List of the Beatles' instruments

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of The Beatles' instruments)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Beatles started out like most other rock and roll bands, employing a standard guitars/bass/drums instrumentation. As their touring days wound down, they became a full-time studio band. Their scope of experimentation grew, as did the palette of sounds. This article attempts to list the instruments used to achieve those results.

Not listed are instruments played by the Beatles’ session players such as cello, violin, saxophone, trumpet, French horn or the 41-piece orchestra heard on "A Day in the Life".

Guitars[edit]

Both John Lennon and George Harrison used the Gibson J-160E, an acoustic guitar with an electric pickup at the base of the fretboard. The resonant character of the full acoustic body, combined with the electric pickup, meant that this guitar was susceptible to feedback, employed to great effect on the intro to "I Feel Fine". Lennon also used a Framus Hootenanny twelve-string acoustic, which can be seen in the movie Help! and heard on the title song and "You've Got to Hide Your Love Away". This twelve-string guitar accounted for audibly richer rhythm guitar parts on songs like these, in comparison to the six-string Gibsons. After Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Lennon moved on to a D-28 from C. F. Martin & Company (alternating between the J-160E and the D-28 for The White Album) while Harrison upgraded to a Gibson J-200 Jumbo (which Lennon used on "Two of Us" and other acoustic tracks on Let It Be).

Lennon primarily used a Rickenbacker 325 Capri from 1960 until 1964. He purchased the guitar in Hamburg in its original natural finish and used the guitar extensively throughout the Cavern Club performances.[1] In early 1963 he sent the guitar off to be refinished in its more popular black finish. This is the way the guitar appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show performance in February 1964. Shortly thereafter, he upgraded to a brand new Rickenbacker 325, a much-improved version of his 325 Capri. During the Rubber Soul sessions, Lennon and Harrison acquired matching 1961 Stratocasters. Lennon's was used on "Nowhere Man" and sparingly on the Sgt. Pepper album. It is seen once again being played by George Harrison in the original "Imagine" movie.

Harrison started off in the Cavern Club days playing a black Gretsch Duo Jet. The Duo Jet was refurbished many years later and featured on the cover and album Cloud Nine. Around 1962 he switched to a Gretsch Country Gentleman and a Gretsch Tennessean, both of which he played until around 1965. His second Country Gentleman was given away to a friend (Harrison was an avid sharer of instruments) and is now retained by Ringo Starr, while his first Country Gentleman fell off The Beatles' van in 1965 and was crushed by a lorry. In 1964 Harrison introduced the electric twelve-string guitar into mainstream pop. His Rickenbacker 360/12 twelve-string was a prototype. Only the second twelve-string guitar Rickenbacker ever made, it was delivered specially to him during their first visit to New York City. Harrison's use of the 12-string inspired Roger McGuinn of The Byrds to start using one too. He also used a Ramirez Classical Guitar which can be heard in "And I Love Her" and seen used throughout the film "A Hard Day's Night". Harrison used a Gibson SG around 1966; these can be seen in the promotional videos for "Paperback Writer" and "Rain", in addition to film of the recording session for "Hey Bulldog". He eventually gave this guitar to Pete Ham of Badfinger. Harrison's most prominent guitar from 1967 until early 1969 was a Fender Stratocaster. Obtained and used during the Rubber Soul sessions, first used on "Nowhere Man", it was originally Sonic Blue in colour until Harrison gave it a psychedelic paint job, using, among other substances, his wife's sparkly green nail polish. This psychedelic Strat, dubbed "Rocky", is seen in the "I Am the Walrus" segment of Magical Mystery Tour, and in the "All You Need Is Love" broadcast.[2] Around this time Harrison also used a 1957 Les Paul model, which was given to him by Eric Clapton and was once in the possession of, among other musicians, John Sebastian of The Lovin' Spoonful. Originally a "gold top" model, the guitar was refinished with a dark red stain before it got to Harrison. The guitar can be seen in the "Revolution" promo video and the Let It Be film—in addition to a rosewood Telecaster specially flown to him by Fender.

Lennon and Harrison both purchased Epiphone Casinos in 1965 after Paul McCartney acquired an Epiphone Casino. They were used extensively in the recording of the Revolver album. Although they purchased the guitars with sunburst finishes, both Harrison and Lennon later stripped the finishes off the guitars, claiming it allowed the guitars to "breathe" better. Lennon's stripped-down Casino can be seen in video footage of the famous "Rooftop Concert". Lennon used an Epiphone Casino almost exclusively from 1966 until the group's break-up and is even seen with it during the sessions for his Imagine album.

