List of Tom and Jerry characters

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This is a list of characters in the Tom and Jerry cartoon short series. They did not appear in all of the movies.

Main characters[edit]

Tom Cat and Jerry Mouse[edit]

Main articles: Tom Cat and Jerry Mouse

Thomas "Tom" Cat is a blue/grey domestic short-haired cat who first appeared in the 1940 animated short Puss Gets the Boot.[1] Tom was originally known as "Jasper" during his debut in that short,[2] however, beginning from his next appearance in The Midnight Snack and onwards, he is known as "Tom".[3]

Jerry Mouse is a brown house mouse, who first appeared as an unnamed mouse in the 1940 MGM animated short Puss Gets the Boot.[4] Years later, William Hanna gave the mouse's original name as "Jinx",[5] while Joseph Barbera claimed the mouse went unnamed in his first appearance.[4]

Recurring characters[edit]

Spike and Tyke[edit]

Spike (occasionally referred to as Butch or Killer) is a stern but occasionally dumb American bulldog who is particularly disapproving of cats, but a softie when it comes to mice (though in his debut episode, Dog Trouble, Spike goes after both Tom and Jerry), and later, his son Tyke. In the shorts Jerry would often try to get Tom in trouble with Spike making him a shoo-in for a beating from the bulldog. Spike has a few weaknesses that Tom tries to capitalize upon: his possessiveness about his bone and his ticklishness. He made his first appearance in the 1942 Tom and Jerry cartoon Dog Trouble, and his first speaking role was in 1944's The Bodyguard, where he was voiced by Billy Bletcher up until 1949, from which point he was voiced by Daws Butler. Unlike his father Spike, Tyke does not speak. He only communicates by yapping, whimpering, growling, facial expressions and wagging his tail. In Tom and Jerry Kids, Tyke does have a speaking role in the program and is the first time that viewers were able to hear Tyke speak. Spike is very protective towards his son and gets very angry at Tom if Tyke is bothered or harmed. Although Tyke has spoken in Tom and Jerry Kids, he has laughed in one episode of Tom and Jerry. After Daws Butler, Maurice LaMarche, Frank Welker, John DiMaggio, Jeff Bergman and currently Phil LaMarr would all perform Spike's voice. Tykes vocal effects are provided by Frank Welker and speaking roles by Patric Zimmerman.


Butch is a black and white alley cat who made his first appearance in the Tom and Jerry series in the 1943 short Baby Puss, alongside Topsy and the already-established Meathead. His character, however (along with the character of Toodles Galore), first appeared in the 1941 MGM short The Alley Cat, directed by Hugh Harman, Butch's only solo cartoon. Butch is the leader of the alley cat bullies who usually help Tom catch Jerry (although a very few times, he does however become enraged when Tom's offense between him and Jerry has gone far enough). In his first appearance, however, Butch was an antagonist, tormenting Tom after Tom's young girl owner treated him like a baby—to the point of dressing Tom up in a diaper, a bonnet, and pink paw mittens. Thus costumed, Tom couldn't help but be a figure of fun—both for Butch and his gang, and for Jerry. Butch also battles with Tom over Toodles Galore and her affections in a couple of shorts including the 1946 short, Springtime for Thomas and the 1951 short Casanova Cat. He is voiced by Jeff Bennett in The Karate Guard and Tom and Jerry Tales and by Jeff Bergman in Tom and Jerry Meet Sherlock Holmes.

Clint Clobber[edit]

Tom's owner in three of the thirteen Gene Deitch cartoons in Down and Outing, High Steaks and Sorry Safari. He has severe anger issues and is repeatedly brutal to Tom for his mistakes.

There is some debate as to whether this is the genuine Clint Clobber as the real Clint would never be an animal abuser, he was just a put-upon grouch.

Toodles Galore[edit]

Toodles Galore is an attractive white female cat, and is supposedly Tom's usual love interest, although Tom is a reputed playboy, and had other love interests before and after Toodles. Toodles is the only love interest who appeared more than twice, and is probably the most favored. During the classic era, Tom had to compete twice against Butch and even once against Spike for Toodles' affection, and he lost them all. In one episode Casanova Cat, Toodles fell in love with Jerry. However, in her final short Love Me, Love My Mouse, she remained with Tom. Toodles is one of the most anthropomorphic animals in the series, with the only cat features being her tail, nose and ears. She never speaks (for unknown reasons?) and she rarely moves around.

