List of The Jetsons episodes
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The Jetsons is an American animated sitcom produced by Hanna-Barbera, originally airing in primetime from 1962–63, then later as part of the weekday/weekend morning programming block called The Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera, until 1987. New episodes were produced from 1984–87 as well. It was Hanna-Barbera’s Space Age counterpart to The Flintstones. Reruns can be seen frequently on Boomerang. Over its three season run, 75 original episodes were aired.
|Season premiere||Season finale|
|1||24||September 23, 1962||March 17, 1963|
|2||41||September 16, 1985||December 13, 1985|
|3||10||October 19, 1987||November 12, 1987|
Season 1 (1962-63)
In the original closing credits, George came home and tried to walk Astro, the family dog, but when Astro noticed a cat by the electronic dog walk, he began to chase it, and George got caught into the dog-walk. Astro and the cat both looked on as George is trapped on the dog walker running for his life while crying out "Jane, stop this crazy thing! Help! JANE!" This was a counterpart to The Flintstones ' closing credits in which the saber-toothed cat Baby Puss puts Fred Flintstone out for the night. This ending was parodied in an episode each of Animaniacs, The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron, Family Guy, and Jim Henson's Muppet Babies.
Season 1 contained a laugh track, which was removed when the episodes were released for syndication in 1985. The syndicated episodes were also "updated" with a re-recorded theme song, episode title cards, and a new closing sequence (see "Season 2," below). The title cards and the closing sequence featured the character of Orbitty, who did not appear in any of the original episodes.
The 24 1960s episodes were released on DVD in 2004 with the laugh track, original closing sequence, and original opening theme intact. However, the DVD release still featured the 1980s "Orbitty" title cards, and the original Flintstones-style teaser intros were not reinstated. (The versions of "The Space Car" and "The Coming of Astro" available on Amazon Video on Demand retain the original opening teasers.)
|Title||Writer||Original air date|
|1||1||"Rosie the Robot"||September 23, 1962|
|The Jetsons take Rosie the robot maid into their home, just in time to wreak havoc with a visiting Mr. Spacely.|
|2||2||"A Date with Jet Screamer"||September 30, 1962|
Despite George's best efforts, (including substituting Elroy's secret code for her contest entry song) Judy wins a date with Ricky Nelson-esque pop idol Jet Screamer who sings Judy's contest entry song (actually the secret code), "Eep, Opp, Ork, Ah-ah!" (originally voiced by Howard Morris and later performed by The Dickies and the Violent Femmes) which, despite its meaning in the song as "I love you", actually means "meet me tonight".Note: In recent broadcasts, there is no laugh track for this episode. Other episodes that had laugh tracks muted off broadcast versions were: Rosie the Robot, The Little Man, Private Property and Dude Planet. The laugh tracks are restored on the DVD release in those episodes except for this one.
|3||3||"The Space Car"||October 7, 1962|
|George and Jane are mistaken for bank robbers when their car is switched with that of gangster Knuckles Nuclear.|
|4||4||"The Coming of Astro"||October 14, 1962|
|The Jetsons adopt Astro, who must compete with an electronic counterpart named 'Lectronimo for a place in the home.|
|5||5||"Jetson's Nite Out"||October 21, 1962|
|When Spacely tells George that he has an extra ticket for a championship robot football game, they run into mishap after mishap when Mrs. Spacely believes her husband's lie about his employee Jetson being ill.|
|6||6||"The Good Little Scouts"||October 28, 1962|
George reluctantly takes Elroy's scout troop on a trip to the moon—and promptly gets lost.Note: R.U.D.I.'s only 1960s appearance.
