List of Thai ingredients

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Some of the ingredients for Thai red curry: lemongrass, galangal, kaffir lime leaves, shallots, garlic, and dried red chillies

This is a list of ingredients found in Thai cuisine.

Herbs and spices[edit]

Fresh herbs and spices[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Starr 020803-0094 Centella asiatica.jpg Bai bua bok ใบบัวบก Centella asiatica Usually made into iced drink.
Citrus hystrix leaf.jpg Bai makrut ใบมะกรูด Kaffir lime leaves Kaffir lime leaves are widely used in spicy Thai soups and curries, either cooked whole, together with the dish, and/or finely shredded and added before serving.
Pandan (screwpine) leaves.JPG Bai toei ใบเตย Pandan or screwpine leaves This sweet smelling leaf is used for flavouring different sweet snacks/desserts. It is also used in the well known dish Kai ho bai toei, deep fried chicken wrapped in pandanus leaves, as well as to stuff the belly of barbecued fish
Bai yanang ใบย่านาง Tiliacora triandra Leaves used in the preparation of Kaeng no mai som (Thai: แกงหน่อไม้ส้ม), sometimes called Kaeng Lao (Thai: แกงลาว).
Horapa.jpg Horapha โหระพา Thai sweet basil A variety of the sweet basil with a taste of anise. It is used in different curries such as red and green curry and often also served separately.
Galangal ready for preparation.png Kha ข่า Galangal The perfume-like scent and flavour of the galangal root is characteristic for many Thai curries and spicy soups.
Turmericroot.jpg Kha min ขมิ้น Turmeric This yellow coloured root is often used in dishes of Muslim/Southern Thai origin and in Northern Thailand for Northern style curries.
Ingwer 2 fcm.jpg Khing ขิง Ginger Either served raw (shredded or diced) with dishes such as Miang kham and Khanom chin sao nam, in certain chilli dips, or in stir fried dishes of Chinese origin.
Temu kunci.png Krachai กระชาย Fingerroot This root has a slightly medicinal flavour and is used in certain fish dishes and curries.
Starr 080117-1577 Ocimum tenuiflorum.jpg Kaphrao กะเพรา Holy basil Holy basil has a distinctive scent of clove and reddish tipped leaves. It is used, for instance, in the well-known Kraphao mu (minced pork fried with basil).
Krathiam กระเทียม Garlic Besides being used cooked or fried, garlic is used raw in many dips and salad dressings. It is also served raw on the side with several Thai dishes such as Khao kha mu (stewed pork served on rice) or as one of the ingredients for dishes such as Miang kham.
Kemangi.jpg Maenglak แมงลัก Lemon basil The leaves are used in certain curries. It is also indispensable with Khanom chin nam ya. The seeds resemble frog's eggs when soaked in water and are used in sweet desserts.
Starr 080117-1555 Coriandrum sativum.jpg Phak chi ผักชี Coriander/cilantro leaves The leaves are seen often as a garnish with many Thai dishes. It is indispensable for Tom yam soup.
Hombay3.jpg Phak chi farang ผักชีฝรั่ง Culantro A herb often seen in spicy soups and Northern curries. It literally means "European coriander", perhaps because it was brought from the Caribbean to Thailand by Europeans.
Starr 070906-8840 Anethum graveolens.jpg Phak chi Lao ผักชีลาว Dill Fresh dill is used mainly in certain soups and in curries from north-eastern Thailand which do not contain coconut milk. It literally means "coriander from Laos" in Thai.
Phak phai.jpg Phak phai ผักไผ่ Vietnamese coriander The Persicaria odorata is used sparingly in Thai cuisine. It is indispensable with Lap lu, a Northern Thai dish of raw minced pork, beef or buffalo, and blood, with spices, herbs and leaves.
Phrik chi fa พริกชี้ฟ้า Chilli spur pepper Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum Fingerh.[1] is a medium sized chilli and less spicy than the phrik khi nu, it is often added to stir fried dishes and curries as a kind of "vegetable". Either red, yellow or green in colour.
Phrik khi nu.jpg Phrik khi nu พริกขี้หนู Bird's eye chilli This small chilli is one of the spiciest and used extensively in Thai cooking. The Thai name literally translates to "mouse-dropping chilli"
Phrik khi nu suan พริกขี้หนูสวน This variety of the phrik khi nu is even smaller and even more spicy. The name literally translates to "garden mouse-dropping chilli".
Pepper091.jpg Phrik Thai on พริกไทยอ่อน Fresh peppercorns Thai cuisine often uses fresh (green) peppercorns in stir fried dishes and in certain curries such as Kaeng pa (so-called Jungle Curry).
Phrik yuak พริกหยวก Wax pepper Very large, mild tasting pale-green chillies which can be found in certain stir fried dishes or deep fried stuffed with, for instance, pork.
Coriander roots.JPG Rak phak chi รากผักชี coriander/cilantro root The roots of the coriandrum sativum are often used in curry pastes and certain soups such as Tom yam kung.
Minze.jpg Saranae สะระแหน่ Spearmint Used in many Thai salads and sometimes as a way to suppress the 'muddy' taste of certain fish when steamed.
Prepared lemon grass.JPG Takhrai ตะไคร้ Lemon grass Used extensively in many Thai dishes such as curries, spicy soups and salads.