Muscles Mouse[edit]

Muscles is Jerry's cousin and a mouse with incredible strength. In "Jerry's Cousin", Muscles appears to hate cats, including Tom. His final appearance was in "Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring", however his name was changed to Freddie and he was hostile to as Jerry. He was voiced by Paul Frees in Jerry's Cousin and by Billy West in Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring.

Mammy Two Shoes[edit]

Main article: Mammy Two Shoes

From the beginning, Tom also has to deal with Mammy Two Shoes (voiced by Lillian Randolph), an African-American domestic housemaid based on Hattie McDaniel. In the earliest shorts, Mammy is depicted as the maid taking care of the often opulent home in which Tom and Jerry reside. Later Tom and Jerry shorts are set in what appears to be Mammy's own house. Her face is never seen (with the exception of 1950s Saturday Evening Puss, in which her face is very briefly seen as she runs towards the camera), and she usually wallops the cat with a broom when he misbehaves. When Mammy was not present, other humans would sometimes be seen, usually from the neck down as well. Mammy would appear in many cartoons until 1952's Push-Button Kitty; Mammy's character was retired after that year following McDaniel's death. Later cartoons would instead show Tom and Jerry living with a 1950s suburban couple. Soon after, virtually all humans in the series had visible faces.


Nibbles is also a little grey house mouse who is close to Jerry and appears frequently with him, especially in the comics. He is sometimes seen as Jerry's nephew, but occasionally referred to as an orphan. In many cartoons, Nibbles is seen eating a lot (he is always hungry). In his first animated appearance, he was left on Jerry's doorstep, abandoned by his parents. Tom enjoys chasing Nibbles much as he does with Jerry.

Though the character was created under the name Tuffy for the comics in 1942, his early animated appearances (from 1945) gave him the name Nibbles. From the 1950s, the mouse was called Tuffy on-screen as well. In Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring, the name Nibbles was used again—and the character was depicted as a pet-store mouse whom Jerry doesn't know.

In the Mouseketeer shorts, Nibbles speaks in French and English. He also is not Jerry's nephew; rather, he is the son of François Mouse—who does not make an appearance, but his name was given in two letters in the short Touche, Pussy Cat!


Quacker at the end of That's My Mommy

Another recurring character in the series was Little Quacker the duckling, who was later adapted into the Hanna-Barbera character Yakky Doodle. He appears in Little Quacker, The Duck Doctor, Just Ducky, Downhearted Duckling, Southbound Duckling, That's My Mommy, Happy Go Ducky and The Vanishing Duck. Quacker talks a lot compared to Tom and Jerry. His voice is a 'duck voice' similar to Disney's Donald Duck. In many episodes, he is the only one who speaks. He's very trusting, even trusting Tom in many situations in which Tom wishes to eat him. He's a friend of Jerry, but unlike Jerry harbors no hard feelings towards Tom. He also got his own series of shorts on The Yogi Bear Show (renamed Yakky Doodle) after guesting in several Hanna-Barbera TV shows. Quacker was then used as a template for the 'Hard Luck Duck' character starring in the titular character's short from the What A Cartoon series. His What-A Cartoon counterpart Hard Luck Duck was voiced by Russi Taylor.

Quacker was voiced by Red Coffee in the classic shorts.


Cuckoo is a canary that first appeared in Kitty Foiled. He also appeared in The Flying Cat, Life with Tom, Hic-cup Pup and Matinee Mouse. He is Jerry's good friend.


Lightning is a ginger orange cat who first appeared in the 1948 short Old Rockin' Chair Tom as Tom's rival. Lightning is named as such because in his first short, he practically moved at the speed of lightning. In later cartoons, Lightning often appeared as one of Tom's alley cat buddies/rivals. He also appears in Switchin' Kitten. Fans have occasionally confused Lightning with Meathead, though the two are not the same and have appeared side-by-side in two cartoons.


Topsy is a grey/brown kitten. He is one of Tom's alley cat friends/foes, although in Professor Tom he befriends Jerry. He first appeared in Baby Puss; his final appearance in the original theatrical shorts was in Scat Cats. He also appears in Tom and Jerry Tales with a more yellowish color (similar to Life with Tom). In Professor Tom, Topsy is explicitly a house cat; more often (as in Saturday Evening Puss and elsewhere), he is depicted as an alley cat or a cat of unknown origin.