Paul McCartney's electric guitar parts (solos on "Ticket to Ride", "Another Girl", "Taxman", "Helter Skelter", "Drive My Car", "Carry That Weight" and "Good Morning Good Morning"[3] to name a few)[4] were chiefly performed on his own Epiphone Casino or sunburst Fender Esquire. For recordings with acoustic parts played by McCartney ("Yesterday"), he favoured a 1964 Epiphone Texan FT-79.[5] In 1968, he started using a D-28 from C. F. Martin & Company.

Basses[edit]

McCartney custom-ordered a left-handed Höfner model 500/1 "violin" bass during one of the group's early residences in Hamburg. This model, with two pickups very close to the neck and almost touching each other, was replaced in 1963 by a newer model, whose pickups were spaced much farther apart, in a more conventional manner. McCartney continued to use his early model, although very rarely, until the Let It Be sessions, when it was stolen from Twickenham Film Studios; he continues to use his second Höfner today. In October 1965 he switched to a Rickenbacker model 4001S, during the recording of Rubber Soul (as seen in pictures from those sessions),[6] but certainly by the recording of "Paperback Writer". It would be his principal choice for the remainder of The Beatles' career. He briefly used a left-handed Fender Jazz Bass during sessions for The Beatles (The White Album) and again for Abbey Road.[7] He returned to the Höfner during rehearsals and recording of Let It Be and played it during the rooftop concert. He also used his original Höfner, refinished in three-tone sunburst and with upgraded electronics. It can be seen in footage from Let It Be and in the "Revolution" promo video.

George Harrison and John Lennon both played a Fender VI to back some songs on which McCartney played piano or guitar. George Harrison was photographed at Abbey Road in 1966 playing a right-handed red Burns Nu-Sonic Bass during the "Paperback Writer" and "Rain" recording sessions. Harrison also played a right-handed Fender Jazz Bass on two songs from Abbey Road.

Keyboards[edit]

Steinway grand piano (left),
Schiedmayer Celeste (right)
Hammond RT-3 organ (left),
Challen piano (right)

All four Beatles contributed keyboard parts to their catalogue, supplemented by George Martin, Mal Evans, John Oedry, Chris Thomas, Nicky Hopkins and Billy Preston.

Microphones[edit]

Although microphone usage varied somewhat according to the requirements of each song, the group's recordings at Abbey Road most often employed Neumann U47 or U67 microphones for electric guitars and one or more Neumann U47s (unidirectional); U48's "figure eight" (bidirectional) pickup pattern for vocals and most other instruments. The AKG C-12 was used as well, particularly on the bass (speaker) amplifier. Early in their recording career the drums usually were recorded with only two microphones: one overhead (an AKG D19 or STC 4038) and one for the bass drum (such as an AKG D20). Later, more microphones were used on the drums.

The AKG C28 is visible in the Let It Be film. Available studio documentation and interviews with their former recording engineers indicate that this microphone was not used for recording in the studio.[9]

With the group's encouragement, recording engineer Geoff Emerick experimented with microphone placement and equalization.[10] Many of his techniques were unusual for the time but have since become commonplace, such as "close miking" (physically placing the microphone very close to a sound source) of acoustic instruments or deliberately overloading the signal to produce distortion. For example, he obtained the biting string sound that characterises "Eleanor Rigby" by miking the instruments extremely closely—Emerick has related that the string players would instinctively back away from the microphones at the start of each take, and he would go back into the studio and move the microphones closer again.[11] The recording of George Harrison's acoustic guitar in "Here Comes the Sun" was another incidence of close miking.

He also used a speaker as a microphone to increase the bass level whereas a microphone would overload from the air pressure.

