauce is achieved by pounding pu na ("ricefield crabs", Somanniathelphusa) to a pulp, straining the juices which are then boiled and reduced until the sauce becomes as thick as molasses.
Yam ยำ Thai salad A general name for many types of sour Thai salads. The main ingredient can be vegetable, fruit, meat, seafood and even noodles, which can be raw, cooked, grilled, fried or deep-fried. The basic recipe for the dressing consists of sliced shallots or onion, fish sauce, lime juice, sugar, bird's eye chillies, tomato and Chinese celery (khuen chai).
Yam bai cha ยำใบชา Yam bai cha.jpg A spicy Thai salad made with young, fresh tea leaves.
Yam hu mu ยำหูหมู Yam hu mu.jpg Made with thinly sliced, boiled pig's ears, the version in the image also contained fresh mint, lime juice, shallots, lemon grass, fish sauce and sugar.
Yam huapli thot ยำหัวปลีทอด Yam huapli thot 02.jpg A spicy Thai "yam"-style salad with deep-fried slices of banana blossom as its main ingredient.
Yam hoi khraeng ยำหอยแครง Yam hoi khraeng.jpg A spicy Thai salad made with blood cockles.
Yam khai dao ยำไข่ดาว Yam khai dao.JPG A spicy Thai salad made with fried egg (khai dao).
Yam khamin khao kung ยำขมิ้นขาวกุ้ง Yam khamin khao kung.jpeg A spicy Thai salad made with finely sliced (au Julienne) "white curcuma" (probably Curcuma zedoaria), shredded coconut, cooked prawns, sliced shallots, dried chillies, fresh green bird's eye chillies, roasted cashew nuts, and crispy fried onion rings.
Yam kun chiang ยำกุนเชียง Yam kun chiang.JPG A Thai salad made with a sweet dried pork sausage called kun chiang. This sausage is of Chinese origin. This dish is often eaten with plain rice congee (khao tom kui; Thai: ข้าวต้มกุ๊ย).
Yam mu krop ยำหมูกรอบ Yam mu krop.JPG A Thai salad made with crispy belly pork (mu krop).
Yam mu yo ยำหมูยอ Yam mu yo.jpg A spicy yam-style Thai salad with mu yo (Vietnamese sausage).
Yam mu yo thot khai dao ยำหมูยอทอดไข่ดาว Yam mu yo thot khai dao.jpg A spicy Thai salad made with crispy fried mu yo (Vietnamese sausage) and khai dao (fried egg).
Yam naem sot ยำแหนมสด Yam naem.JPG A Thai salad containing sausage made from fermented raw pork and sticky rice (naem sausage).
Yam no mai ยำหน่อไม้ Yam no mai.jpg North A Northern Thai salad made with strips of boiled bamboo shoots, shallots, herbs, fish sauce, lime juice, and chillies.
Yam no mai sai nam pu ยำหน่อไม้ใส่น้ำปู Yam no mai sai nam pu.JPG North A northern Thai salad made with boiled bamboo shoots and a thick paste made from the rice paddy crabs.
Yam nuea yang ยำเนื้อย่าง Thai grilled beef salad Yam nuea yang.jpg A spicy salad of grilled beef, shallots and Thai celery or spearmint.
Yam phak khut ยำผักกูด Yam phak khut.jpg A salad of edible fern shoots (Diplazium esculentum) and pork.
Yam pla duk fu ยำปลาดุกฟู "Exploded" catfish salad Yum pladook foo.jpg Crispy fried shredded pla duk (catfish) served with a spicy and tangy green mango salad.
Yam pla khem ยำปลาเค็ม Yam pla khem.JPG A Thai salad (yam) made with fried sun-dried salted fish (pla khem).
Yam pla thu ยำปลาทู Yam plathu.JPG Made with short mackerel (pla thu).
Yam sanat ยำสะนัด Yam sanat.jpg North A northern Thai "salad" of roughly chopped, blanched vegetables that are then refried with a chilli paste. It is served here together with northern Thai pork cracklings and deep-fried, sun-dried chillies.[15]
Yam som-o ยำส้มโอ Yam som-o.JPG A salad made with pomelo. The other ingredients are: sliced red bird's eye chillies, deep-fried sun-dried anchovies, roasted peanuts, fish sauce and tamarind juice.
Yam takhrai kung sot ยำตะไคร้กุ้งสด Yam takhrai kung sot.jpg A spicy "yam-style" salad with finely sliced raw lemongrass and prawns.
Yam thale ยำทะเล Yam thale.jpg A spicy salad with mixed seafood (cuttlefish, shelled prawns, mussels), shallots, lime juice, fish sauce and Thai celery.
Yam thua phu ยำถั่วพู Yam thua phu.jpg A Thai salad with winged beans, salted eggs, toasted coconut, shallots, fish sauce, lime juice and chillies. The version in this image also contains squid.
Yam wun sen ยำวุ้นเส้น Thai glass noodle salad Yam wun sen.JPG A spicy salad with glass noodles (cellophane noodles), minced chicken or pork and often either mixed seafood, squid or prawns. Cloud ear fungus also often features in this dish.

Fried and stir-fried dishes[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Kai phat khing ไก่ผัดขิง Ginger fried chicken Central A simple dish of fried slices of chicken with sliced ginger, soy sauce, fish sauce and chillies.