Meathead is a brown, mangy alley cat who wears a red toupee (which is occasionally seen the same color as the rest of his fur). He is generally portrayed as dull-witted and first appeared in the 1943 short, Sufferin' Cats!, as Tom's rival. Meathead later reappeared in Baby Puss and additional shorts as one of Tom's alley cat buddies/foes. In Scat Cats, he is seen as a gray cat. Fans have occasionally confused Meathead with Lightning, though the two are not the same and have appeared side-by-side in two cartoons.

George and Joan[edit]

George and Joan are an average middle class white couple, who debuted in the 1954 episode Pet Peeve. They are the new owners of Tom and Spike, but Tom likes to keep Joan company and Spike likes to keep George company. Joan is often seen either cooking or sitting on her armchair knitting or sewing a dress with Tom keeping her company. George, on the other hand, hates the monthly bills and complains that they're too expensive. But when he's not complaining about the bills, he is sitting in his armchair or on the sofa reading the newspaper wearing his smart purple or grey suit and Spike is keeping him company. Both George and Joan are very kind and polite towards each other and Tom and Spike. In Pet Peeve, George and Joan decided that they keep Jerry as a pet because he is easy to look after and doesn't eat too much (George and Joan do not know Jerry's secret: He eats a lot more than Tom and Spike combined, which explains the amount of food he has in his mouse hole shown later) and tell Tom and Spike to leave. However, in later episodes with George and Joan, Tom and Spike still happily live with them and Jerry is not known by the couple and he is not a pet anymore.

In some episodes, Joan appears without George, such as Mouse for Sale, The Flying Sorceress and Mucho Mouse. It could be presumed that George would be working at his office during the settings of these cartoons.

George and Joan also appeared in four other Tom & Jerry shorts, Tom's Photo Finish, Busy Buddies, The Vanishing Duck (Quacker's last short) and Tot Watchers.

Jeannie and the Baby[edit]

Jeannie, the babysitter of George and Joan's baby, is an average teenager who spends much of her time talking on the phone. She is often called on to look after the baby if they're going out. Jeannie proceeds to leap straight onto the phone just as George and Joan shut the front door, which tells us that she is very negligent about her job. Despite this, Jeannie is very kind, friendly, cheerful and rarely loses a smile—except to scold Tom for "bothering the baby," which she thinks he is doing on purpose to annoy her. Jeannie was seen in only two cartoons: Busy Buddies (1956) and Tot Watchers (1958).

The Ants[edit]

The Ants are an army of red ants who steal food as they see them. They appeared in four cartoons Cat Napping, Pup on a Picnic, Barbecue Brawl and Carmen Get It!. They also appeared in Tom and Jerry Kids. They're unusually heavy for their size, and their combined weight often causes many items, such as Tom's hammock, to break. It's unclear how or why the ants are so heavy, as they are even capable of making tables and diving boards shake as they march onto them.

Guardian devils[edit]

Each guardian devil for Tom and Jerry appeared in three cartoons Sufferin' Cats!, Springtime for Thomas and Smitten Kitten. In the first of these cartoons, one served as evil conscience for Tom and in the other two for Jerry.

Fluff, Muff and Puff[edit]

Fluff, Muff and Puff are a trio of brown, black and orange kittens that first appeared in Heavenly Puss as adorable kittens in cameo roles. They also appeared in Triplet Trouble as cute but extremely mischievous kittens.


Cherie is a brown/grey female mouse who serves as Jerry's love interest. She first appeared at the end of Springtime For Thomas, and then later in Smitten Kitten, Touche, Pussy Cat! (only cartoon where she has an identical twin), Tom and Cherie (the first cartoon where she is named), Blue Cat Blues and The Mouse from H.U.N.G.E.R. (as a ticking time bomb set by Tom).

Mr Mechano and Robot-Mouse[edit]

Mr Mechano first appeared in Push Button Kitty as Tom's rival. Later, Mr Mechano and Robot-Mouse are seen as a cat-like-robot and mouse-like-robot who serve Tom and Jerry (except at the end of Advance and Be Mechanized, when they get revenge and switch roles with Tom and Jerry, as they control their minds and make them do the work) in the three Chuck Jones outer space cartoons O-Solar Meow, Guided Mouse-ille and Advance and Be Mechanized. Mechano's efforts to catch or trap Jerry or Robot-Mouse always backfire for Tom, except in Advance and Be Mechanized, when he succeeds to catch Robot-Mouse in the beginning.