|7||7||"The Flying Suit"||November 4, 1962|
|The rivalry between Spacely Sprockets and Cogswell Cogs comes to a head when Cogswell's chief inventor, Moonstone, reveals the prototype of a suit that enables its wearer to fly.|
|8||8||"Rosie's Boyfriend"||November 11, 1962|
|Rosie finds a beau in Henry Orbit's mechanical assistant, named Mac.|
|9||9||"Elroy's TV Show"||November 18, 1962|
|First George and then Mr. Spacely become over-enthusiastic stage parents for their sons when Elroy lands his own TV show—entitled "Spaceboy Zoom and His Dog, Astro".|
|10||10||"Uniblab"||November 25, 1962|
|George is fuming at having to work under the electronic sycophant Uniblab. Episode later retitled "Microchip Chump"|
|11||11||"A Visit from Grandpa"||December 2, 1962|
|George's feisty grandfather—110-year-old Montague Jetson—is embroiled in a paternity scandal.|
|12||12||"Astro's Top Secret"||December 9, 1962|
|Astro is given the third degree when Cogswell suspects him to be party to a new Spacely Sprockets invention after he swallows Elroy's flying toy car.|
|13||13||"Elroy's Pal"||December 16, 1962|
|Elroy is enamored of TV superhero Nimbus the Great, who may not be as great as he seems.|
|14||14||"Test Pilot"||December 30, 1962|
|A mishap at the doctor's office has George believing he is about to die, so he volunteers for hazard duty, testing an "indestructible" jacket.|
|15||15||"Millionaire Astro"||January 6, 1963|
|Astro/"Tralfaz," is caught in a custody battle between the Jetsons and millionaire J.P. Gottrockets.|
|16||16||"The Little Man"||January 13, 1963|
|During a test-run of Spacely's new invention, called the MiniVac, George is shrunk down to six inches high, but cannot enlarge himself, due to a malfunction in the machine's enlarging program. The next day, Mr. Spacely sends George to steal a cog from Cogswell Cogs so George can re-enlarge himself.|
|17||17||"Las Venus"||January 20, 1963|
|On his second honeymoon, George divides his time between taking Jane out and wooing a potential client of Spacely Sprockets, who turns out to be a woman named Gigi Galaxy. George is so dumbfounded by her looks that he introduces himself as, "George Sprocket of Spacely Jetsons". Ultimately, George succeeds in winning a big contract for his company and is promoted to Vice President (one of many times) by Mr. Spacely.|
|18||18||"Jane's Driving Lesson"||January 27, 1963|
|Jane wants to take driving lessons while egging George into buying a second car, and unwittingly (and unknowingly) becomes Knuckles Nuclear's moll.|
|19||19||"G.I. Jetson"||February 3, 1963|
|George, Henry Orbit, and Mr. Spacely are drafted into a two-week stint in the U.S. Space Guard, with George finding himself under the command of first Mr. Spacely (who has become a Major) and then his mortal enemy, "Sgt." Uniblab. Ultimately, Uniblab is short-circuited by George and Henry and blows up, and everybody in attendance (Spacely included) incurs the wrath of General "Old Blastoff" McMissile.|
|20||20||"Miss Solar System"||February 10, 1963|
|Jane enters a beauty pageant to prove to her husband that she is just as beautiful as Gina Lolajupiter (take on Gina Lollobrigida).|
|21||21||"TV or Not TV"||February 17, 1963|
|When George and Astro witness the shooting of a crime TV show called "The Naked Planet" (take on The Naked City), they think they've witnessed a real robbery and go into hiding to keep from being shot for knowing too much.|
|22||22||"Private Property"||February 24, 1963|
|When a new Cogswell Cogs office opens next door to Spacely Sprockets, George is put in charge of the property dispute, only to discover Spacely Sprockets is on Cogswell's property. Later retitled "No Space for Sprockets."|
|23||23||"Dude Planet"||March 3, 1963|
|Burnt out on housework, Jane takes a retreat at a futuristic dude ranch.|
|24||24||"Elroy's Mob"||March 17, 1963|
|Elroy looks forward to the evening when his parents hear the good grades Ms. Brainmocker gave him. When he accidentally gets a report tape mix-up all thanks to his sneaky, underachieving classmate, Kenny Countdown, and gets 4 D's, an F, and an "H", his family doesn't believe him, so when he gets punished, he and Astro run away and join a mob run by Muggsy Megaton. Note: A clip from The Flintstones is shown in the beginning of the episode.|
Season 2 (1985)
- For the 1980s incarnation of the show, new characters were introduced, including Orbitty (the Jetson family's alien pet) and Spacely's inventive nephew Orwell. George's work computer R.U.D.I. (the "Referential Universal Digital Indexer"), who appeared in one 1960s episode, was reintroduced.
- The opening credits featured a rerecorded version of The Jetsons theme song, which features the use of electronic drums to create percussion typical of 1980s music.