Drums[edit]

Ringo Starr bought a set of Premier drums in 1960, but in June 1963 made the switch to a two-tom Ludwig set. The American-made drums were newly available in England, but the clincher for Starr was the Black Oyster Pearl finish of the Ludwig kit. He had several similar kits, including two that he kept at Abbey Road. For the Let It Be and Abbey Road sessions, he obtained a natural-tone, three-tom Ludwig set, used on the "rooftop concert" and in his drum solo in "The End". Starr experimented with various muffling techniques. He used Ludwig and Remo drum heads. He started his career playing Paiste cymbals, but switched to Zildjian. He has used Paiste occasionally, most likely due to their easier availability in Europe.[12]

Instruments specific to Rubber Soul sessions[edit]

Photographs of these sessions reveal the following gear:

Lennon[edit]

McCartney[edit]

Harrison[edit]

  • 1957 Gibson Les Paul, crimson named "Lucy", received in 1968.
  • 1962-63 Gretsch Tennessean Chet Atkins electric guitar (purchased the previous year)
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E[13] sunburst finish acoustic-electric guitar (purchased on hire purchase from Rushworths, Liverpool in June 1962. Brian Epstein settled the bill a year later[22]). As with Lennon's J-160E, this guitar was modified for the 'Rubber Soul' sessions by moving the pick-up to the bridge side of the sound hole)[16]
  • 1965 Rickenbacker 360/12[13] fireglo (red sunburst) finish electric 12-string guitar (custom built and presented to Harrison on 21 August 1965 at a press conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota, by radio station WDGY in association with local music store B-Sharp Music[23]))
  • 1961 Fender Stratocaster[13] in Sonic Blue finish (purchased by Mal Evans at the same time as Lennon's)[17]
  • Sitar (a cheap model purchased by Harrison from India Craft in London in 1965)[24]
  • 1964 Ramirez Classical Guitar

Starr[edit]

Ringo played a Premier kit in 1963 on Please Please Me

Amplifiers[edit]

Keyboards[27][edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

George Harrison owned many Indian instruments, including tambouras, a swarmandel (or Indian harp) and at least three sitars. All the Beatles kept pianos, guitars and other instruments at their homes to work on songs and demos. Most of these pieces never made their way into the studio with the well-known exception of Harrison's Moog synthesizer. John Lennon's home Mellotron was never brought into the studio, though a Mellotron was rented for use during the Sgt. Pepper sessions and an Abbey Road Studios-owned Mellotron was used for the White Album. Both George and John were given Coral electric sitars. Other instruments were recorder, harmonica, banjo, trumpet, saxophone, oboe, glockenspiel, vibraphone, accordion,[29][30] kazoo (made out of comb and paper), and assorted percussion (congas, bongos, Arabian loose-skin bongo, African drum, timpani, anvil, package case, maracas, tambourine, zill, güiro).

Pop culture references[edit]

The "Beatle" style instruments have been used many times in pop culture. In Agent Cody Banks 2 during the fight scene, there is a display of the original instruments and Agent Banks uses Paul McCartney's violin bass to hit the villain. The instruments have also been replicated into plastic game controllers for the game The Beatles Rock Band.

The Beatles as a four-piece live and in the studio, 1961–1966[edit]