The Shark[edit]

A shark who tries to eat Tom and Jerry. He appears in Cannery Rodent, Puss 'n' Boats, Filet Meow and Surf-Bored Cat.

Tiny Bulldog[edit]

This nameless mouse-sized bulldog, designed similarly to Spike the Bulldog, is Jerry's pet dog companion in only two shorts: The Cat's Me-Ouch and Purr-Chance to Dream. His role is similar to Spike in cartoons such as The Bodyguard, Fit To Be Tied, and Much Ado About Mousing, which is to defend Jerry against Tom. He is presumably the oldest son of Spike before Tyke, and this could be identified by his looks and personality that is similar to his father Spike. Unlike Spike and Tyke he has a big bite (similar to those of Looney Tunes' Tasmanian Devil).

Uncle Pecos[edit]

Uncle Pecos is Jerry's Cowboyish uncle who appears in Pecos Pest. He was voiced by Shug Fisher. He is known to always play with a guitar and wears a black cowboy hat that covers his eyes. He gets angry at Tom because he plucks one of Tom's whiskers off to replace broken strings on the guitar.

Uncle Pecos returned in the Tom and Jerry Tales episode "Cry Uncle", Voiced by Greg Burson . In the episode he arrives at Tom and Jerry's house and annoys Tom and Jerry with his music. He later leaves with Mamma Two Shoes in the end of the episode.

Tom & Jerry Kids[edit]

The following characters were introduced in the television series Tom & Jerry Kids.


Main article: Droopy

A Basset Hound often with a miserable look on his face, originally introduced in the Tex Avery shorts of the 1940s. Appears in the Droopy and Dripple segments of Tom and Jerry Kids.


The son of Droopy. He is always with his father and they always do the same (although sometimes Dripple thinks “better” than his father). The identity of his mother is never mentioned or even addressed, although, due to Droopy's frequent relationships with Miss Vavoom, it can be assumed that his mother is either dead or is divorced from Droopy with no visitation rights. He is voiced by Charlie Adler.


The villain of the "Droopy and Dripple" segments. A bad and cruel wolf whose only mission is to ruin the life of Droopy and Dripple (and sometimes to remain with Miss Vavoom). Sometimes for of crazy scientist whom it loves to dominate the world, of space villain, a criminal fat person (known as "The Chubby Man"), etc. His character is based on the wolf in Red Hot Riding Hood. He is voiced by Frank Welker.

Miss Vavoom[edit]

The contiguous woman of the show, based on Tex Avery's Red Hot Riding Hood. She is very seductive and she always takes different hairdos. She always is conquered by Droopy and most of times is the greater target of McWolf. Sometimes she is called Bubbles Vavoom, Ultra Vavoom, Sugar Vavoom, etc. Her character is based on Red from Red Hot Riding Hood. She is voiced by Teresa Ganzel.

Calaboose Cal[edit]

A gold cat owner of a show of demonstration and participation. He is arrogant (sometimes), has a rancher accent, and is sometimes presented as an enemy to Tom. Purportedly inspired by legendary Southern California car dealer Cal Worthington. He is voiced by Phil Hartman.


Urfo is a six-legged alien dog that arrives on Earth many times and helps Jerry fend off Tom. His owners often send people to retrieve him.

Minor characters of Tom & Jerry Kids[edit]


A rooster thief that tries to stole banks, he is an enemy (besides of Mc Wolf) of Droopy and Dripple, voiced by Pat Fraley


He is a young boy who sees one day unloading in his room Urfo.


A fat cat that often one puts in problems, and when Tom and Jerry save it, he promises to be its better friend (Although for Tom and Jerry he is like a punishment). Voiced by Brian Cummings.

Kyle the Cat[edit]

A mangy orange cat that first appeared as the antagonist of Spike and/or Tyke. Voiced by Pat Fraley.

Bernie the Swallow[edit]

A medically challenged yellow swallow that is friends with Jerry in "Hard to Swallow". He had a color change to blue in "Swallow the Swallow" and "Grab that Bird" as he is chased mostly by Clyde and Kyle. Voiced by David L. Lander.

