List of Tour de France general classification winners

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A man with black curly hair
Miguel Indurain, who won five consecutive tours from 1991 to 1995.

The Tour de France is an annual road bicycle race held over 23 days in July. Established in 1903 by newspaper L'Auto, the tour is the most well-known and prestigious of cycling's three "Grand Tours"; the others are the Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España.[1] The race usually covers approximately 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi), passing through France and neighbouring countries such as Belgium.[2] The race is broken into day-long segments, called stages. Individual finishing times for each stage are totalled to determine the overall winner at the end of the race. The course changes every year, but has always finished in Paris; since 1975 it has finished along the Champs-Élysées.

The rider with the lowest aggregate time at the end of each day wears the yellow jersey, representing the leader of the general classification. There are other jerseys as well: the green jersey, worn by the leader of the points classification; the polka dot jersey, worn by the leader of the mountains classification; and the white jersey, worn by the leader of the young rider classification.

Lance Armstrong was the winner of seven consecutive tours between 1999 and 2005,[3] but he was stripped of these titles in October 2012 by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) after it emerged that he had used performance enhancing drugs.[4] Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx, Bernard Hinault and Miguel Indurain, have won the most tours with five each. Indurain is the only man to win five consecutive tours. Henri Cornet is the youngest winner; he won in 1904, just short of his 20th birthday. Firmin Lambot is the oldest winner, having been 36 years, 4 months old when he won in 1922.[5] French cyclists have won the most tours; 21 cyclists have won 36 tours among them. Belgian cyclists are second with 18 victories, and Spanish riders are third with 12 wins.[6] The current champion is Vincenzo Nibali of Astana, who won the 2014 Tour de France.

History[edit]

The Tour de France was established in 1903 by newspaper L'Auto, in an attempt to increase its sales. The first race was won by Frenchman Maurice Garin. He won again the next year, but was disqualified after allegations that he had been transported by car or rail arose. Henri Cornet became the winner after the dispute was settled; he is the youngest to win the tour. Following the scandals in 1904, the scoring system was changed from being time-based to a points-based system, in which the cyclist who has the fewest points at the end of the race is victorious. This system lasted until 1912, when the time-based system was re-introduced. French cyclists were successful in the early tours; the first non-Frenchman to win the tour was François Faber of Luxembourg, who won in 1909.[7]

Belgian riders were more successful before and after the First World War (which suspended the tour from 1915 to 1918). In the 1920s, trade teams dominated the tour; cyclists such as Nicolas Frantz won the tour with the Alcyon team. However, when Alcyon cyclist Maurice De Waele won the tour in 1929 while ill, the organisers decided to introduce national teams the following year, to stop team tactics from undermining the race. Because of the Second World War, the Tour de France was suspended from 1940 to 1946.[8]

A yellow jersey with writing on it
The yellow jersey (French: Maillot jaune), worn by the leader of the general classification

After the Second World War, no one dominated the Tour until Louison Bobet, who won three consecutive tours from 1953 to 1955—he was the first person to achieve this feat.[9] This was bettered by the French cyclist Jacques Anquetil, who won four successive tours from 1961 to 1964. Anquetil, who also won in 1957, became the first to win five Tours.[10] Anquetil's five victories were matched when Belgian cyclist Eddy Merckx won four successive tours from 1969 to 1972 and the 1974 tour. Merckx is the only person to have won the general, points and king of the mountains classifications in the same tour. He achieved this in 1969, when he won his first tour.[11]

Merckx looked to be heading for a record sixth tour victory in 1975, but Bernard Thévenet beat him, becoming the first French winner in seven years. Thévenet won again in 1977; however, he was eclipsed in following years by fellow Frenchman Bernard Hinault, who won consecutive tours in 1978 and 1979. Hinault won the tour at his first attempt in 1978; becoming one of 11 cyclists (including Anquetil, Merckx, Hugo Koblet and Fausto Coppi) managed to do so.[12] In 1980, Hinault was going for a third consecutive win, but had to pull out because of tendinitis, and the tour was won by Joop Zoetemelk.[13] Hinault returned in 1981 and won that race as well as the one after that. Hinault sat out the tour in 1983, and another Frenchman—Laurent Fignon—achieved victory. Fignon won again the following year, beating Hinault; Hinault recovered in 1985 to win his fifth tour.