- The closing credits are static picture captions (like most of Hanna-Barbera's shows of the time). This format replaced the original credit sequence described above when the 1960s episodes were rebroadcast.
|Title||Original air date|
|25||1||"Elroy Meets Orbitty"||September 16, 1985|
|During a school field trip to a remote asteroid, Elroy finds an odd pink rock, which turns out to be an egg that hatches into Orbitty, a spring-legged creature.|
|26||2||"Rosie Come Home"||September 17, 1985|
|Due to a malfunction in her systems, Rosie believes that she is about to be replaced, so she runs off and is nearly crushed within a car destroyer, until the Jetsons are able to convince her that she is a part of the family.|
|27||3||"Solar Snoops"||September 18, 1985|
|An unknown package delivered to Spacely Sprockets contains a robot sentry dog named "Sentro", and Spacely decides to use it to guard his "Chocolate Microchip Cookie". However, the "Galactic Sneak"—a spy for Cogswell Cogs—has pulled a Trojan Horse–type move by hiding inside Sentro's body to infiltrate Spacely's plant. When he and Sentro steal the prototype Microchip Cookie, it is up to George Jetson—who discovers a want-ad in the news for an executive secretary for Cogswell Cogs—to become "Georgina Jetstream", infiltrate Cogswell Cogs, and get Spacely's cookie back.|
|28||4||"Judy's Birthday Surprise"||September 19, 1985|
|Judy seems to think that nobody remembered her birthday, until one of the more unpopular kids shows her that she is indeed loved; and is shocked to discover that nobody said anything about her birthday, but was surprised when everyone, including Mr. Spacely, throws her one of the best surprise parties ever.|
|29||5||"SuperGeorge"||September 20, 1985|
|The Jetsons buy a Thinko machine that breaks out a wish giving George superpowers for a day.
OTHER WISHES: Jane and George wish that they can be served.
Judy wishes that she can be a winner of the Teen Star of the Year awards.
Elroy's wish was to be a basketball player; but he was too tall for the goal.
Astro wishes that dogs (including him) would act like humans, and vice versa.
|30||6||"Family Fallout"||September 23, 1985|
|After some chicanery by Mr. Spacely, the Jetsons appear on a game show called "Family Fallout" (based on Family Feud), facing off against the Spacelys. The Jetson win a new Foodarackacycle in the end, while the shocked and dismayed Spacelys receive a lifetime supply of Cogswells Cogs.|
|31||7||"Instant Replay"||September 24, 1985|
|An elderly man on the bus home offers George a better life with a special invention called "Replayola", but when George accidentally erases his wedding day with Jane, he must make a choice to either keep his newfound wealth and power or forego it and regain his normal family life.|
|32||8||"Fugitive Fleas"||September 25, 1985|
|A rock band of fleas take refuge on Astro to escape the tyrannical Solarini's flea circus.|
|33||9||"S.M.A.S.H."||September 26, 1985|
|Jane can drive, and accidentally crashes Mr. Spacely's car that she borrowed, which causes him to merrily blame George, making him a virtual slave and groveler, until it was discovered that the brakes are jammed by a piece of fine space china from one of Spacely's space china collections. This absolves the Jetsons, and then the tables are turned and a furious and humiliated Spacely becomes the reluctant servant of George.|
|34||10||"One Strike, You're Out"||September 30, 1985|
|When Spacely discovers that his rival Cogswell has won the "Tycoon of the Day" Award, he goes all out to beat him, forcing all his employees to work a "Triple-Shift". After 24 hours of work and severe hounding by Spacely, George accidentally convinces the human employees of Spacely Sprockets to strike. Meanwhile, George is faced with his own problems when he destroys Elroy's athlete robot, "Jocko", and then tries to impress his son by portraying the robot himself.|
|35||11||"Mother's Day for Rosie"||October 1, 1985|