Period Lennon McCartney Harrison Best/Starr+
July 1961–November 1961
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • Best’s Premier drumkit
November 1961–July 1962
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • Fender Deluxe amplifier
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • 'Coffin' speaker rig
  • 1957 Gretsch Duo Jet
  • Gibson Les Paul GA-40 amplifier
  • Best’s Premier drumkit
July 1962–September 1962
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • Vox AC-15 Twin amplifier
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Quad II amplifier
  • 'Coffin' speaker rig
  • 1957 Gretsch Duo Jet
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Best’s Premier drumkit (July–August)
  • Starr's Premier drumkit (August–September)
September 1962–April 1963
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-15 Twin amplifier
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Quad II amplifier
  • 'Coffin' speaker rig
  • 1957 Gretsch Duo Jet
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Starr's Premier drumkit
April 1963
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-15 Twin amplifier
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Vox T-60 amplifier
  • 1957 Gretsch Duo Jet
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Starr's Premier drumkit
April 1963–June 1963
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-15 Twin amplifier
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Vox T-60 amplifier
  • 1957 Gretsch Duo Jet
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Starr's 1st Ludwig drumkit with 1st drop T logo drumhead
April 1963–June 1963
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-15 Twin amplifier
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Vox T-60 amplifier
  • Starr's 1st Ludwig drumkit with 1st drop T logo drumhead
June 1963–September 1963
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • 1961 Hofner Violin bass
  • Vox AC30 bass head
  • Vox T-60 cabinet
  • Gretsch Country Gentleman
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Maton Mastersound MS-500 (July–August only)
  • new Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Starr's 1st Ludwig drumkit with 1st drop T logo drumhead
October 1963–December 1963
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E (stolen in December '63)
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox AC30 bass head
  • Vox T-60 cabinet
  • 2nd Gretsch Country Gentleman
  • Rickenbacker 425
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Starr's 1st Ludwig drumkit with 1st drop T logo drumhead
December 1963–January 1964
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • 2nd Gretsch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E (used by Lennon and Harrison)
  • Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • Starr's 1st Ludwig drumkit with 1st drop T logo drumhead
February 1964
  • 1958 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • Starr's 2nd Ludwig drumkit with 2nd drop T logo drumhead
February 1964–April 1964
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • 2nd Gretsch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1963 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • Starr's 2nd Ludwig drumkit with 3rd drop T logo drumhead
May 1964–July 1964
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325-12
  • Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • 2nd Gretch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1963 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E (used by Lennon and Harrison)
  • Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • Starr's 3rd Ludwig drumkit with 4th drop T logo drumhead
July 1964
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325-12
  • new Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • 2nd Gretch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1963 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E (used by Lennon and Harrison)
  • new Vox AC-50 amplifier
  • Starr's 3rd Ludwig drumkit with 4th drop T logo drumhead
August 1964–December 1964
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325-12
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • 2nd Grestch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1963 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • Starr's 3rd Ludwig drumkit with 4th drop T logo drumhead
December 1964–January 1965
  • 1964 Rickenbacker Rose, Morris 1996 (replaced 1964 325 after it gets a crack in the headstock)
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325-12
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • 2nd Gretsch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1963 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • Starr's 3rd Ludwig drumkit with 4th drop T logo drumhead
January 1965–August 1965
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1961 Fender Stratocaster (studio only)
  • Framus Hootenanny 5/024 12-string (studio only)
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • 1962 Epiphone Casino ES-230TD (studio only)
  • Epiphone Texan FT-79
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • 2nd Gretch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1961 Fender Stratocaster (studio only)
  • 1963 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • Starr's 3rd Ludwig drumkit with 4th drop T logo drumhead
August 1965–September 1965
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Epiphone Texan FT-79
  • Vox AC100 bass amplifier
  • 2nd Gretsch Country Gentleman
  • Gretsch Tennessean
  • 1963 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • Vox AC-100 amplifier
  • Starr's 4th Ludwig drumkit with 5th drop T logo drumhead
October 1965–March 1966
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 325
  • 1961 Fender Stratocaster (studio only)
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-30 and AC-100 amplifiers
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 4001S bass (studio only)
  • Fender Bassman amplifier
  • 2nd Gretsch Country Gentleman
  • 1961 Fender Stratocaster (studio only)
  • Gibson ES-345
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • 1965 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • Vox AC-30 and AC-100 amplifiers
  • Starr's 4th Ludwig drumkit with 5th drop T logo drumhead
April 1966–June 1966
  • 1965 Epiphone Casino
  • Gretsch 6120 (studio only)
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Fender Showman amplifier
  • Vox 7120 prototype amplifier
  • 1964 Rickenbacker 4001S bass (studio only)
  • 1962 Epiphone Casino ES-230TD (studio only)
  • Fender Bassman amplifier
  • Vox 4120 prototype amplifier
  • 1961 Fender Stratocaster
  • 1965 Epiphone Casino
  • 1965 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1964 Gibson SG Standard
  • 1962 Gibson J-160E
  • Burns Nu-Sonic bass guitar (studio only)
  • Vox AC-30 amplifier
  • Fender Showman amplifier
  • Vox 730 prototype amplifier
  • Starr's 4th Ludwig drumkit with 5th drop T logo drumhead
June 1966–July 1966
  • 1965 Epiphone Casino
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox 7120 prototype amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox 4120 prototype amplifier
  • 1965 Epiphone Casino
  • 1965 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1964 Gibson SG Standard
  • Vox 730 prototype amplifier
  • Starr's 4th Ludwig drumkit with 5th drop T logo drumhead
August 1966
  • 1965 Epiphone Casino
  • 1964 Gibson J-160E
  • Vox Super Beatle amplifier
  • 1962 Hofner 500/1 bass
  • Vox Super Bass Beatle amplifier
  • 1965 Epiphone Casino
  • 1965 Rickenbacker 360/12
  • 1964 Gibson SG Standard
  • Vox Super Beatle amplifier
  • Starr's 4th Ludwig drumkit with 5th drop T logo drumhead