Kai phat met mamuang himmaphan ไก่ผัดเม็ดมะม่วงหิมพานต์ Chicken with cashewnuts Kai phat met mamuang himaphan.JPG Central The Thai Chinese version of the Sichuan style fried chicken with cashew nuts known as Kung Pao chicken, stir-fried with whole dried chillies.
Khai yat sai ไข่ยัดไส้ Stuffed omelette An omelette is fried filled with various ingredients of choice (minced beef or pork, prawns, and vegetables) and then folded over.
Khua chin som sai khai คั่วจิ๊นส้มใส่ไข่ Khua chin som sai khai.JPG North Northern Thai pickled pork stir-fried with egg.
Khua ho คั่วห่อ Khua ho.JPG North Glass noodles are stir-fried with left-overs from other dishes. Unlike kaeng ho, this dish will not contain any left-over curry dishes. It was traditionally eaten at the end of a ceremony or festival. It is served here with pork rinds.
Khua no mai sai mu คั่วหน่อไม้ใส่หมู Khua no mai sai mu.jpg North Stir-fried bamboo shoots with pork. In this particular version, the pork is minced. [16]
Kaphrao hoi lai กะเพราหอยลาย Kraphao hoi lai.jpg Undulated surf clam stir-fried with holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)
Kung thot krathiam phrik thai กุ้งทอดกระเทียมพริกไทย Deep fried prawns with garlic and pepper Prawns fried with garlic and fresh peppercorns.
Mu phat phrik khing หมูผัดพริกขิง Mu phat phrik khing.jpg Sliced pork fried with yardlong beans and kaffir lime leaves in a sweet chilli paste. Sometimes red curry paste is used instead of the phrik khing chilli paste.
Mu phat sato หมูผัดสะตอ Mu phat sato.jpg Sliced pork stir-fried with sato (the beans of the Parkia speciosa, also known as "stink bean" or "bitter bean"), onion, garlic, fish sauce, chillies and oyster sauce.
Mu phat sato phak Tai หมูผัดสะตอภาคใต้ Mu phat sato southern style.jpg South A spicy, southern Thai, version of mu phat sato where the pork and "stink beans" are fried with a copious amount of chillies and chilli paste.
Mu wan หมูหวาน Mu wan.jpg South Sliced pork is simmered or fried with sugar and soy sauce until the sauce is reduced and coats the meat.
No mai farang phat kung หน่อไม้ฝรั่งผัดกุ้ง Asparagus stir-fried with prawns Nor mai farang phat kung.jpg Green asparagus stir-fried with prawns, garlic, sliced chillies, fish sauce and oyster sauce.
Nuea phat bai yira เนื้อผัดใบยี่หร่า Beef stir-fried with African basil Nuea phat bai yira.jpg Besides beef and basil, other ingredients are garlic, chillies, light soya sauce and fish sauce. African basil leaves have a slight anise taste.
Phak bung fai daeng ผักบุ้งไฟแดง Fried morning-glory Pak boong fai daeng.jpg Morning-glory (a.k.a. water spinach) stir fried with yellow bean sauce, garlic and chillies. It is a very popular vegetable dish in Thailand.
Phak khana nam man hoi ผักคะน้าน้ำมันหอย Chinese kale stir-fried with oyster sauce Phak kana nam man hoi.jpg Originally a Chinese dish, it has been adapted to Thai taste by adding fish sauce to the recipe, and by omitting the ginger. Here with fried shiitake mushroom.
Phat buap ผัดบวบ Stir-fried Luffa Phat buap.jpg Stir-fried luffa (sponge gourd) with pork/shrimp and egg or just egg.
Phat dok hom ผัดดอกหอม Phat dok hom.jpg Stir-fried onion flowers with pork and pork liver.
Phat khana mu krop ผัดคะน้าหมูกรอบ Fried kale with crispy pork Phat khana mu krop.jpg Central Khana (gailan or Chinese kale) is stir fried with crispy pork (mu krop), garlic, oyster sauce, soy sauce, pepper and (optionally) sliced chillies.
Phat khanaeng mu ผัดแขนงหมู Phat khanaeng mu.jpg Stir-fried khanaeng with pork, garlic, oyster sauce, fish sauce and white pepper. Khanaeng are the sprouts of Chinese broccoli and grow from the root after the main stem has been harvested. The taste is in between Brussels sprouts and kale, and very sweet.
Phat kaphrao ผัดกะเพรา Fried with holy basil Kraphao moo.jpg Minced beef, pork, chicken or whole prawns stir fried with Thai holy basil, chillies, garlic and soya sauce.
Phat naem sai khai ผัดแหนมไส่ไข่ Phat naem sai khai.jpg Naem sausage (made from fermented raw pork skin and sticky rice) stir fried with egg.
Phat no mai sai khai ผัดหน่อไม้ใส่ไข่ Phat no mai sai khai.jpg Stir-fried bamboo shoots and egg.
Phat phak khom ผัดผักโขม Phat phak khom.jpg Thai spinach (Amaranthus spinosus; Thai name: Phak khom nam; Thai script: ผักโขมหนาม) is often stir-fried with minced pork and egg.
Phat phak ruam ผัดผักรวม Stir fried mixed vegetables Stir fried combination of vegetables depending on availability and preference. Usually fried with oyster sauce.