|It is Mother's Day in Orbit City, but Rosie is in no mood for celebrating, as it reminds her of her own deactivated mother. But George is determined to find the blueprints of the "XB-400" (predecessor of the XB-500, Rosie's model number) and give Rosie back her happiness.|
|36||12||"S'No Relative"||October 2, 1985|
|George and Jane's nephew, Hunky Moonrock, is scheduled to visit Earth, but when a research team loses an inhabitant from the planet Polaris, everything is turned upside down when that alien is thawed out right at the Jetsons' back door.|
|37||13||"Dance Time"||October 3, 1985|
|Jane convinces George to take dancing lessons so he won't embarrass Judy at her housewarming party, but his uncoordinated moves lead a mechanic to offer him some help with Automatic Dancing Shoes.|
|38||14||"Judy Takes Off"||October 7, 1985|
|When Judy is offered a chance to get away from her family and visit her cousin Melissa, she is at first reluctant, but thinks differently when she sees how much her cousin has changed, leading George to inadvertently assume the role of "Space Ace" to spy on his daughter to keep her out of trouble. Meanwhile, Jane and Mrs. Spacely both vie for the "Woman of the Year" Award.|
|39||15||"Winner Takes All"||October 9, 1985|
|George is duped into an Olympic-themed showdown with Cogswell Cogs, but when Cogswell pulls a twin-brother substitution, can George come out on top when he doesn't know who is who?|
|40||16||"The Mirrormorph"||October 11, 1985|
|The Jetsons contend with a transmuting alien called the Mirrormorph, who can become an exact duplicate of that person, but remains mute.|
|41||17||"The Cosmic Courtship of George and Jane"||October 14, 1985|
|George forgets his and Jane's wedding anniversary, and the twosome reminisce about how they fell in love. Later on, the couple find out that the minister that married them was a fraud, so they must set things right and renew their vows in Las Venus. George realizes that it will be difficult when Spacely and Jane's ex-boyfriend are also present in Las Venus. After the successful wedding, Spacely catches George and almost fires him, but Jane convinces Spacely to change his mind by telling him that she didn't see Mrs. Spacely.|
|42||18||"High Moon"||October 15, 1985|
|George is fed up with his son Elroy's fixation with a television star named Roger Mars, so he decides to take the family on a road trip to rediscover the roots of the Old West.|
|43||19||"Hi-Tech Wreck"||October 17, 1985|
|When R.U.D.I. malfunctions one time too many, Spacely orders George to relocate his family to "Outer Moongolia"—but is forced to eat crow when R.U.D.I. threatens to destroy his factory.|
|44||20||"Little Bundle of Trouble"||October 18, 1985|
|The Jetsons take in an abandoned baby they found on their doorstep, but are surprised when this "baby" turns out to be a dwarf of a jewel thief in disguise.|
|45||21||"Elroy in Wonderland"||October 22, 1985|
|A take on both "Alice in Wonderland" and "The Wizard of Oz". When Elroy and Astro are forced to be separated while on vacation at Club Mellowstar, they wind up in a dream world where antique robots resembling our modern-day appliances are at war with each other.|
|46||22||"The Swiss Family Jetson"||October 23, 1985|
|When George is laid off by Spacely for six months, the family convinces him to live off the land on Planet Paradisio—but get the shock of their lives when a redevelopment company turns their quaint little paradise into condo estates.|
|47||23||"Rip-Off Rosie"||October 24, 1985|
|George is hailed a hero when he repairs a malfunctioning shipping robot, but when Rosie starts to malfunction afterwards and steal everything she can find, the Jetsons must reprogram her "Jekyll-and-Hyde" personality.|
|48||24||"Fantasy Planet"||October 28, 1985|
Parody of Fantasy Island. With all the problems the Jetson family have, they decide to take a trip to Fantasy Planet. The host—named Mr. Rocket (played by Sonny Melendrez and a take on "Mr. Roarke" from Fantasy Island)—has each family member in capsules to live out their fantasies.