Wild Mouse[edit]

A grayish-green, shaggy fanged mouse who occasionally replaces Jerry and outwits his foes. Like Tom and Jerry, Wildmouse is voiced by Frank Welker. He first appears in the episode Wildmouse and is last seen in the episode King Windmouse. His personality is very similar to that of the Tasmanian Devil from the Looney Tunes franchise.


A cougar who loves torment the rest. He wants to eat Tyke (and Spike gives deserved his him).

Muscle Guy[edit]

As his name says it, he is muscular and jealous. He is the boyfriend of Miss Vavoom in an episode.

The Vermins[edit]

A trio of rocker mice who Jerry loves. He becomes a part of the group. They appear in the episode The Vermin.

The Chubby Man[edit]

McWolf known name in "Droopy, Master Detective". He is fat, cruel, bad and vicious.

Mystery Lady[edit]

Miss Vavoom known name in The Calaboose Cal shorts. She is the assistant of Calaboose Cal.

Mr. Sheboygan[edit]

The owner and manager of Sheboygan Records, Inc. (a fictional studio). He requests cats (including Tom, whom he refers to "cat baby" or "pussycat baby") to help get rid of mice (including Jerry) whom they believe are a threat to the performers on the stage. He also has an assistant who similarly resembles Miss Vavoom, but wears glasses unlike Vavoom. Hence the name being derived upon a Wisconsin city, the series mainly takes place in California where Hanna-Barbera's headquarters were located. He appears in the episode Two-Stepping Tom.


A cat who states he was a fraidy cat in the past, and no longer a fraidy cat. He looks exactly like Tom, but wears a yellow baseball cap with a green stripe, and has a speaking role; and he claims that Tom is his twin brother, despite the fact that Tom has no siblings. He is often sarcastic and is also known to raid a refrigerator whenever he's hungry, and whenever a mouse including Jerry is near, he is rather still afraid of mice. He appears in the episode Fraidy Cat that is based upon the short Timid Tabby and not of the one with the same name, and also modeled after Cousin George. He is also the main antagonist of the episode he appears in.

The White Tabby[edit]

An unnamed white quadrupedal cat whom Tom first believes is his first lover, but is revealed to be more interested in mice, which she often describes as "Fuzzy Wuzzy". She is depicted with a high-pitched voice, and often behaves like a biped when she carries things in her forefeet including gifts among other things. She does not accept kisses unless she receives a mouse. When Tom brought Jerry to her, she cuddled Jerry, and then they both went out in a limousine, while Tom was left out from going along. The tabby in this cartoon is based upon Toodles Galore from the classic shorts, although Toodles is a biped, in contrast this character. She appears in the episode Tom Thumped.

Cindy Lou[edit]

Tom's rumored crush who has a birthday party at her house, and Tom brings her many presents. She later reveals that she is already in love with another cat and goes out with him instead, leaving Tom behind, which made him believe that she dumped him. She appears in the episode Birthday Surprise.

The Babysitter[edit]

An unnamed teenage girl who is instructed to babysit the baby while the baby's mother is gone, but relies on the telephone most of the time. Whenever Tom points to her that she needs to watch the baby and spend less time on the phone, she refuses to listen and objects him anyway, believing he's trying to bother the baby and also refers to Tom by insulting names. She also hides the fact that she relied on the telephone so that the baby's mother doesn't find out. The babysitter in this cartoon is based upon Jeannie from the shorts: Busy Buddies and Tot Watchers; but has orange hair in pigtails and is dressed in a 1980s fashion. She appears in the episode Tom, the Babysitter.

Chase School Teacher[edit]

A teacher at Cat and Mouse Chase School, featuring a golden statue of Tom chasing Jerry. He teaches the cats and mice on opposing sides on how Tom chases after Jerry while Jerry evades or backfires Tom. When the opposing sides debate over which species are the best, the teacher commands them to settle down by yelling out "Order!". When the cats and mice in the audience start fighting each other for the last time, he says that he will call the police on them, but they throw a pan of pie into his face anyway, and continue fighting, turning everything into a disaster. He appears in the episode Chase School.