American Greg LeMond became the first non-European to the win the tour in 1986. LeMond missed out in 1987 and 1988, but returned in 1989 to win the tour by finishing eight seconds ahead of Laurent Fignon, the smallest winning margin in the tour's history. LeMond also won in 1990.[14] In 1991, Spaniard Miguel Indurain won his first tour. Indurain came to dominate the tour, winning four more tours consecutively—making him the first person to win five consecutive tours.[15] He tried to win a record-high sixth tour in 1996, but was beaten by Bjarne Riis, who later admitted to using Erythropoietin.[16] Jan Ullrich and Marco Pantani won in 1997 and 1998, respectively; however, Pantani's victory was overshadowed by doping scandals.[17]

The 1999 tour saw the first victory of Lance Armstrong,[18] which was followed by six more, for a total of seven consecutive victories.[19] He was stripped of his titles in October 2012, when it emerged he had used performance enhancing throughout much of his career, including the Tour de France victories.[4] Floyd Landis won the tour in 2006, but was later stripped of his title, after a drug-control test demonstrated the presence of a skewed testosterone/epitestosterone ratio.[20] Alberto Contador won the 2007 tour with the Discovery Channel. The 2007 tour was also marred by doping scandals, thus Contador was unable to defend his title in 2008, as his Astana team was banned for its part. Fellow Spaniard Carlos Sastre of Team CSC won.[21] Contador and Astana returned in 2009 to regain the title. He won the tour again in 2010, but was later stripped of his title after he was found guilty of doping. Runner-up Andy Schleck was awarded the victory.

Cadel Evans became the first Australian to win the tour in 2011.[22] The following year, Bradley Wiggins became the first British cyclist to win the tour.[23]

Winners[edit]