Phat phrik ผัดพริก Fried with chillies Stir fried meat (usually beef) or seafood with chillies, garlic and ginger.
Phat yot fak maeo ผัดยอดฟักแม้ว Stir-fried mountain melon greens 2013 Phat sayongte.jpg Yot sayongte, which is also known in Thailand as yot fak meao (yot meaning "shoots"), are the young vines and leaves of a certain type of melon (chayote, originally from Central America) which in Thailand grows mainly in the mountains up north. These greens have a very sweet taste and combine extremely well with oyster sauce.
Phunim phat phong kari ปูนิ่มผัดผงกะหรี่ Phunim phat pong kari.jpg Deep-fried pieces of soft-shell crab which have been stir-fried with egg and curry powder.
Pla duk phat phet ปลาดุกผัดเผ็ด Pla duk phat phet.jpg Slices of catfish (most often pre-fried) are stir-fried in a sauce made with red curry paste. Pea eggplant feature in this dish for added taste and texture.
Pla kaphong phat khuen chai ปลากะพงผัดขึ้นฉ่าย Pla kaphong phat khuen chai.jpg Barramundi (often called "sea bass" in Thailand) stir-fried with Chinese celery, light soy sauce, garlic, ginger and fermented soy beans.
Pla muek phat phrik phao ปลาหมึกผัดพริกเผา Pla muek phat phrik phao.JPG Squid stir-fried with sweet and mild chilli paste (nam phrik phao), onion, garlic, spring onion and sliced large red chillies. Paprika can be used instead of chillies if a milder version is preferred.
Tap kai phat phrik sot ตับไก่ผัดพริกสด Tap kai phat phrik sot.jpg Chicken liver fried with young (mainly green) chillies, light soy sauce, oyster sauce, onion, spring onion, black pepper, and garlic. Here it is served with rice and a fried egg (khai dao).
Thua ngok pla khem ถั่วงอกปลาเค็ม Thua ngok pla khem.jpg A stir-fried dish of mung bean sprouts, salted fish, chillies and garlic.

Deep-fried dishes[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Kai ho bai toei ไก่ห่อใบเตย Chicken wrapped in pandan leaves Central Pieces of marinated chicken are wrapped in fragrant pandan leaves and then deep fried.
Kai thot takhrai ไก่ทอดตะไคร้ Deep fried chicken and lemongrass Kai thot takhrai.jpg Pieces of chicken are deep fried together with finely chopped or shredded lemongrass, and served with a sweet chilli sauce.
Kai thot ไก่ทอด Deep-fried chicken Kai thot krueng thae.JPG The version of kai thot as shown in the image is made in the Southern Thai manner, having been marinated with khamin (turmeric) and served with krueng thae (crispy fried chopped garlic and turmeric) as a topping.
Khaep mu แคบหฺมู Pork cracklings Khaep mu.jpg Deep fried pork skin. Khaep mu eaten with nam phrik num (grilled green chilli dip) from Chiang Mai is renowned in the whole of Thailand.
Mu krop หมูกรอบ Crispy pork Cooked belly pork is first marinated and then deep fried until crispy. Often used sliced in vegetables stir fries.
Mu thot krathiam หมูทอดกระเทียม Mu thot krathiam.jpg Deep-fried pork and garlic
Nang kai thot หนังไก่ทอด Nang kai thot.JPG Crispy, deep-fried chicken skin. It can be eaten as a snack or together with chilli pastes or salads.
No yat sai thot หน่อยัดไส้ทอด No yat sai thot 01.jpg North A northern Thai speciality of deep-fried bamboo shoots with a filling of minced pork.
Pik kai sot sai thot ปีกไก่สอดไส้ทอด Stuffed chicken wings Deep fried, partially de-boned chicken wings, stuffed usually with minced pork.
Pla buang ปลาบ้วง 2013 Pla buang.jpg North Cuts of Giant snakehead fish (pla chado) are first salted and sun-dried for three days, and then deep-fried. This dish is somewhat similar to pla chado daet diao from central Thailand but there the fish is only dried for only one day, making the taste less intense.
Pla krai thot krathiam ปลากรายทอดกระเทียม Pla krai thot.JPG Deep-fried pla krai ("Clown Knifefish") and garlic. It is served with a spicy dipping sauce on the side made from coriander root, lime juice, fresh bird's eye chillies, garlic, sugar and fish sauce.
Pla nin thot samun phrai ปลานิลทอดสมุนไพร Pla nin thot samun prai.jpg Deep-fried pla nin ("Nile Tilipia") served with deep-fried herbs such as lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, garlic, and fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). A chilli-lime dip is served on the side as a condiment.
Pla sam rot ปลาสามรส Three flavours fish Pla tub tim tod samrod.jpg Central Deep fried fish with a sweet, tangy and spicy tamarind sauce.
Pla thot ปลาทอด Deep-fried fish Pla nin thot.jpg A simple deep-fried fish, most often served with a spicy dipping sauce. The fish in this image is pla nin, a Nile Tilapia.
Pla thot khamin ปลาทอดขมิ้น Pla sai daeng thot.jpg South Typical for southern Thai cuisine, this deep-fried fish has first been marinated in a spice mixture which includes a large amount of turmeric (khamin). In addition, this particular version was topped with crispy deep-fried chopped garlic and turmeric. It is often served with raw vegetables on the side, and a spicy dipping sauce.