Dried herbs and spices[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Dipli.jpg Dipli ดีปลี Long pepper The dried spice is used in many northern Thai dishes for its heat and flavour. It is most famously used in northern Thai lap.
ClovesDried.jpg Kanphlu กานพลู Cloves Used in certain meat dishes, most notably in Matsaman curry.
Muscade.jpg Luk chanthet ลูกจันทน์เทศ Nutmeg nut Used in certain Indian style curries, most notably in Matsaman curry.
Makhwaen มะแขว่น Zanthoxylum limonella A type of Prickly ash, and related to the Sichuan pepper, these seeds are used most often in Northern Thai cuisine for their spicy, hot taste.[2]
Sesame-Seeds.jpg Nga งา Sesame seed The oil from the sesame seed is not really used in Thai cuisine (unlike in Chinese cuisine). The seeds (black and white sesame) are mainly used whole in certain deep fried desserts such as thong muan (Thai: ทองม้วน).
Cassia bark.jpg Opchoei อบเชย Cassia cinnamon Used in certain meat dishes, most notably in Matsaman curry.
Phong kari ผงกะหรี่ Curry powder Thai curries are nearly always made with fresh pastes. Curry powder is only used when making certain Indian style curries.
Phong phalo ผงพะโล้ Five-spice powder The Chinese five-spice powder is used mainly in Thai-Chinese dishes such as mu phalo (pork stewed in soy sauce, Thai: หมูพะโล้)
Phrik lap Chiang Rai.jpg Phrik lap พริกลาบ An elaborate mix of dried spices used in lap Lanna, a category of minced meat salads from Northern Thailand. Some of the ingredients used in this spice mix are: coriander seed, nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon, star anise, prickly ash and long pepper.[3]
Dried Peppercorns.jpg Phrik Thai dam พริกไทยดำ Black pepper
Dried Peppercorns.jpg Phrik Thai (Phrik Thai khao) พริกไทย (พริกไทยขาว) White pepper
Thian khao plueak.jpg Thian khao plueak เทียนข้าวเปลือก Fennel seeds Most often used as one of the spices in northern Thai phrik larb/lap.

Pastes, sauces and condiments[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Kapi chiang mai warorot market 01.jpg Kapi กะปิ Thai shrimp paste Made by fermenting ground shrimp and salt. it has a pungent aroma. It is used, for instance, in red curry paste, in the famous chili paste called nam phrik kapi.
HAT YAI MARKET 2.jpg Khrueang kaeng เครื่องแกง Thai curry paste Literally meaning "curry ingredients", Thai curry paste can be made fresh at home or bought freshly made at markets in Thailand or pre-packaged for export markets. Most khrueang kaeng will be a ground mixture of fresh or dried chillies, various spices and herbs and other ingredients such as shrimp paste. Instead of khrueang kaeng, curry pastes can also be called nam phrik in Thailand, although this usually refers to chilli pastes which are eaten as part of a meal.
Nam man hoi น้ำมันหอย Oyster sauce Oyster sauce is of Chinese origin. It is used extensively in vegetable and meat stir-fries.
Ngan Pyar Yay.jpg Nam pla น้ำปลา Fish sauce Thai fish sauce is a very aromatic and strong tasting fish sauce which can be made from different types of fish and seafood. Fish sauce is a staple ingredient in Thai cuisine and imparts a unique character to Thai food.
Pla ra96.jpg Pla ra ปลาร้า Also a sauce made from fermented fish. It is more pungent than nam pla, and, in contrast to nam pla which is a clear liquid, pla ra is opaque and still contains pieces of fish.
Si-io dam ซีอิ้วดำ Dark soya sauce Thai "dark" soya sauce is similar to the dark Chinese soya sauce.
Si-io khao ซีอิ้วขาว Light soya sauce Thai "light" soya sauce is similar to the light Chinese soya sauce.
Taochiao wiki1.jpg Taochiao เต้าเจี้ยว Yellow soybean paste Yellow soybean paste has a sweet-and-salty taste which is more "earthy" than that of soya sauce.It is used, for instance, in the dish Phak bung fai daeng (stir-fried water spinach).