|49||25||"Space Bong"||October 30, 1985|
|It is a case of mistaken identity when George is kidnapped by an enemy spy organization called SNEAK. During his ordeal as their captive, George discovers his exact doppelganger, a secret agent named Space Bong (a take on James Bond), who aids him in escaping their grasp.|
|50||26||"Haunted Halloween"||October 31, 1985|
|The curator of a museum takes a special interest in Orbitty wanting to make him his special project in time for Halloween.|
|51||27||"Astro's Big Moment"||November 1, 1985|
|Mr. Spacely assigns George to be the judge for the annual Spacely Space Sprockets Space Dog Show. But this leads to a very stressful situation for him as his family wants him to make Astro the winner, as well as the boss wanting him to insure his wife's poodle comes out on top, and even a mobster named Mangler Mars gets into the act by making George choose his mutt, Starbite, as the top dog. What choice will George make? In the end, Mrs. Spacely's frightened pooch escapes; Starbite was discovered to be a stolen pet store dog and the mobsters were arrested; and Astro wins, with a stray dog winning the dog food that was also awarded.|
|52||28||"Jetsons' Millions"||November 4, 1985|
|Spacely offers George a raffle book for the Venutian Sweepstakes, but Mrs. Spacely is offended when George actually wins the grand prize of 10,000,000 Venuties.|
|53||29||"The Wrong Stuff"||November 5, 1985|
|After winning a school science contest, Elroy is invited with the family to view a space shuttle launch. But he gets more than he bargains for when he and Astro get aboard the shuttle and get launched into deep space. They're able to return to Earth, but are significantly changed in terms of age. A parody of The Right Stuff|
|54||30||"The Vacation"||November 7, 1985|
|When Jane wins a family weekend trip on "The Love Rocket", she and George find that their vacation isn't all it is cracked up to be, as they must both deal with old flames from their high-school days.|
|55||31||"Team Spirit"||November 11, 1985|
|The Spacely Sprockets and the Cogswell Cogs are at war on the robot baseball field, and George is the star pitcher for Spacely's team. But when Cogswell tips the scales in his favor, will Jetson have enough energy to last the final inning?|
|56||32||"Future Tense"||November 12, 1985|
|When Jane tries on glasses she bought from Planet Bevdayo, she gains the power of clairvoyance.|
|57||33||"Far-Out Father"||November 13, 1985|
|Elroy must make a Father's Day Video for his school class, but Astro's fixation with the poodle next door causes more problems than either Elroy or George can handle.|
|58||34||"Dog Daze Afternoon"||November 15, 1985|
|George and Jane accompany Mr. Spacely to a business convention where they hope to show off the company's latest invention, the EXIT (EXecutive Instant Transporter). Meanwhile, Judy is in charge of the household as Elroy tests his own invention, a Dog Trainer, in hopes of earning money helping the neighborhood dogs to better behave themselves. But a mix-up of program discs causes near disastrous results on both sides that could lead to George's firing and Elroy having to look for all the missing dogs.|
|59||35||"Grandpa and the Galactic Goldigger"||November 19, 1985|
|Grandpa Montague Jetson returns and falls in love with a young teenager named Nova Neutron, unknown to him that her boyfriend Tyco has mistaken him for Mr. Spacely and plans to rob him blind.|
|60||36||"Robot's Revenge"||November 20, 1985|
|After an incompetent robot named Ralph is fired from his 32nd job, he decides to take his revenge out on the person who caused his termination—George Jetson.|
|61||37||"To Tell the Truth"||November 22, 1985|
|George convinces Elroy to tell his mother the truth about what happened to her favorite pitcher, but when Bubbles Blastoff, a guest at Spacely's plant, must leave on the red-eye back to her planet, George ends up being stranded with her on an asteroid. Will he follow his own example and tell the truth to Jane about why he never came home until morning?|
|62||38||"Boy George"||November 25, 1985|
|When Spacely convinces George that he is too old to represent Spacely Sprockets, he tries a quick fix to become younger—with disastrous results.|
|63||39||"Judy's Elopement"||November 27, 1985|
|Spacely hires his nephew Sam to be George's new supervisor, but Sam has his own plans: to elope with Cogswell's daughter Asteroid. However, mixed messages from Rosie convince George that Judy is eloping with Sam.|
|64||40||"The Century's Best"||November 29, 1985|