Pla wong thot ปลาวงทอด Pla wong thot.jpg Deep-fried pla wong (literally meaning "circle fish"): fish which have first been cut open, arranged into a circle and then sun-dried. Here it is served Southern Thai style with a spoonful of a deep-fried mix of minced garlic, galangal, and turmeric.
Pu cha ปูจ๋า Crab cakes A mixture of cooked crab meat, pork, garlic and pepper, deep fried inside the crab shells and usually served with nam chim buoy (Thai: น้ำจิ้มบ๋วย, plum sauce). Instead of being fried in the crab shell it is also sometimes served as patties.
Sai mu thot ไส้หมูทอด Sai mu thot.JPG Deep-fried pork intestines
Si khrong mu thot ซี่โครงหมูทอด Si khrong mu thot.JPG Deep-fried pork ribs. The version in the image however, had first been boiled, then marinated, then deep-fried with garlic, and then again stir-fried with a sweet and tangy tamarind sauce just before serving.

Grilled dishes[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Aep mu แอ็บหมู Aep mu.JPG North A Northern Thai "soufflé" of egg, minced pork, herbs and curry paste that is slowly grilled inside a banana leaf wrapper over a charcoal fire.[17]
Aep ong-o แอ็บอ่องออ Aep ong-o.jpg North Roughly chopped pig's brain mixed with egg and curry paste are grilled over a low fire, wrapped inside banana leaves [18]
Aep pla noi แอ็บปลาน้อย Aep pla noi.jpg North Freshwater small fry and brine shrimp are mixed with curry paste and then grilled over a low fire wrapped inside banana leaves
Chin som mok จิ๊นส้มหมก Chin som mok.JPG North Chin som is the northern Thai version of the pickled pork sausage called naem. In chin som mok (lit. "covered chin som") the pickled pork is grilled inside a banana leaf before serving.
Kai yang ไก่ย่าง Grilled chicken Kai yang CM.jpg Northeast Grilled marinated chicken, usually eaten together with Som tam (papaya salad).
Kho mu yang kratha ron คอหมูย่างกระทะร้อน Kho mu yang kratha ron.jpg Kho mu yang kratha ron literally translates to "pork neck grilled on a hot skillet".
Kung yang/kung phao กุ้งย่าง/กุ้งเผา Grilled prawns Kung yang.JPG Grilled prawns are normally served with a nam chim, a spicy dipping sauce, made with mashed raw garlic and green bird's eye chillies, sugar, fish sauce and lime juice.
Mu manao หมูมะนาว Pork with lime juice Mu manao.JPG Sliced grilled pork with a dressing (nam chim) of mashed garlic, green bird's eye chillies, sugar, fish sauce and lime juice. Here it is served with additional sliced bird's eye chillies and raw garlic on a bed of ice-water chilled sliced raw phak khana (Chinese broccoli)
Mu yang หมูย่าง Isan grilled pork Huay Kaew waterfall mu yang.jpg Northeast Originally from the Isan region of Thailand, the fatty parts of belly pork, together with the skin, are preferred over lean meat. It is served with nam chim chaeo, a spicy dipping sauce made with dried chillies and roasted, then pounded, sticky rice.
Nuea ping เนื้อปิ้ง Nuea ping.jpg Marinated and barbecued beef.
Pam khai mot ป่ามไข่มด Pam khai mot.jpg North[19] Grilled banana leaf cups containing a mixture of ant eggs, chicken eggs and some salt. After grilling the dish is sprinkled with chopped spring onion and pepper. The ant eggs make the dish much more creamy. It can also be eaten as a snack.
Sai krok Isan ไส้กรอกอีสาน Sai krok Isan yai.jpg Northeast Grilled, fermented pork and sticky rice sausage, originally from the Isan region of Thailand. It can be shaped like a sausage as in the image, or as round balls.[20] It is also often eaten as a snack at festivals and fairs, and served together with sliced ginger, bird's eye chillies and raw cabbage.
Sai mu ping ไส้หมูปิ้ง Sai mu ping.jpg Marinated and barbecued pork intestines
Sai ua ไส้อั่ว "Chiang mai sausage" Sai ua CR.jpg North A grilled sausage of ground pork mixed with spices and herbs,[21] and which is often served with chopped fresh ginger and chillies at a meal.
Suea rong hai เสือร้องไห้ Weeping tiger beef Suea rong hai.jpg Northeast Suea rong hai literally means "weeping tiger". It is grilled marinated beef which is eaten with vegetables and Nam chim chaeo dipping sauce.

Steamed or blanched dishes[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Bai po ใบปอ Jute leaves Bai po.JPG Eaten blanched as a dish with khao tom kui (plain rice congee), the taste is similar to that of spinach or samphire
Ho mok pla ห่อหมกปลา Fish curry pâté Thai style Otah.JPG Central A Thai curry "pâté" or "soufflé" of fish, spices, coconut milk and egg, steamed in a banana leaf cup and topped with thick coconut cream before serving.
Ho mok maphrao on ห่อหมกมะพร้าวอ่อน Ho mok thale.jpg A Thai curry "pâté" or "soufflé" of mixed seafood and the soft meat of a young coconut, here served inside a coconut.