Vegetables[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Corchorus olitorius L.jpg Bai po ใบปอ Corchorus olitorius (Jute) The leaves are eaten blanched as a dish with khao tom kui (plain rice congee). The taste resembles that of spinach and samphire.
Luffa aegyptica.jpg Buap hom บวบหอม Luffa aegyptiaca Used in stir-fries, in curries and in Kaeng type soups.
Luffa acutangula1.jpg Buap liam บวบเหลี่ยม Luffa acutangula Used in stir-fries and in Kaeng type soups.
Starr 080608-7434 Piper sarmentosum.jpg Chaphlu ชะพลู Piper sarmentosum This leaf is used raw as a wrapper for the Thai dish Miang kham.
Pumpkin with stalk.jpg Fak thong ฟักทอง Kabocha Used in curries, stir-fries, soups, salads and sweets.
Starr 070730-7852 Brassica oleracea var. capitata.jpg Kalam pli กะหล่ำปลี White cabbage In Thai cuisine, cabbage is often served raw on the side with Thai salads such as som tam or lap, steamed or raw with nam phrik, or boiled in soups and curries.
Khanaeng.jpg Khanaeng แขนง Cabbage sprouts The sprouts that come up from the roots after the main cabbage has been harvested, are simply called khanaeng, meaning "sprouts", or khanaeng kalam pli, "cabbage sprouts".[4] They resemble and taste like brussels sprouts. It is often eaten stir-fried with, for instance, pork.
Kassod (Senna siamea) flowers W IMG 0540.jpg Khilek ขี้เหล็ก Senna siamea The leaves, tender pods and seeds are edible, but they must be previously boiled and the water discarded. One of the most well-known preparations is Kaeng khilek (แกงขี้เหล็ก).[5]
YosriTerungPipit1.jpg Makhuea phuang มะเขือพวง Pea eggplant This pea sized eggplant is often used in curries and is indispensable in Nam phrik kapi, a chilli dip containing shrimp paste, where it is used raw.
Makheua pro.jpg Makhuea pro มะเขือเปราะ Thai eggplant About the size of a ping pong ball, these eggplants are used in curries or stir-fries, but they are also eaten raw with Nam phrik (Chilli dips).
Makhuea thet มะเขือเทศ Tomato Literally meaning "foreign eggplant", it is used in salad such as Som tam, as an ingredient in stir-fries such as in Thai fried rice, but also cooked to a thick sauce as in the chilli paste Nam phrik ong.
Bittergourds861.jpg Mara มะระ Bitter melon or bitter gourd The small variety is most often eaten raw with Nam phrik. Popular is Tom chuet mara (Thai: ต้มจืดมะระ): bitter gourd in a clear broth, often stuffed with minced pork.
Moringa pods29.jpg Marum มะรุม Drumstick Most parts of the tree are edible: the long pods, the leaves, the flowers and the roots. Used in curries, stir-fries, soups, omelets, salads and also medicinal preparations.
Bamboo sprouts in basket.jpg No mai หน่อไม้ Bamboo shoot Used in stir-fried dishes and Thai curries.
Asparagus-Bundle.jpg No mai farang หน่อไม้ฝรั่ง Green asparagus. Literally meaning "European bamboo shoot", green asparagus is used mainly in vegetable stir-fries.
Ong choy water spinach.png Phak bung ผักบุ้ง Morning-glory or water spinach The large variety (Phak bung chin) is mostly eaten stir-fried or in soup. The small variety (Phak bung na) is generally served raw with Som tam or with Nam phrik.
Oenanthe javanica1.jpg Phak chi lom ผักชีล้อม Oenanthe javanica Eaten in soups, curries, stir-fries and also raw. This is one of the vegetables known as Phak chi lom, the other is Trachyspermum roxburghianum.[6]
Phak hongte ผักฮ่องเต้ Bok choy Used mainly in Thai-Chinese soups and stir-fries, this vegetable is known under several names in Thailand. Besides the aforementioned, it can also be called phak kat hongte (Thai: ผักกาด ฮ่องเต้), phak kwantung hongte (Thai: ผักกวางตุ้งฮ่องเต้ ), and phak kwantung Hong Kong (Thai: ผักกวางตุ้งฮ่องกง). Hongte, derived from the Chinese Hokkien dialect, means "Emperor (of China)", and kwantung is the Thai word for Guangdong, a province of China. The "Hong Kong" variety of bok choy is generally larger and sweeter than the bok choy known under the other names.
ChineseCabbage.jpg Phak kat khao ผักกาดขาว Chinese cabbage Literally "white cabbage", it is often eaten in soups and stir-fried dishes but also raw, sliced very thin, with certain spicy noodle soups or raw with Nam phrik.
Mustardgreensraw.jpg Phak kat khiao ผักกาดเขียว Mustard greens Literally "green cabbage", it is often eaten in soups and stir-fried dishes.
Gailan.jpg Phak khana ผักคะน้า Chinese broccoli or Kai-lan Mostly eaten stir-fried with oyster sauce.
Ngổ (Limnophila aromatica).JPG Phak khayaeng ผักแขยง Limnophila aromatica Eaten raw with Nam phrik. Popular in Isan.
Hydroponic pak khom hybrid70.jpg Phak khom ผักขม Amaranthus spp.[7] Used in salads and in soups like Tom chap chai and Tom kha mu. Mostly hybrids are offered in the market. The red-leafed Amaranth is known as Phak khom bai daeng (Thai: ผักขมใบแดง)
Neptunia oleracea0.jpg Phak krachet ผักกระเฉด Water mimosa Usually eaten raw with Nam phrik. Popular in Isan.
Leucaena leucocephala835.jpg Phak krathin ผักกระถิน Leucaena leucocephala Tender pods or seeds are eaten raw with Nam phrik.
Phak kwangtung ผักกวางตุ้ง Choy sum Literally "Guangdong greens", it is often eaten in soups and stir-fried dishes.
Marsilea crenataRHu1.JPG Phak waen ผักแว่น Marsilea crenata Eaten raw with Nam phrik. Popular in Isan.
Melientha suavis.jpg Phak wan ผักหวาน Melientha suavis[7] Used in soups, mainly the sour soup of the kaeng type.[8]
Riang เหรียง Tree bean The young pods are edible.
Parkia speciosa.JPG Sato khao สะตอข้าว Stink bean The seeds of the Parkia speciosa (inside the pods) are usually eaten in stir fries.
Cucumis sativus1.jpg Taengkwa แตงกวา Cucumber Typical Thai cucumbers are small. Eaten raw with Nam phrik or as a Som tam ingredient.
Limnocharis flava725.jpg Talapat ruesi ตาลปัตรฤๅษี Limnocharis flava Eaten in soups, curries and stir-fries. Popular in Isan. It is popularly known as Phak phai (Thai: ผักพาย), not to be confused with Phak phai (Thai: ผักไผ่), the leaves of Persicaria odorata, another type of edible leaf.[7]
Vigna unguiculata3.jpg Thua fak yao ถั่วฝักยาว Yardlong beans A very versatile bean, it is used in curries and stir-fried dishes, but also served raw in Som tam salad or together with a Nam phrik (chilli dip).
Sojasprossen fcm.jpg Thua ngok ถั่วงอก Bean sprouts It is often eaten in soups and stir-fried dishes. Thais tend to eat bean sprouts raw to semi-raw, for instance in Phat Thai noodles where it is either sprinkled on top of the finished dish raw or added into the pan for one quick stir before serving
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus836.jpg Thua phu ถั่วพู Winged bean Often eaten raw with Nam phrik.
Glycine max 003.JPG Thua rae ถั่วแระ Soybean[9] Pods are boiled and seeds are eaten as a snack with salt.