Sergeant Boffo[edit]

A martial arts trainer and head of Sgt. Boffo's Ferocious Feline Mouse-Bashing School, and former plumber. He calls Tom through the TV and trains him to be tough enough in catching mice. Boffo is depicted as a large brown Manx cat who is often headstrong and quick-tempered and wears a green military uniform top with a black tie and wears a green beret. He appears during the first half of the episode I Dream of Cheezy (a play on I Dream of Jeannie).

Sergeant Boffo's Students[edit]

A trio of tall blackbelt-class martial arts cats at Sgt. Boffo's Ferocious Feline Mouse-Bashing School. They wear white keikogi with black belts, and wear hachimaki of their own corresponding colors. One is dark brown and obese, and wears a blue hachimaki, and has the deepest voice of the three, and wears his keikogi with his top exposing his belly and with the belt worn in a high-waisted manner. Another is orange and very slim, and wears a yellow hachimaki, and has the highest voice of the three. The last of the three is tan and also slim, and wears a red hachimaki, but ironically isn't seen to do action like the other two. Sergeant Boffo refers to them as "troops". Despite their seniority, they don't successfully destroy the mouse robot by themselves. Tom joined in with the three, and was wearing a white keikogi with a white belt and a turquoise hachimaki, and attempted to take over their lessons and often got injured, but eventually outperforming the three at the final blow. These three cats along with their trainer, Sergeant Boffo appear only in I Dream of Cheezy.


An elephant who performed in a circus and was originally a buddy to Jerry. In his final appearance in the episode Two Stepping Tom, he is later afraid of mice, and he jumps up in fright of Jerry in sight, and any attempt to land on Jerry, he lands on Tom instead.

Super Mouse[edit]

A super-hero mouse of the space. Voiced by Joe Alaskey.

Slowpoke Antonio[edit]

Jerry's cousin from Texas and probably the son of his uncle Pecos. They share the same traits, such as singing, playing guitars and superstrength. He wears a blue cowboy hat, a green neckerchief, and brown gloves and speaks with a Texas drawl (just like Slowpoke Rodriguez from the Looney Tunes). Voiced by William Callaway.

Lightning Bolt[edit]

The Super Squirrel who hurls Lightning Bolts. He lives in a cloud in the sky, watching over the world and trying to protect the innocent. Voiced by Charlie Adler.

Museum Manager[edit]

The human manager of the Museum of Natural History who employs Tom to watch the museum overnight until 6:00 AM. He is shown wearing an auburn-colored uniform; and during Tom's employment, Tom wears nearly the same uniform, but without pants, shoes, and a tie, since he is a cat. He is later revealed to be a brown Tasmanian devil in disguise to frighten Tom. He appears in the episode The Watchcat.


A fox who was raised in Hokey Finokey Swamp and escapes from the circus to get revenge of Sheriff Potgut's malicious reputation. He takes pride in looking for the treasure hidden on an island with X-crossed palm trees, while Sheriff Potgut and the Gator Brothers (Sheriff Potgut's henchmen) hijack his plans, until discovering the treasure turns out to be a message from him: he finally leaves Hokey Finokey Swamp and goes to South America to enjoy the rest of his life by himself, never to meet with Sheriff Potgut and the Gator Brothers anymore. He is depicted with burnt orange fur and white whiskers, and wears an azure shirt and red vest and azure hat with a red band. He appears in the episode Cajun Gumbo as the episode's only protagonist.

Sheriff Potgut[edit]

The elderly sheriff of Hokey Finokey Swamp. He is arrogant, rude, and self-centered. He threatened to send Swampy back to the circus (which Swampy is aware of the fact that it promotes animal cruelty), throwing Swampy into tears. He also envies the map Swampy made out to search for the hidden treasure. He appears in the episode Cajun Gumbo as the episode's main antagonist. Aside from the lone episode where he battled Swampy, the Sheriff and the Gator Brothers were also used as antagonists in an episode featuring Wild Mouse.

Gator Brothers[edit]

Sheriff Potgut's henchmen. They appear in the episode "Cajun Gumbo" as the episode's secondary antagonists.


  1. ^ IMDb. "Puss Gets the Boot". Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  2. ^ Mark Christopher Carnes, American national biography (2) 
  3. ^ IMDb. "The Midnight Snack (1941)". Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 73–76. ISBN 1- Check |isbn= value (help). 
  5. ^ Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 39–46. ISBN 0-306-80917-6.