Pla nueng manao ปลานึ่งมะนาว Steamed fish with lime juice Thai steamed fish with lime juice-2.jpg Central Steamed fish which is drenched in a spicy garlic, chilli, chicken stock and lime juice dressing.[22]

Stewed dishes[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Khai phalo ไข่พะโล้ Mu phalo.JPG Egg stewed with meat in soy sauce, garlic, ginger and phong phalo (Thai: ผงพะโล้; five-spice powder). Meats used in khai phalo tend to be pork or chicken wings. Other ingredients, such as mushrooms and fried tofu, can also be incorporated. The dish is of Chinese origin.[23] Similar dishes are mu phalo and kha mu phalo (using only pork, and ham hocks), kai phalo (chicken) and pet phalo (duck).

Dipping sauces and pastes[edit]

See also: Nam phrik and Nam chim
Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Nam chim chaeo น้ำจิ้มแจ่ว Nam chim chaeo 2.jpg Northeast It is a sticky, sweet and spicy dipping sauce made with dried chillies, fish sauce, palm sugar, lime juice and coarsely ground roasted sticky rice. Often served as a dip with mu yang (grilled pork).
Nam chim kai น้ำจิ้มไก่ Chicken chilli sauce Sweet chilli sauce.jpg A very common all-round chilli dipping sauce with the consistency of a thick syrup, it is medium spicy and very sweet. Often used as a dipping sauce for grilled chicken (kai means "chicken"), it can also be used as a generic chilli sauce for other dishes. It forms the base of a few other types of nam chim, such as nam chim thot man pla ("dipping sauce for deep-fried fish cakes").
Nam chim paesa น้ำจิ้มแป๊ะซะ Nam Chim Paesa - Thai dip.jpg Northeast A spicy dipping sauce eaten with steamed fish wrapped in raw lettuce or cabbage.
Nam chim sate น้ำจิ้มสะเต๊ะ Peanut sauce A peanut sauce which is normally served with satay.
Nam pla phrik น้ำปลาพริก Phrik nam pla.jpg Colloquially called phrik nam pla, it is a standard sauce served with every Thai buffet style meal, fried rice or fried noodles, and used as a kind of "salt". It is made by mixing fish sauce with some lime juice, chopped bird's eye chillies and often also sliced garlic.
Nam phrik i-ke น้ำพริกอีเก๋ Nam phrik i-ke.jpg North A northern Thai chilli paste made with chillies, sliced aubergine, pork rinds, and fermented shrimp paste.[24]
Nam phrik kapi น้ำพริกกะปิ Nam phrik kapi 2.jpg A pungent chilli dip made with shrimp paste, pounded dried shrimp, bird's eye chillies, garlic, lime juice, fish sauce, (palm) sugar and, optionally, pea sized aubergines; most often eaten as part of the dish called Nam phrik pla thu.
Nam phrik kha น้ำพริกข่า Nam phrik kha.JPG North A Northern Thai fried chilli paste containing galangal (kha). It is often eaten, as seen here, with steamed het nang fa (Thai script: เห็ดนางฟ้า; lit. "fairy mushroom"; Pleurotus pulmonarius).
Nam phrik khaep mu น้ำพริกแคบหมู Nam phrik kaep mu.jpg North A northern Thai chilli paste of mashed grilled green chillies, deep-fried pork rinds, fresh garlic and salt.[25]
Nam phrik long ruea น้ำพริกลงเรือ Nam phrik long ruea.jpg Central The name means "chilli paste for in a boat" as it was often eaten while travelling the rivers of Thailand by boat. A sweet, savoury and spicy chilli dip, it is served together with fresh vegetables, salted egg and sweet pork. This version also included khamin khao ("white curcuma") and the slightly sour and bitter leaves of makok (Spondias mombin)
Nam phrik num น้ำพริกหนุ่ม Nam phrik num.jpg North A paste of pounded roasted large green chillies, roasted shallots, roasted garlic, coriander leaves, lime juice and fish sauce; eaten with steamed and raw vegetables, khaep mu (crispy pork rind) and sticky rice.
Nam phrik ong น้ำพริกอ่อง Nam phrik ong 02.jpg North Resembling a thick Bolognese sauce, it is made with dried chillies, minced pork and tomato; eaten with steamed and raw vegetables, and sticky rice.
Nam phrik phao น้ำพริกเผา Chilli jam A sweet roasted chilli paste, often used as an ingredient in Tom yam or when frying meat or seafood, and also popular as a spicy "jam" on bread or toast.
Nam phrik pla chi น้ำพริกปลาจี่ Nam phrik pla chi.jpg North A chilli paste made with grilled fish, roasted chillies, roasted shallots and roasted garlic, lemongrass and shrimp paste. It's normally served with both steamed and raw vegetables and/or other leaves.[26]
Pu ong or ong pu ปูอ่อง or อ่องปู Pu ong.jpg North A northern Thai speciality that is eaten as a pungent dipping sauce for sticky rice. It is made by collecting the "fat" of rice field crabs (Parathelphusidae) and grilling this inside the crab shell.[27]
Sot Siracha ซอสศรีราชา Sriracha sauce Siracha sauce.jpg It is a hot sauce made from sun-ripened chilli peppers, vinegar, garlic, sugar and salt. It is commonly known in Thailand as sot Siracha (sot is the Thai pronunciation of the English word "sauce"), but also as nam chim Siracha or nam phrik Siracha. The name is derived from the seaside town of Si Racha.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Khai dao ไข่ดาว Fried egg Khai dao.JPG Literally translated khai dao means "star egg", referring to the star-like shape of the egg after it has been fried. Traditionally the egg is fried in large amounts of hot vegetable oil which produces a crispy outer texture. Khai dao mai suk is a fried egg where the yolk is still runny, the way it is most commonly eaten when served with, for instance, khao phat ("fried rice") or kaphrao mu rat khao ("pork fried with holy basil served with rice"). Fried egg with a (very) hard yolk, khai dao suk (mak), is needed when the fried egg is used for making yam khai dao: fried egg salad.