Roots[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Pachyrhizus erosus.jpg Man kaeo มันแกว Jicama This tuberous root is mostly eaten raw with sugar, as if it was a fruit.
YosriUbiKayu.jpg Man sampalang มันสำปะหลัง Cassava A popular traditional cassava-based dish is Chueam (Thai: เชื่อม), a candied starchy dessert. The tubers are also used for making tapioca pearls used in desserts and drinks.
5aday sweet potato.jpg Man thet มันเทศ Sweet potato Man thet (literally meaning "foreign tuber") is popularly also known as man daeng (Thai: มันแดง; "red tuber"); boiled pieces are eaten as a snack or used as an ingredient for desserts.
Taro root CDC.jpg Pheuak เผือก Taro Usually boiled pieces are an ingredient of a variety of desserts. Slices of deep fried taro are also popular as a snack.
Lotusroots.jpg Rak bua รากบัว Lotus root

Flowers and tree leaves[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Bai makok.jpg Bai makok ใบมะกอก Spondias mombin Bai makok is the leaf of the Spondias mombin, a relative of the cashew. The young leaves are served raw with certain types of Nam phrik (Thai chilli pastes). The taste is sour and slightly bitter. The fruit of this tree are also eaten.
Cha-om243.jpg Cha-om ชะอม Acacia pennata Young feathery leaves of the Acacia pennata tree which are used in omelettes, soups and curries. In Northern Thai cuisine they are also eaten raw as for instance with Tam mamuang, a green mango salad.
Barringtonia acutangula (Freshwater Mangrove) fruits in Kolkata W IMG 8547.jpg Chiknam or Kradon จิกน้ำ or กระโดน Barringtonia acutangula Shoots, young leaves and flowers of the tree are eaten raw with Nam phrik. Popular in Isan.
Etlingera elatior (Scott Zona) 001.jpg Dala ดาหลา Etlingera elatior Can be eaten in Yam preparations,[10] said to have medicinal value as well.
Clitoria ternatea.JPG Dok anchan ดอกอัญชัน Clitoria ternatea Can be eaten raw or fried, but mostly it is used to make a blue food colouring to colour rice or sweets, like Khanom dok anchan.
Dok khae317.jpg Dok khae ดอกแค Sesbania grandiflora The flowers of the Sesbania grandiflora are often eaten steamed with Nam phrik or used in certain curries such as kaeng som.
Starr 060721-8421 Telosma cordata.jpg Dok salit ดอกสลิด Telosma cordata Mostly either boiled and eaten with Nam phrik or stir-fried in Phat dok salit.
Dok sano348.jpg Dok sano ดอกโสน Sesbania bispinosa These small yellow flowers are eaten stir-fried, in omelette or in sweets such as in Khanom dok sano.
Thanin market banana flowers and leaves.jpg Huapli หัวปลี Banana flower Banana flowers can be eaten raw, e.g. Yam hua pli (a spicy salad with thinly sliced banana flowers), or steamed with a Nam phrik (chilli dip). It can also feature in Som tam, in soups or deep-fried, as in Thot man huapli. The taste of the steamed flowers is somewhat similar to that of artichokes.
Lep Khrut.jpg Lep khrut เล็บครุฑ Polyscias fruticosa Literally translated, the Thai name means "claws of the Garuda". These slightly bitter and slightly sour leaves can be served raw together with a chilli dip. It is also used as a vegetable in certain Thai curries.
Melinjothai.jpg Phak liang ผักเหลียง Melinjo Commonly made into an omelet. Associated with Southern Thai cuisine.
Ficus virens sublanceolata leaves.jpg Phak lueat ผักเลือด Ficus virens The young, slightly bitter leaves of the Ficus virens are used boiled in certain Northern Thai curries.
Oroxylum indicum250.jpg Pheka เพกา Oroxylum indicum Leaves and young pods are eaten raw. The large mature pods are grilled and the inside is scraped and eaten along with Lap.[11]
Yaa-sadao44.jpg Sadao สะเดา Neem tree The leaves and flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) are eaten blanched, often with Nam phrik.