Key
dagger Winner won points classification in the same year
* Winner won King of the Mountains classification in the same year
# Winner won young rider classification in the same year
double-dagger Winner won points and King of the Mountains classification in the same year
  • The "Year" column refers to the year the competition was held, and wikilinks to the article about that season.
  • The "Distance" column refers to the distance over which the race was held.
  • The "Margin" column refers to the margin of time or points by which the winner defeated the runner-up.
  • The "Stage wins" column refers to the number of stage wins the winner had during the race.
Tour de France general classification winners
Year Country Cyclist Sponsor/Team Distance Time/Points Margin Stage wins Yellow jerseys
1903  France Garin, MauriceMaurice Garin La Française 2,428 km (1,509 mi) 94h 33' 14" + 2h 59' 21" 3 6
1904  France Cornet, HenriHenri Cornet Conte 2,428 km (1,509 mi) 96h 05' 55" + 2h 16' 14" 1 3
1905  France Trousselier, LouisLouis Trousselier Peugeot–Wolber 2,994 km (1,860 mi) 35 26 5 10
1906  France Pottier, RenéRené Pottier Peugeot 4,637 km (2,881 mi) 31 8 5 12
1907  France Petit-Breton, LucienLucien Petit-Breton Peugeot 4,488 km (2,789 mi) 47 19 2 5
1908  France Petit-Breton, LucienLucien Petit-Breton Peugeot 4,497 km (2,794 mi) 36 32 5 13
1909  Luxembourg Faber, FrançoisFrançois Faber Alcyon 4,498 km (2,795 mi) 37 20 6 13
1910  France Lapize, OctaveOctave Lapize Alcyon 4,734 km (2,942 mi) 63 4 4 3
1911  France Garrigou, GustaveGustave Garrigou Alcyon 5,343 km (3,320 mi) 43 18 2 13
1912  Belgium Defraye, OdileOdile Defraye Alcyon 5,289 km (3,286 mi) 49 59 3 13
1913  Belgium Thys, PhilippePhilippe Thys Peugeot 5,287 km (3,285 mi) 197h 54' 00" + 8' 37" 1 8
1914  Belgium Thys, PhilippePhilippe Thys Peugeot 5,380 km (3,340 mi) 200h 28' 48" + 1' 50" 1 15
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1919  Belgium Lambot, FirminFirmin Lambot La Sportive 5,560 km (3,450 mi) 231h 07' 15" + 1h 42' 54" 1 2
1920  Belgium Thys, PhilippePhilippe Thys La Sportive 5,503 km (3,419 mi) 228h 36' 13" + 57' 21" 4 14
1921  Belgium Scieur, LéonLéon Scieur La Sportive 5,485 km (3,408 mi) 221h 50' 26" + 18' 36" 2 14
1922  Belgium Lambot, FirminFirmin Lambot Peugeot 5,375 km (3,340 mi) 222h 08' 06" + 41' 15" 0 3
1923  France Pélissier, HenriHenri Pélissier Automoto 5,386 km (3,347 mi) 222h 15' 30" + 30 '41" 3 6
1924  Italy Bottecchia, OttavioOttavio Bottecchia Automoto 5,425 km (3,371 mi) 226h 18' 21" + 35' 36" 4 15
1925  Italy Bottecchia, OttavioOttavio Bottecchia Automoto 5,440 km (3,380 mi) 219h 10' 18" + 54' 20" 4 13
1926  Belgium Buysse, LucienLucien Buysse Automoto 5,745 km (3,570 mi) 238h 44' 25" + 1h 22' 25" 2 8
1927  Luxembourg Frantz, NicolasNicolas Frantz Alcyon 5,398 km (3,354 mi) 198h 16' 42" + 1h 48' 41" 3 14
1928  Luxembourg Frantz, NicolasNicolas Frantz Alcyon 5,476 km (3,403 mi) 192h 48' 58" + 50' 07" 5 22
1929  Belgium De Waele, MauriceMaurice De Waele Alcyon 5,286 km (3,285 mi) 186h 39' 15" +44' 23" 1 16
1930  France Leducq, AndréAndré Leducq Alcyon 4,822 km (2,996 mi) 172h 12' 16" + 14' 13" 2 13
1931  France Magne, AntoninAntonin Magne France 5,091 km (3,163 mi) 177h 10' 03" + 12' 56" 1 16
1932  France Leducq, AndréAndré Leducq France 4,479 km (2,783 mi) 154h 11' 49" + 24' 03" 6 19
1933  France Speicher, GeorgesGeorges Speicher France 4,395 km (2,731 mi) 147h 51' 37" + 4' 01" 3 12
1934  France Magne, AntoninAntonin Magne France 4,470 km (2,780 mi) 147h 13' 58" + 27' 31" 3 22
1935  Belgium Maes, RomainRomain Maes Belgium 4,338 km (2,696 mi) 141h 23' 00" + 17' 52" 3 21
1936  Belgium Maes, SylvèreSylvère Maes Belgium 4,442 km (2,760 mi) 142h 47' 32" + 26' 55" 4 14
1937  France Lapébie, RogerRoger Lapébie France 4,415 km (2,743 mi) 138h 58' 31" + 7' 17" 3 4
1938  Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali* Italy 4,694 km (2,917 mi) 148h 29' 12" + 18' 27" 2 8
1939  Belgium Maes, SylvèreSylvère Maes* Belgium 4,224 km (2,625 mi) 132h 03' 17" + 30' 38" 2 4
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1947  France Robic, JeanJean Robic France 4,642 km (2,884 mi) 148h 11' 25" + 3' 58" 3 1
1948  Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali* Italy 4,922 km (3,058 mi) 147h 10' 36" + 26' 16" 7 9
1949  Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi* Italy 4,808 km (2,988 mi) 149h 40' 49" + 10' 55" 3 5
1950   Switzerland Kübler, FerdinandFerdinand Kübler Switzerland 4,773 km (2,966 mi) 145h 36' 56" + 9' 30" 3 11
1951   Switzerland Koblet, HugoHugo Koblet Switzerland 4,690 km (2,910 mi) 142h 20' 14" + 22' 00" 5 11
1952  Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi* Italy 4,898 km (3,043 mi) 151h 57' 20" + 28' 17" 5 14
1953  France Bobet, LouisonLouison Bobet France 4,476 km (2,781 mi) 129h 23' 25" + 14' 18" 2 5
1954  France Bobet, LouisonLouison Bobet France 4,656 km (2,893 mi) 140h 06' 05" + 15' 49" 3 14
1955  France Bobet, LouisonLouison Bobet France 4,495 km (2,793 mi) 130h 29' 26" + 4' 53" 2 6
1956  France Walkowiak, RogerRoger Walkowiak France 4,498 km (2,795 mi) 124h 01' 16" + 1' 25" 0 8
1957  France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil France 4,669 km (2,901 mi) 135h 44' 42" + 14' 56" 4 15
1958  Luxembourg Gaul, CharlyCharly Gaul Luxembourg 4,319 km (2,684 mi) 116h 59' 05" + 3' 10" 4 2
1959  Spain Bahamontes, FedericoFederico Bahamontes* Spain 4,358 km (2,708 mi) 123h 46' 45" + 4' 01" 1 6
1960  Italy Nencini, GastoneGastone Nencini Italy 4,173 km (2,593 mi) 112h 08' 42" + 5' 02" 0 14
1961  France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil France 4,397 km (2,732 mi) 122h 01' 33" + 12' 14" 2 21
1962  France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil Saint–Raphaël 4,274 km (2,656 mi) 114h 31' 54" + 4' 59" 2 3
1963  France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil Saint–Raphaël 4,138 km (2,571 mi) 113h 30' 05" + 3' 35" 4 5