Mu op หมูอบ Mu op.jpg Central Oven-roasted pork, this Thai-Chinese dish is most often served sliced, with a sweet soy and five-spice powder sauce.
Mu ruam luak chim หมูรวมลวกจิ้ม Mu ruam luak chim.JPG This dish consist of several types of pork (intestines, liver, and other cuts) which have been shortly blanched in boiling water or stock and then served with fried garlic, spring onions and a spicy dipping sauce.
Pla sam thap ปลาสามทัพ Pla sam thap.jpg Fish prepared in 3 different ways: on the left of the image is pla sam rot (deep-fried served with a tangy sweet chilli sauce), in the middle pla nueng manao (steamed fish with a raw garlic, lime and chilli sauce), and on the right pla thot krathiam (deep-fried fish with deep-fried garlic).
Roti thitchu โรตีทิชชู่ Roti with beef curry.jpg Similar to roti canai/roti prata from Malaysia and Singapore, this Indian-style fried flatbread is eaten with certain curries. For a sweet version, see roti kluai khai below in the section "Sweet snacks and desserts". The word thitchu in the name of this dish, is a loanword from English meaning "tissue".

Savoury snacks and starters[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Chingrit thot จิ้งหรีดทอด Chingrit thot.jpg Deep-fried crickets, either Gryllus bimaculatus or, as shown in the image, Acheta domesticus. This dish is often eaten as a snack to go with drinks.
Kai rom khwan ไก่รมควัน Smoked chicken Kai rom khwan.jpg Smoked chicken is often eaten as a snack to go with drinks.
Karipap กะหรี่ปั๊บ Curry puff Karipap Chiang Mai.jpg Deep-fried pastry shells usually containing a chicken meat and potato curry.
Khaep mu แคบหมู Crispy pork rind Khaep mu.jpg North Deep fried crispy pork rinds, often eaten with nam phrik num and other northern Thai dips
Khanom chip ขนมจีบ Siu mai Khanom chip.jpg The Thai version of the Chinese steamed dumplings called siu mai in Cantonese. The colour indicates the filling: the green dumplings contain a mix of minced pork and crab meat, the others have a filling of only minced pork.
Khanom kuichai ขนมกุยช่าย Khanom kuichai.jpg Originally a dish of the Teochew people called "gu chai gue" (Chinese script: 韭菜馃) in the Teochew language, these are steamed dumplings made from rice powder and a filling of garlic chives. The dipping sauce for this dish is soy sauce which often is spiced with dried chilli flakes. This particular version was fried to give it a crispy texture.
Khanom Tokiao ขนมโตเกียว Khanom Tokiao.jpg Literally translated it means "Tokyo cake", it is a Thai style crêpe wrapped around a hot dog and sweet chilli sauce. The chilli sauce can also be served on the side as a dip. Other versions of khanom Tokiao use yam or sweet condensed milk as a filling.
Khao phan nga muan ข้าวพันงาม้วน Khao phan nga muan.jpg North Rolled khao phan with sesame seeds. Khao phan is a speciality from northern Laos which in Thailand is only found in Uttaradit province. Rice flour is mixed with water and let to ferment overnight. The resulting batter is then spread out thinly over a cloth stretched out over a steamer, covered with a hood and let to steam for a few minutes. Rolled up it is served with a chilli dip.
Khao phan phak ข้าวพันผัก Khao phan phak.jpg North Khao phan are thin, steamed rice sheets made from the fermented batter of rice flour mixed with water. Here served as a wrap for stir-fried vegetables.
Luk chin ping ลูกชิ้นปิ้ง Grilled pork and beef balls.jpg Meatballs made from fish, pork, beef or chicken are grilled on a stick and served with a spicy and tangy dipping sauce. The ones shown on the image are made with pork and beef. It is commonly sold from street stalls in Thailand.
Miang kham เมี่ยงคำ Miang kam ready.JPG Dried shrimp and other ingredients wrapped in cha phlu (Thai: ช้าพลู) leaves.
Miang pla เมี่ยงปลา Miang pla.jpg Similar to Miang kham, the main ingredient for this wrap is deep-fried fish.
Mu daet diao หมูแดดเดียว Mu daet diao.jpg Deep-fried strips of sun dried pork, here with sesame seeds. A spicy dipping sauce (very often Sriracha sauce) is almost always provided with this dish.
Nuea daet diao kaphrao thot เนื้อแดดเดียวกะเพราทอด Nuea daet diao kraphao thot.jpg Deep-fried strips of sun dried beef and with crispy fried holy basil.
Nuea khem thot เนื้อเค็มทอด Nuea khem thot.jpg North Salted, sun-dried beef that has been deep-fried before serving.