Edible fungi and algae[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Het fang.jpg Het fang เห็ดฟาง Volvariella volvacea ("Straw mushroom")
Shiitakegrowing.jpg Het hom เห็ดหอม Lentinula edodes or Shiitake
Het hu nu เห็ดหูหนู Auricularia polytricha.jpg Het hu nu เห็ดหูหนู Cloud ear fungus
Tremella closeup.jpg Het hu nu khao เห็ดหูหนูขาว White jelly fungus
EnokitakeJapaneseMushroom.jpg Het khem thong เห็ดเข็มทอง Golden needle mushroom
Het khon khao เห็ดขอนขาว Lentinus squarrosulus.jpg Het khon khao เห็ดขอนขาว Lentinus squarrosulus
Het daeng het gohr Russula lepida เห็ดก่อ เห็ดแดง.jpg Het ko or het daeng เห็ดก่อ เห็ดแดง Russula lepida [12]
Het nam pheung (bolets noirs) เห็ดน้ำผึ้ง thaeogyroporus porentosus.jpg Het nam phueng เห็ดน้ำผึ้ง Phlebopus portentosus
Het nang fah เห็ดนางฟ้า Lentinus sajor-caju.jpg Het nang fa เห็ดนางฟ้า Lentinus sajor-caju (or Pleurotus sajor-caju)
Het nang lom เห็ดนางรม pleurote pulmonaire.jpg Het nang rom เห็ดนางรม Pleurotus pulmonarius
Het pluak tap เห็ดปลวก Termitomyces fuliginosus Heim.jpg Het pluak เห็ดปลวก Termitomyces fuliginosus Heim
Het pluak gai noi เห็ดปลวกไก่น้อย termitomyces fuliginosus.jpg Het pluak kai noi เห็ดปลวกไก่น้อย Termitomyces fuliginosus