1964  France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil Saint–Raphaël 4,504 km (2,799 mi) 127h 09' 44" + 55" 4 6
1965  Italy Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi Salvarani 4,188 km (2,602 mi) 116h 42' 06" + 2' 40" 3 18
1966  France Aimar, LucienLucien Aimar Ford–Gitane 4,329 km (2,690 mi) 117h 34' 21" + 1' 07" 0 6
1967  France Pingeon, RogerRoger Pingeon Peugeot–BP–Michelin 4,779 km (2,970 mi) 136h 53' 50" + 3' 40" 1 17
1968  Netherlands Janssen, JanJan Janssen Pelforth-Sauvage–Lejeune 4,492 km (2,791 mi) 133h 49' 42" + 38" 2 1
1969  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckxdouble-dagger Faema 4,117 km (2,558 mi) 116h 16' 02" + 17' 54" 6 18
1970  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx* Faemino 4,254 km (2,643 mi) 119h 31' 49" + 12' 41" 8 20
1971  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckxdagger Molteni 3,608 km (2,242 mi) 96h 45' 14" + 9' 51" 4 17
1972  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckxdagger Molteni 3,846 km (2,390 mi) 108h 17' 18" + 10' 41" 6 15
1973  Spain Ocaña, LuisLuis Ocaña Bic 4,090 km (2,540 mi) 122h 25' 34" + 15' 51" 6 14
1974  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx Molteni 4,098 km (2,546 mi) 116h 16' 58" + 8' 04" 8 18
1975  France ThevenetBernard Thévenet Peugeot 4,000 km (2,500 mi) 114h 35' 31" + 2' 47" 2 8
1976  Belgium Van Impe, LucienLucien Van Impe Gitane–Campagnolo 4,017 km (2,496 mi) 116h 22' 23" + 4' 14" 1 12
1977  France ThevenetBernard Thévenet Peugeot 4,096 km (2,545 mi) 115h 38' 30" + 48" 1 8
1978  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,908 km (2,428 mi) 108h 18' 00" + 3' 56" 3 3
1979  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinaultdagger Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,765 km (2,339 mi) 103h 06' 50" + 13' 07" 7 17
1980  Netherlands Zoetemelk, JoopJoop Zoetemelk TI–Raleigh 3,842 km (2,387 mi) 109h 19' 14" + 6' 55" 2 10
1981  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,753 km (2,332 mi) 96h 19' 38" + 14' 34" 5 18
1982  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,507 km (2,179 mi) 92h 08' 46" + 6' 21" 4 12
1983  France Fignon, LaurentLaurent Fignon# Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,809 km (2,367 mi) 105h 07' 52" + 4' 04" 1 6
1984  France Fignon, LaurentLaurent Fignon Renault–Elf–Gitane 4,021 km (2,499 mi) 112h 03' 40" + 10' 32" 5 7
1985  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault La Vie Claire 4,109 km (2,553 mi) 113h 24' 23" + 1' 42" 2 16
1986  United States LeMond, GregGreg LeMond La Vie Claire 4,094 km (2,544 mi) 110h 35' 19" + 3' 10" 1 7
1987  Ireland Roche, StephenStephen Roche Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 4,231 km (2,629 mi) 115h 27' 42" + 40" 1 3
1988  Spain Delgado, PedroPedro Delgado Reynolds 3,286 km (2,042 mi) 84h 27' 53" + 7' 13" 1 11
1989  United States LeMond, GregGreg LeMond ADR Agrigel 3,285 km (2,041 mi) 87h 38' 35" + 8" 3 8
1990  United States LeMond, GregGreg LeMond Z Vêtements 3,504 km (2,177 mi) 90h 43' 20" + 2' 16" 0 2
1991  Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain Banesto 3,914 km (2,432 mi) 101h 01' 20" + 3' 36" 2 10
1992  Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain Banesto 3,983 km (2,475 mi) 100h 49' 30" + 4' 35" 3 10
1993  Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain Banesto 3,714 km (2,308 mi) 95h 57' 09" + 4' 59" 2 14
1994  Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain Banesto 3,978 km (2,472 mi) 103h 38' 38" + 5' 39" 1 13
1995  Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain Banesto 3,635 km (2,259 mi) 92h 44' 59" + 4' 35" 2 13
1996  Denmark Riis, BjarneBjarne Riis[A] Team Telekom 3,765 km (2,339 mi) 95h 57' 16" + 1' 41" 2 13
1997  Germany Ullrich, JanJan Ullrich# Team Telekom 3,950 km (2,450 mi) 100h 30' 35" + 9' 09" 2 12
1998  Italy Pantani, MarcoMarco Pantani Mercatone Uno-Bianchi 3,875 km (2,408 mi) 92h 49' 46" + 3' 21" 2 7
1999[B]  United States Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong US Postal 3,687 km (2,291 mi) 91h 32' 16" + 7' 37" 4 15
2000[B]  United States Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong US Postal 3,662 km (2,275 mi) 92h 33' 08" + 6' 02" 1 12
2001[B]  United States Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong US Postal 3,458 km (2,149 mi) 86h 17' 28" + 6' 44" 4 8
2002[B]  United States Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong US Postal 3,272 km (2,033 mi) 82h 05' 12" + 7' 17" 4 11
2003[B]  United States Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong US Postal 3,427 km (2,129 mi) 83h 41' 12" + 1' 01" 1 13
2004[B]  United States Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong US Postal 3,391 km (2,107 mi) 83h 36' 02" + 6' 19" 5 7
2005[B]  United States Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong Discovery Channel 3,593 km (2,233 mi) 86h 15' 02" + 4' 40" 1 17
2006  Spain Pereiro, ÓscarÓscar Pereiro[C] Caisse d'Epargne-Illes Balears 3,657 km (2,272 mi) 89h 40' 27" + 32" 0 8
2007  Spain Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador# Discovery Channel 3,570 km (2,220 mi) 91h 00' 26" + 23" 1 4
2008  Spain Sastre, CarlosCarlos Sastre Team CSC 3,559 km (2,211 mi) 87h 52' 52" + 58" 1 5
2009  Spain Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador Astana 3,459 km (2,149 mi) 85h 48' 35" + 4' 11" 2 7
2010  Luxembourg Schleck, AndyAndy Schleck#[D] Team Saxo Bank 3,642 km (2,263 mi) 91h 59' 27" + 1' 22" 2 12
2011  Australia Evans, CadelCadel Evans BMC Racing Team 3,430 km (2,130 mi) 86h 12' 22" + 1' 34" 1 2
2012  United Kingdom Wiggins, BradleyBradley Wiggins Team Sky 3,496 km (2,172 mi) 87h 34' 47" + 3' 21" 2 14
2013  United Kingdom Froome, ChrisChris Froome Team Sky 3,404 km (2,115 mi) 83h 56' 20" + 4' 20" 3 14
2014  Italy Nibali, VincenzoVincenzo Nibali Astana 3,660.5 km (2,274.5 mi) 89h 59' 06" + 7' 37" 4 19