Pla muek yang ปลาหมึกย่าง Plamuk yang.jpg Grilled cuttlefish.
Sate สะเต๊ะ Satay Mu sate.JPG Marinated beef, chicken or pork grilled on bamboo skewers and usually served with nam chim sate (peanut sauce) and achat (pickled cucumber).
Thot man khaophot ทอดมันข้าวโพด Thot man khaophot.JPG Deep-fried cakes made with corn and herbs in a batter, and served with a sweet chilli sauce
Thot man pla ทอดมันปลา Fried fish cakes Thanin market tod man pla.jpg Deep fried patties of minced fish mixed with red curry paste, finely chopped yardlong beans (tua fak yao), and finely shredded leaves of kaffir lime (makrut). Knife fish (pla krai) is popularly used. For this variety of thot man, a sweet & hot similar to chicken chili sauce is provided usually mixed with chopped pieces of cucumber, crushed peanuts, and topped with phak chi.
Thot man pu ทอดมันปู Fried crab cakes Deep fried patties of minced crab meat. Plum sauce is commonly provided.
Thot man kung ทอดมันกุ้ง Fried prawn cakes Another popular variety of thot man where minced shrimp or prawn is used. Plum sauce is commonly provided.
Thung thong ถุงทอง Money bag Thung thong kung sot.jpg Small, crispy, deep-fried pastry purses filled with a mixture of minced chicken or pork together with minced prawns, mushroom and water chestnut, and served with sweet plum sauce or Thai sweet chilli sauce[28]
Tua mai thot ตัวไหมทอด Tua mai thot.jpg Crispy, deep-fried pupae of silkworms. This dish is most often eaten as a snack to go with drinks.

Sweet snacks and desserts[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Chaokuai เฉาก๊วย Grass jelly Chao guay thai grass jelly.jpg Grass jelly is made from a herb from the mint family. It is often served with only shaved ice and brown sugar.
Foi thong ฝอยทอง Foi thong.jpg The name translates to "golden threads", it is a sweet snack or dessert of strings of egg yolk shortly boiled in sugar syrup. This, and other egg-based sweets such as sangkhaya, were introduced to the royal court of Ayutthaya by Maria Guyomar de Pinha in the 17th century CE.
Khanom bua loi ขนมบัวลอย Taro root mixed with flour into balls and served in coconut milk.
Khanom chan ขนมชั้น Multi-layers of pandan-flavoured sticky rice flour mixed with coconut milk
Khanom khrok ขนมครก Khanom khrok.jpg Small coconut hotcakes with different fillings. These are made on a special cast-iron pan with indentations. Two halves are eventually stuck to one another to form the finished mini-pancake.
Khanom mo kaeng ขนมหม้อแกง Mo Geng.JPG A sweet baked pudding containing coconut milk, eggs, palm sugar and flour, sprinkled with sweet fried onions.
Khanom tako ขนมตะโก้ Khanom tako sai.jpg Jasmine scented coconut pudding set in cups of fragrant pandan leaf.
Khanom tako phueak ขนมตะโก้เผือก Khanom tako pheuak70.jpg Traditional sweets made with coconut milk, rice, flour, sugar and boiled taro pieces in a banana leaf cone.
Khanom tan ขนมตาล Palm flavoured mini cake with shredded coconut on top.
Khanom thuai talai ขนมถ้วยตะไล Steamed sweet coconut jelly and cream.
Khanom tom ขนมต้ม Khanom tom.JPG These sweets are made by boiling balls of dough made from glutinous rice powder, coconut cream, grated coconut, sugar and flavourings, and then covering them with more grated coconut.
Khanom wun ขนมวุ้น CM khanom wun.jpg These are desserts made with an agar gelatine. The colours represent different flavours.
Khao niao mamuang ข้าวเหนียวมะม่วง Mango with sticky rice Mango with glutinous rice.jpg Sticky rice cooked in sweetened thick coconut milk, served with slices of ripe mango.
Khao niao sangkhaya ข้าวเหนียวสังขยา Khao niao sangkhaya.JPG Sticky rice served with an egg and coconut custard (coconut jam).
Khao tom mat sai kluai ข้าวต้มมัดไส้กล้วย Khao tom mat sai kluai 01.jpg The dish is made by wrapping sweet banana and sticky rice inside a banana leaf and then steaming it. The banana takes on a pink colour after steaming.
Kluai thot กล้วยทอด Kluai thot.jpg Deep-fried bananas in a light batter
Kraya sat กระยาสารท Wafers or chunks of rice candy with beans and sesame. Often prepared as an offering to the monks[29]
Lot chong nam kathi ลอดช่องน้ำกะทิ Pandan-flavoured rice flour noodles in sweetened coconut milk, similar to the Indonesian cendol.
Mamuang dong มะม่วงดอง Pickled mango Mamuang dong.jpg Pickled green mango is often eaten as a (semi-)sweet snack.
Roti kluai khai โรตีกล้วยไข่ Roti kluai khai chiang mai 04.jpg Sliced banana and a beaten egg are fried inside a thin sheet of dough, then cut and served with sweetened condensed milk and/or sugar.
Roti sai mai โรตีสายไหม Roti sai mai 2.jpg An extremely sweet kind of candy floss/cotton candy which is wrapped inside small, thin pancakes.