Fruits and nuts[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Wax apple.png Chomphu ชมพู่ Rose apple
Guava CDC.jpg Farang ฝรั่ง Guava
Hylocereus undatus red pitahaya.jpg Kaeo mangkon แก้วมังกร Dragonfruit There are two varieties in the market, one is white inside, the other dark purple.
Sterculia monosperma148.JPG Kaolat thai เกาลัดไทย Thai Chestnut Usually eaten boiled or steamed. The nut is smoother than a common chestnut.
Jaca.jpg Khanun ขนุน Jackfruit All parts of this large fruit are edible. The flesh around the seeds is preferred in Thailand, usually eaten raw or fried. Whole boiled unripe khanun is used in a Northern Thai salad called tam khanun.
Thai bananas-kamphaeng phet87.jpg Kluai กล้วย Banana Traditionally eaten mainly while green and unripe, steamed, grilled or fried. Also eaten ripe as a fruit.
Trapa natans nut.jpg Krachap กระจับ Water caltrop Also known as water chestnut. It should be eaten boiled because it can be a carrier of fasciolopsiasis.
Kecapi.jpg Krathon กระท้อน Santol Used when still not fully ripe as a main ingredient in Tam krathon, a variant of Som tam. It is also one of the main ingredients in the santol and pork (แกงหมูกระท้อน)[13] and santol and prawn Thai curries (แกงคั่วกระท้อนกุ้ง).[14]
Lamut263.jpg Lamut ละมุด Sapodilla
Frutos Exóticos-LonganFruit-002.JPG Lamyai ลำไย Longan
Lansiumdomesticumfruit.jpg Longkong ลองกอง Duku
Chrysophyllum cainito0.jpg Luk nam nom ลูกน้ำนม caimito or cainito Delicious as a fresh dessert fruit; it is sweet and best served chilled. Infusions of the leaves have been used against diabetes and articular rheumatism. The fruit has anti-oxidant properties. The bark is considered a tonic and stimulant, and a bark decoction is used as an antitussive. The fruit also exists in three colours, dark purple, greenish brown and yellow. The purple fruit has a denser skin and texture while the greenish brown fruit has a thin skin and a more liquid pulp; the yellow variety is less common and difficult to find.
Mafai1619.JPG Mafai มะไฟ Burmese grape
Luowangzi.JPG Makham มะขาม Tamarind The pulp is used to give a pleasant sour taste to some soups, curries and Pad Thai. Also used to make sweets and refreshing drinks.
Starr 070206-4139 Pithecellobium dulce.jpg Makham thet มะขามเทศ Madras thorn Less strongly flavoured than tamarind, which it resembles.[15] Eaten as a fruit.
Makok724.jpg Makok มะกอก Spondias mombin Used as a secondary ingredient in Som tam.
Starr 080608-7452 Carica papaya.jpg Malako มะละกอ Papaya Traditionally eaten mainly while green and unripe as a main ingredient in Som tam.
Malet bua.jpg Malet bua เมล็ดบัว Lotus seed The seeds of the lotus Nelumbo nucifera are eaten raw or boiled, mainly in certain Thai desserts. The image shows the lotus fruit pods, with the seeds, each encapsulated individually in a rubbery skin, coming out through the surface of the pods. The seeds can also be dried.
Mango Bangladesh.JPG Mamuang มะม่วง Mango Often eaten green and sour as an ingredient in salads and sauces, but also as a ripe fruit.
Limes on granite counter.jpg Manao มะนาว Lime Indispensable to Thai cuisine, it serves as the main ingredient for adding acidity to Thai dishes such as with Tom yum and Larb. It can also be eaten chopped together with the peel in dishes such as Miang kham. Mixed with sugar and water it serves as a refreshing drink.
Mangosteen.jpeg Mangkhut มังคุด Mangosteen
Cocos nucifera00.jpg Maphrao มะพร้าว Coconut The young nut is popular as a refreshing drink. Coconut milk is extracted out of the grated flesh of the ripe nuts and is used in a number of dishes and curries, especially in Southern Thailand.
Bouea macrop Fr 080109-3217 tdp.jpg Maprang มะปราง Bouea macrophylla The seed is also edible.
Phyllanthus acidus2.jpg Mayom มะยม Phyllanthus acidus Can be used as a secondary ingredient in Som tam.
Rambutan white background alt.jpg Ngo เงาะ Rambutan
Sugar apple with cross section sl.jpg Noina น้อยหน่า Sugar-apple
Jujube255.jpg Phutsa พุทรา Jujube
Luk sala 3.jpg Sala สละ Snake fruit The taste of the fruit is somewhat musty, and somewhere in between dried bananas, jackfruit, and preserved dates. Some people mistakenly name sala as rakam (Thai: ระกำ), which is another variety of snake fruit with a slightly more watery taste and a more spherical appearance.
Maracuyá.jpg Saowarot เสาวรส Passionfruit Used to make refreshing drinks.
210704 ananas-comosus-dreiergruppe-marktware 1-640x480.jpg Saparot สับปะรด Pineapple It can also be used in cooking. In Ubon Ratchathani Province pineapple is used to make Khem mak nat (Thai: เค็มหมากนัด) fermented fish[16]
Citrus grandis - Honey White.jpg Som-o ส้มโอ Pomelo In Thailand, pomelo is often eaten dipped into a spicy mix of dried chilli flakes, sugar and salt. It can also be used in spicy Thai salads such as Yam som-o (Thai: ยำส้มโอ).
Bilimbifruits.jpg Talingpling ตะลิงปลิง Bilimbi Very sour. Can be used instead of lime or tamarind in soups such as in Tom yam. Also eaten raw with sugar and chilli mixture.
Thurian long laplae.JPG Thurian ทุเรียน Durian One of the most popular, and due to its odour also infamous, fruits in Thailand. Some cultivars grown in Thailand are Chani, Mon Thong, Kan Yao, Ruang, Kradum and, shown here on the photo, Long Laplae.

Staple foods and other starches[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Bami บะหมี่ Egg noodles Similar to the Chinese mee pok and lamian, it was not common in Thailand until in recent years as it is made from wheat which had to be imported. It is used stir-fried, deep-fried (mi krop) and in noodle soups.
Khanom Chin - Thai rice noodles.JPG Khanom chin ขนมจีน Thai rice vermicelli Fresh rice vermicelli made from fermented rice. It is commonly seen as a noodle to go with certain spicy soups and curries, but it is also popular with som tam and other Thai salads.

