List of Turkic dynasties and countries

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The following is an incomplete list of historical dynasties which had Turkic origins or the country they ruled were Turkic-speaking. The list also includes modern countries with significant Turkic populations or with an official Turkic language. The Turkic peoples have established at least 116 states, khaganates, beyliks, emirate, empires, atabegs, hordes, nomadic empires and sultanates in history up to today.[1]

Current states[edit]

Current independent states[edit]

Map of the modern recognized independent Turkic countries.

De facto state[edit]

This republic is recognized only by Turkey and the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan.

Federal subjects of Russia[edit]

Autonomous regions[edit]

Historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties and dynasties with Turkic origin[edit]

Historical confederation of tribes[edit]

Turkic dynasties[edit]



Middle East[edit]

Indian subcontinent[edit]

Persianate or Turko-Persian states[edit]

Some Turko-Persian states were founded in Greater Iran.[27]

Iranian dynasties that have Turkic origins[edit]

Former Republics[edit]

Soviet Republics[edit]

Autonomous Soviet Republics[edit]

Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Çeçen, Anıl. Tarihte Türk Devletleri (in Turkish). Milliyet Kültür Yayınevi. p. 5. 
  2. ^ Demographics of Azerbaijan.
  3. ^ Demographics of Kazakhstan.
  4. ^ Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
  5. ^ Demographics of Turkmenistan
  6. ^ Demographics of Uzbekistan
  7. ^ Recognized only by Turkey and the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan, see Cyprus dispute.
  8. ^ Gagauzia
  9. ^ According to the constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as published in Russian by its Verkhovna Rada, Russian and Crimean Tatar languages enjoy a "protected" (Russian – обеспечивается ... защита) status; every citizen is entitled, at his request (Russian ходатайство), to receive government documents, such as "Passport, Birth certificate and others" in Crimean Tatar. Конституция Автономной Республики Крым
  10. ^ Xinjiang
  11. ^ Xunhua Salar Autonomous County
  12. ^ ed. Veit 2007, p. 61.
  13. ^ Drompp 2005, p 126.
  14. ^ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
  15. ^ Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
  16. ^ a b Grousset, p.127
  17. ^ a b c Paludan, pp.121
  18. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 260.
  19. ^ Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in early 3rd century.
  20. ^ Grousset, p.130
  21. ^ According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
  22. ^ Thackston 1996
  23. ^ Findley 2005
  24. ^ Saunders 1970, p.177
  25. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  26. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  27. ^ Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  28. ^ a b M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  29. ^ Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
  30. ^ Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
  31. ^ K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
  32. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  33. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  34. ^ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  35. ^ Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
  36. ^ Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
  37. ^ Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
  38. ^ Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
  39. ^
  40. ^ Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
  41. ^ Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217

Further reading[edit]