Ruam mit รวมมิตร A chilled sweet snack/dessert with a mix of ingredients, such as sweetened chestnuts, jackfruit, lotus root, tapioca, and lot chong, in sweetened coconut milk.
Sangkhaya fak thong สังขยาฟักทอง Stuffed pumpkin Sangkhaya fak thong.JPG Steamed pumpkin with an egg-and-coconut custard filling, similar to the coconut jam from Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Thad khai ทาร์ตไข่ Egg tart Thad khai.jpg The Thai version of the Portuguese pastel de nata.
Thong yip ทองหยิบ Thong yib.jpg Thong yip is, like foi thong, made from egg yolks. The difference is that instead of being thread-like, thong yip are shaped like flowers.

Drinks[edit]

Thai name Thai script English name Image Region Description
Cha dam yen ชาดำเย็น Black iced tea It is made from strongly brewed black tea ("red tea" in East Asia). The tea is sweetened with sugar and served with ice.
Cha manao ชามะนาว Lime flavored tea It is made from strongly brewed black tea ("red tea" in East Asia). The tea is sweetened with sugar flavored with sugar and lime and served hot or with ice. Mint may also be added.
Cha ron ชาร้อน Thai hot tea It is made from strongly brewed black tea ("red tea" in East Asia). The tea is sweetened with sugar and condensed milk and served hot.
Cha yen ชาเย็น Thai iced tea Cha yen.JPG It is made from strongly brewed black tea ("red tea" in East Asia). Additional ingredients may include orange blossom water, star anise, crushed tamarind seed and sometimes other spices. The tea is sweetened with sugar and condensed milk and served chilled.
Kafae boran กาแฟโบราณ Kafae boran Chiang Mai.jpg Kafae boran literally translates to "ancient/traditional coffee". It is a strong coffee that is served with sweetened condensed milk, similar in taste to the kopi that is served at kopi tiam (traditional coffee shops) of Malaysia and Singapore. It is usually made with robusta coffee beans, by steeping the grounds inside a brewing "sock".
Krating Daeng กระทิงแดง Thai red bull Krating Daeng.jpg An energy drink and the origin of Red Bull.
Lao khao เหล้าขาว Rice vodka A distilled alcohol made from glutinous rice, it is often a home-made moonshine.
Lao Mae Khong เหล้าแม่โขง Mekhong whiskey Closer to a rum, it is distilled from sugarcane and rice.
Nam bai bua bok น้ำใบบัวบก Nam bai bua bok.JPG A refreshing drink made from the leaves of the Asiatic Pennywort (Centella asiatica).
Nam dok anchan น้ำดอกอัญชัน Clitoria ternatea drink A refreshing drink made from Clitoria ternatea flower flavored with sugar served with ice.
Nam manao น้ำมะนาว Lime drink A refreshing drink made from lime juice flavored with sugar and a pinch of salt served with ice.
Nam phan น้ำพันช์ Thai punch Nam phan.jpg Resembling a slush puppie laced with alcohol, this drink is popular with students. Nam means liquid or water, phan is derived from the English word "punch": a beverage based on fruit and often containing alcohol.
Nam takhrai น้ำตะไคร้ Lemongrass tea A refreshing drink made from lemongrass. It can be served either hot or with ice.
Oliang โอเลี้ยง Iced black coffee A sweet Thai black ice coffee. The name is of Teochew origin where "o" means black, and "liang" means cold.
Saeng som แสงโสม Sang Som A Thai rum which has been distilled since 1977.
Satho สาโท Thai rice wine A traditional rice wine from the Isan region.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=178
  2. ^ Leftovers made over | Bangkok Post: food
  3. ^ http://shesimmers.com/2012/08/pa-thong-ko-thai-style-chinese-crullers-%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%97%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87%E0%B9%82%E0%B8%81%E0%B9%8B.html
  4. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=116
  5. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=33
  6. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=46
  7. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=16
  8. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=35
  9. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=43
  10. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=51
  11. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=56
  12. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=123
  13. ^ http://www.thaifoodmaster.com/ingredient/meats/pork/155
  14. ^ http://munchies.vice.com/articles/northern-thailands-raw-food-movement-involves-blood-and-guts/
  15. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=138
  16. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=83
  17. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=107
  18. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=106
  19. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=120 Chiang Mai University, Lanna food: khai pam recipe
  20. ^ http://www.shesimmers.com/2011/04/northeastern-thai-sour-sausage-sai-krok.html She Simmers: Northeastern Thai Sour Sausage
  21. ^ Chiang Mai University, Lanna food: sai ua recipe
  22. ^ http://chef-a-gogo.com/pla-neung-manao-steamed-fish-with-thai-lime-dressing/
  23. ^ http://nooskitchen.com/?p=323
  24. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=175
  25. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=150
  26. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=167
  27. ^ http://library.cmu.ac.th/ntic/en_lannafood/detail_lannafood.php?id_food=191 Chiang Mai University, Lanna food: Pu ong
  28. ^ Thai Money Bag, EzyThaiCooking.com, retrieved 31 March 2010
  29. ^ Thai Merit Making & Long Boat Racing Festival
  • Bhumichitr, Vatcharin. The Essential Thai Cookbook, 192 pages, New York: Clarkson N. Potter Inc., 1994

External links[edit]