Mon (มอญ) origin.

Khao ข้าว Rice The ultimate staple food for Thai people, so much that it can also mean "food" in general as in kin khao: "to eat (kin) rice" means the same as "to eat food".
Thai jasmine rice uncooked.jpg Khao hom mali ข้าวหอมมะลิ Jasmine rice or Thai fragrant rice This long-grained variety of rice, with its nutty aroma and a subtle pandan-like flavour, originates from Thailand and now forms the bulk of Thailand's rice crop.
Kin khao niao.JPG Khao niao ข้าวเหนียว Glutinous rice or sticky rice The main type of rice traditionally eaten in the Northeast and North of Thailand. It is often served in a special bamboo container called a kratip khao
Khao niao dam ข้าวเหนียวดำ Black glutinous rice With a nutty taste, it can be mixed together with steamed white rice and eaten with savoury dishes or served sweetened together with coconut milk.
Kuai tiao ก๋วยเตี๋ยว Rice noodles The generic Thai word for rice noodles. The name comes from the Teochew dialect of Chinese, where the word kuai tiao literally means "cake strips". In Chinese it only designates the wide variety which in Thai is called kuai tiao sen yai (see shahe fen).
Paeng khao chao แป้งข้าวเจ้า Rice flour Used mainly in desserts and as a thickening agent
Paeng man sampalang แป้งมันสำปะหลัง Tapioca flour Used mainly in desserts and as a thickening agent
Sen lek เส้นเล็ก Narrow rice noodle Narrow, flat rice noodles; used in such dishes as Phat Thai and in noodle soups. Its full name would be kuai tiao sen lek.
Sen mi เส้นหมี่ Rice vermicelli (thin) Similar to the Chinese rice vermicelli; used in noodle soups. Its full name would be kuai tiao sen mi.
Sen yai เส้นใหญ่ Wide rice noodle Wide, flat rice noodles, similar to the Chinese shahe fen; used in dishes such as kuai tiao phat si-io and in noodle soups. Its full name would be kuai tiao sen yai.
Wunsen วุ้นเส้น Cellophane noodles or glass noodles Extremely thin noodles made from mung bean flour which turn transparent when moist. It can be used in salads and soups, or stir-fried.

Meat and poultry[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Kob Thanin Market.jpg Kop na India กบนาอินเดีย Indian bullfrog Frog meat in Thailand (nearly the whole frog, not just the legs as in the West) is mostly used in stir-fries and Thai curries. This species (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Indian bullfrog) is farmed, as is the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