Multiple winners[edit]

Multiple winners of the Tour de France general classification
Cyclist Total Years
 Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong (USA)[B] 7 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005
 Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) 5 1957, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964
 Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) 5 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974
 Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault (FRA) 5 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1985
 Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain (ESP) 5 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
 Thys, PhilippePhilippe Thys (BEL) 3 1913, 1914, 1920
 Bobet, LouisonLouison Bobet (FRA) 3 1953, 1954, 1955
 LeMond, GregGreg LeMond (USA) 3 1986, 1989, 1990
 Petit-Breton, LucienLucien Petit-Breton (FRA) 2 1907, 1908
 Lambot, FirminFirmin Lambot (BEL) 2 1919, 1922
 Bottecchia, OttavioOttavio Bottecchia (ITA) 2 1924, 1925
 Frantz, NicolasNicolas Frantz (LUX) 2 1927, 1928
 Leducq, AndréAndré Leducq (FRA) 2 1930, 1932
 Magne, AntoninAntonin Magne (FRA) 2 1931, 1934
 Maes, SylvèreSylvère Maes (BEL) 2 1936, 1939
 Bartali, GinoGino Bartali (ITA) 2 1938, 1948
 Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi (ITA) 2 1949, 1952
 Thévenet, BernardBernard Thévenet (FRA) 2 1975, 1977
 Fignon, LaurentLaurent Fignon (FRA) 2 1983, 1984
 Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador (ESP)[D] 2 2007, 2009