+ Ringo Starr replaced Pete Best in August 1962

The Beatles as a five-piece[edit]

Period Lennon McCartney Harrison Sutcliffe/Newby+ Moore/Chapman/Best++
January 1960–June 1960
  • Hofner Club 40
  • Zenith Model 17
  • Elpico amplifier
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Hofner 333 bass
  • Moore’s drums
June 1960
  • Hofner Club 40
  • drums
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • Hofner 333 bass
  • -
July 1960
  • Hofner Club 40
  • Rosetti Solid 7
  • Elpico amplifier
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • Hofner 333 bass
  • Chapman's drums
August–October 1960
  • Hofner Club 40
  • Rosetti Solid 7
  • Elpico amplifier
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • Hofner 333 bass
  • Watkins Westminster amplifier
  • Best's Premier drums
October–November 1960
  • 1958 Rickenbacker Capri 325
  • Fender Deluxe amplifier
  • Rosetti Solid 7
  • Hofner Club 40
  • Elpico amplifier
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • Hofner 333 bass
  • Gibson Les Paul GA-40 amplifier
  • Best's Premier drums
December 1960
  • 1958 Rickenbacker Capri 325
  • Fender Deluxe amplifier
  • Rosetti Solid 7
  • Hofner Club 40
  • Elpico amplifier
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • bass (Chas Newby)
  • Best's Premier drums
December 1960–April 1961
  • 1958 Rickenbacker Capri 325
  • Fender Deluxe amplifier
  • Rosetti Solid 7
  • Elpico amplifier
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • Hofner 333 bass
  • Gibson Les Paul GA-40 amplifier
  • Best's Premier drums
December 1960–April 1961
  • 1958 Rickenbacker Capri 325
  • Fender Deluxe amplifier
  • piano
  • Delicia Futurama
  • Selmer Truvoice Stadium amplifier
  • Hofner 333 bass
  • Gibson Les Paul GA-40 amplifier
  • Best's Premier drums

+ Chas Newby (December 1960 only), deputising for Sutcliffe ++ Tommy Moore (January–June 1960), Norman Chapman (July 1960), Pete Best (August 1960-)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lennon's 1958 325 Rickenbacker
  2. ^ lennon1
  3. ^ mccartney1
  4. ^ George Harrison Interview: Crawdaddy Magazine, February 1977
  5. ^ mccartney5
  6. ^ The Beatles Anthology
  7. ^ :: Fender.com ::
  8. ^ Babiuk, Andy (2002)Beatles Gear: All the Fab Four's Instruments, from Stage to Studio.Backbeat Books ISBN 0-87930-662-9
  9. ^ Shooting to Thrill
  10. ^ Book Review: "HERE THERE AND EVERYWHERE-My Life Recording the Music of The Beatles" By Geoff Emerick, Howard Massey
  11. ^ Emerick, Geoff, with Howard Massey (2006). Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of The Beatles. ISBN 1-59240-179-1.
  12. ^ Ringo Starr Drumming History
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Babiuk 2002, p. 170.
  14. ^ Babiuk 2002, pp. 116-117.
  15. ^ Babiuk 2002, p. 143.
  16. ^ a b Babiuk 2002, p. 172.
  17. ^ a b Babiuk 2002, p. 157.
  18. ^ Babiuk 2002, p. 160.
  19. ^ Babiuk 2002, pp. 98-99.
  20. ^ a b Babiuk 2002, p. 152.
  21. ^ a b c Babiuk 2002, p. 173.
  22. ^ Babiuk 2002, p. 72.
  23. ^ Babiuk 2002, pp. 166-167.
  24. ^ Babiuk 2002, p. 169.
  25. ^ Babiuk 2002, p. 165.
  26. ^ Babiuk 2002, p. 133.
  27. ^ a b c Babiuk 2002, p. 171.
  28. ^ The Beatles 1968 Twin Reverbs - AC568 not AB763 circuits.
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ Anthony Fawcett, John Lennon: One Day At A Time (Grove Press: New York, 1976/1981), 155-156.