Fish and seafood[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Hoi kraeng-หอยแครง893.jpg Hoi khraeng หอยแครง Blood cockle Eaten raw or blanched with a nam chim (spicy dipping sauce), or used blanched in a Thai salad.
Kraphao hoi lai.jpg Hoi lai หอยลาย Undulated Venus This clam[17] is highly appreciated in Thai cuisine; usually steamed, stir-fried or added to soups.
Perna viridis 001.jpg Hoi malaeng phu หอยแมลงภู่ Asian green mussel Usually steamed or also boiled in soups.
Dried shrimps - Thailand.JPG Kung haeng กุ้งแห้ง Dried shrimp Salted and sun-dried, dried shrimp feature in many dishes and chilli pastes. They are often soaked in water before use.
Washington DC Zoo - Macrobrachium rosenbergii 1.jpg Kung kamkram กุ้งก้ามกราม Giant river prawn Mostly bred in local fish farms. Boiled in Tom yam, grilled or fried.
Litopenaeus vannamei55.JPG Kung khao กุ้งขาว Whiteleg shrimp Bred in local fish farms. Perhaps the most common shrimp currently used in Tom yam kung.[18]
Gabus 070909 0074 rwg.jpg Pla chon ปลาช่อน Channa striata Usually eaten barbecued or steamed. It is the main fish used in the preparation of Pla ra sauce.
Pladuk.jpg Pla duk ปลาดุก Clarias batrachus Usually eaten barbecued, but also flaked and deep-fried in Yam pla duk fu.
Redtail-Catfish.jpg Pla kot khang ปลากดคัง Hemibagrus wyckioides A type of catfish usually used in Thai cuisine in tom yam or, when shortly blanched, to be eaten with a nam chim (dipping sauce).
Giant Barb.jpg Pla kraho ปลากระโห้ Siamese giant carp Highly valued in traditional Thai cuisine. Like most of the Thai food species that are not bred in fish farms, overfishing has caused a serious decline in its numbers.
Chitala ornata (Zoo Brno, Czech Republic).jpg Pla krai ปลากราย Chitala ornata Usually eaten deep-fried with Nam chim (spicy dipping sauce) and leafy greens. It is the main fish used in Thot man pla (Thai fish cakes).
Lates calcarifer 01.JPG Pla kaphong khao ปลากะพงขาว Barramundi Prepared in a variety of ways, boiled or fried, especially good boiled with lemon. Presently most Pla kaphong in Thailand are Barramundi from local fish farms.
Plakaphongdaeng.jpg Pla kaphong daeng ปลากะพงแดง Mangrove red snapper
Monopterus albus 7.jpg Pla lai na ปลาไหลนา Swamp eel Traditional food item found in flooded ricefields. Usually eaten in Tom yam.
Vatch pla nin.jpg Pla nin ปลานิล Oreochromis niloticus Barbecued, boiled or fried. Especially popular rubbed with salt and barbecued. Nile Tilapia in Thailand are bred in local fish farms.
Pla sai daeng.jpg Pla sai daeng ปลาทรายแดง Ornate threadfin bream It is most often used deep-fried
Notopterus notopterus46.JPG Pla salat ปลาสลาด Bronze Featherback Dried and smoked it is the main ingredient of a type of Nam phrik
Snakeskin gourami.jpg Pla salit ปลาสลิด Snakeskin gourami Usually fried or barbecued.
Pla sawai89.jpg Pla sawai ปลาสวาย Iridescent shark Traditionally boiled in Tom yam or fermented with pineapple as Khem mak nat. Now often cut in fillets, battered and deep-fried.
Fish apolloshark.jpg Pla sio ao ปลาซิวอ้าว Luciosoma bleekeri One of the most abundant of the different types of minnow-sized fishes (Pla sio) used in Thai cuisine. These tiny fish are often eaten salted and dried, fried, but also raw in Isan cuisine.[19]
Barb gonio 080526 9670 ltn.jpg Pla taphian ปลาตะเพียน Silver Barb Bred in local fish farms. Usually either pickled as Pla som (ปลาส้ม) or boiled in Tom yam.
Pla thapthim.jpg Pla thapthim ปลาทับทิม Red hybrid of Oreochromis niloticus The red-hybrid Oreochromis niloticus is known as Pla Thapthim "pomegranate fish". They are bred in local fish farms.
Thanin market platu.jpg Pla thu ปลาทู Processed mackerel Steamed and salted Shortbodied or Indian mackerel. Usually eaten with Nam phrik kapi (a chili and shrimp paste dip) and leafy greens and vegetables.
Probarbus jullieni.jpg Pla yisok ปลายี่สก Jullien's Golden Carp One of the most valued fishes in traditional Thai cuisine, nowadays it has become rare and expensive due to overfishing.
Portunus pelagicus.jpg Pu ma ปูม้า Portunus pelagicus[20] Highly appreciated relatively large crab, featuring in standard dishes as Pu ma phat ton hom (Thai: ปูม้าผัดต้นหอม; Blue crab stir-fried with spring onions), among others.
Pu dong.jpg Pu na ปูนา Rice field crabs[21] When pickled they are most often called pu dong (pickled crab; Thai: ปูดอง), or less often pu khem (salted crab; Thai: ปูเค็ม), and frequently used in papaya salad or as the main ingredient in yam pu dong (yam-style salad made with pickled crab).
Horseshow Crab with roe, grilled.jpg Maeng da thale แมงดาทะเล Horseshoe crab Available seasonal when they still carry their eggs. It's grilled and only the eggs are made into yam maeng da.

Insects[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Acheta domesticus, adultes Weibchen.jpg Chingrit จิ้งหรีด Cricket The crickets used in Thailand can be either the native species Gryllus bimaculatus and Teleogryllus testaceus or, as shown in the image, the introduced Acheta domesticus. Although all three species are farmed commercially, it is Acheta domesticus that is more popular due to its superior taste and texture.[22][23] Crickets are most commonly eaten deep-fried as a snack.
Ants Eggs Market Thailand.jpg Khai mot daeng ไข่มด Usually the eggs of the red ant, they can be used in salads, soups, curries and omelets. The taste is creamy and slightly lemony.
Lethocerus indicus.jpg Malaeng da แมลงดา Lethocerus indicus In contrast to most other insects that are eaten in Thailand, this giant water bug have a very strong taste and smell which, according to some, comes close to that of very ripe gorgonzola. It is normally eaten deep-fried as a snack or used to make a famous chilli dip called nam phrik maengda.
Non mai phai หนอนไม้ไผ่ Omphisa fuscidentalis Known as "bamboo worms" in Thailand, these caterpillars live inside certain bamboos in Northern Thailand. They are most often eaten deep-fried. Due to their appearance, they are often also called rot duan, meaning "express train".

Miscellanea[edit]

Image Thai name Thai script English name Description and use
Thai fish souffle preparation.jpg Bai tong/Bai kluai ใบตอง/ใบกล้วย Banana leaf When used as a way of wrapping food, it is known as bai tong (ใบตอง). When used for steaming dishes such as Ho mok pla, it also imparts a subtle flavour.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bhumichitr, Vatcharin. The Essential Thai Cookbook, 192 pages, New York: Clarkson N. Potter Inc., 1994

External links[edit]