By nationality[edit]

Tour de France general classification winners by nationality
Country No. of winning cyclists No. of wins
 France 21 36
 Belgium 10 18
 Spain[D] 7 12
 Italy 7 10
 Luxembourg 4 5
 United States[B][C] 1 3
 Netherlands 2 2
  Switzerland 2 2
 United Kingdom 2 2
 Denmark 1 1
 Germany 1 1
 Ireland 1 1
 Australia 1 1

Footnotes[edit]

A. ^ Bjarne Riis has admitted to doping during the 1996 Tour de France. The organizers of the Tour de France have stated that they no longer consider him to be the winner, although Union Cycliste Internationale has so far refused to change the official status due to the amount of time passed since his win. Jan Ullrich was placed second on the podium in Paris.[24]

B. a b c d e f g h Lance Armstrong was declared winner of seven consecutive tours from 1999 to 2005. However, in October 2012 he was stripped of all titles by the UCI due to the use of performance enhancing drugs. The tour director Christian Prudhomme had previously declared that if this happened, there would be no alternate winners for those years, but this has not yet been made official.[25]

C. a b Floyd Landis was the winner at the podium ceremony in Paris on the last day of the 2006 tour, but subsequently was found to have tested positive for performance enhancing drugs during stage 17 of the race. The United States Anti-Doping Agency found him guilty of using synthetic testosterone during the race and stripped him of his title on 20 September 2007.[26]

D. a b c Alberto Contador was the winner at the podium ceremony in Paris on the last day of the 2010 tour, but subsequently was found to have tested positive for the prohibited substance Clenbuterol on a rest day. The Court of Arbitration for Sport found him guilty of using clenbuterol during the race and stripped him of his title on 6 February 2012.[27]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ FAQ. Union Cycliste Internationale. Retrieved 17 August 2009. 
  2. ^ Dauncey, Hugh; Hare, Geoff (2003). Tour de France: 1903-2003. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7146-5362-4. 
  3. ^ "Armstrong seals seventh Tour win". BBC Sport. 24 July 2005. Retrieved 17 August 2009. 
  4. ^ a b "Armstrong stripped of all seven Tour de France wins by UCI". BBC Sport. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  5. ^ Scholiansky, Christopher (6 July 2009). "Will He? Won't He? Can Armstrong Win Tour de France?". American Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  6. ^ "Stats". Tour de France. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  7. ^ "1903-1914: Pioneers and 'assassins'". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  8. ^ "1930–1939: Adapt to survive". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  9. ^ "1947–1956: Post-war rivalries". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  10. ^ "1957–1966: Anquetil 5–0 Poulidor". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  11. ^ "1967–1977: Tragedy before a Cannibal's feast". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 18 August 2009. 
  12. ^ "1978–1984: The Badger's golden era". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 19 August 2009. 
  13. ^ Armijo, Vic (1999). The complete idiot's guide to cycling. Alpha Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-02-862929-9. 
  14. ^ "1985–1990: American, Irishman and Spaniard". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  15. ^ "1991–1995: Big Mig's masterclass". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
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See also[edit]