|The Space-Time Capsule Contest is underway, and Orbitty has an entry form for qualification. However, only one story entry per form will be accepted, and the Jetsons exhaust themselves fighting for control of the contest entry. After an unlikely ally helps them combine their entries into one, the Jetsons are declared "Future Family of the Year". This episode contains clips from past Jetsons episodes "Elroy Meets Orbitty", "Judy's Birthday Surprise", "The Cosmic Courtship of George and Jane" and "SuperGeorge".|
|65||41||"A Jetson Christmas Carol"||December 13, 1985|
|Based on Charles Dickens' "A Christmas Carol". Spacely orders Jetson to work overtime on Christmas Eve, while Astro causes himself to become sick. Now it's up to the Spirits of Christmases Past, Present, and Future to convince Spacely that Christmas is a time for giving. Fred and Wilma Flintstone make a cameo as characters on a movie screen.|
Season 3 (1987)
|Title||Original air date|
|66||1||"Crime Games"||October 19, 1987|
|A malfunction of the TeleViewer causes Elroy to discover a robbery plot by "The Gripfather" (a take on "The Godfather"), and George ends up trapped in the middle of it.|
|67||2||"ASTROnomical I.Q."||October 21, 1987|
|Elroy invents a machine that can accelerate evolution, and Astro is turned into a super-genius. (Special guest voice: Game show host Wink Martindale voices "Wink Martiandale")|
|68||3||"9 to 5 to 9"||October 23, 1987|
|When Judy's latest crush, Rocky Retro, falls for Marsha VanMarsdale's new car, Judy is determined to earn enough money to pay for her own car—even if it means she has to work around the clock.|
|69||4||"Invisibly Yours, George"||October 27, 1987|
|Several mishaps with Spacely's new "Spot Remover" cause George to become invisible.|
|70||5||"Father/Daughter Dance"||October 29, 1987|
|Judy does not want to be embarrassed at this year's Father/Daughter Dance, so George makes arrangements with Grandpa Jetson to replace him as Judy's partner.|
|71||6||"Clean as a Hound's Tooth"||November 2, 1987|
|George discovers that he has become stressed out lately due to his teeth, so his dentist creates special false teeth to relax him—but end up stressing him out even more.|
|72||7||"Wedding Bells for Rosie"||November 4, 1987|
|When Mac is marked for permanent deactivation, George discovers that Henry's robot must marry another with an updated BEBOP or be recycled.|
|73||8||"The Odd Pod"||November 6, 1987|
|Jane buys an alien plant meant for an exotic plant contest, but it wreaks havoc on the apartment. Meanwhile, George tries to perfect his Barbershop Quartet performance.|
|74||9||"Two Many Georges"||November 10, 1987|
|George is convinced by Orwell, Spacely's nephew, to clone himself and improve his traits. But this new-and-improved George leads the original into believing that his family doesn't need him anymore.|
|75||10||"Spacely for a Day"||November 12, 1987|
|Spacely convinces all his employees to take an aptitude test and makes sure George scores the lowest. But when Elroy, Judy and Astro alters his father's score to be higher than everyone else's, George is given charge of Spacely's plant for the day when his boss is forced to take an impromptu vacation. Upon discovering that George is in charge of Spacely's plant, Cogswell makes plans to destroy Spacely Sprockets once and for all and attempts to ensure that George takes the fall.|
- CD liner notes: Saturday Morning: Cartoons' Greatest Hits, 1995 MCA Records
- "Eep Opp Ork Ah Ah!". TV ACRES. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
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- "TV PROGRAMS For Week Of October 14–20". Lakeland Ledger. October 14, 1962.
- "TV PROGRAMS For Week Of October 21–27". Lakeland Ledger. October 21, 1962.
- "Milwaukee Programs, Sunday, November 4". The Milwaukee Journal. November 4, 1962.
- "TV PROGRAMS For Week Of December 2–8". Lakeland Ledger. December 2, 1962.
- "TV PROGRAMS For Week Of December 9–15". Lakeland Ledger. December 9, 1962.
- "TV PROGRAMS For Week Of December 16–22". Lakeland Ledger. December 16, 1962.
- "TV PROGRAMS For Week of December 30 Thru January 5". Lakeland Ledger. December 30, 1962.
- "TV PROGRAMS For Week of January 6–12". Lakeland Ledger. January 6, 1963.
- "TV PROGRAMS For Week of January 13–19". Lakeland Ledger. January 13, 1963.
- "TV PROGRAMS Week of January 20–26". Lakeland Ledger. January 20, 1963.
- "Milwaukee Programs, Sunday, January 27". The Milwaukee Journal. January 27, 1963.
- "Milwaukee Programs, Sunday, February 3". The Milwaukee Journal. February 3, 1963.
- "Milwaukee Programs, Sunday, Feb. 10". The Milwaukee Journal. February 10, 1963.
- "TELEVISION PROGRAMS". Lakeland Ledger. March 3, 1963.
- "Milwaukee Programs, Sunday, Mar. 17". The Milwaukee Journal. March 17, 1963.