List of Turkic dynasties and countries
The following is an incomplete list of historical dynasties which had Turkic origins or the country they ruled were Turkic-speaking. The list also includes modern countries with significant Turkic populations or with an official Turkic language. The Turkic peoples have established at least 116 states, khaganates, beyliks, empires, nomadic empires and sultanates in history up to today.
- 1 Current states
- 2 Historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties and dynasties with Turkic origin
- 3 Iranian dynasties that have Turkic origins
- 4 Former and defunct Turkic governments
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 Further reading
Current independent states
- Azerbaijan (1991) – 91.6% Azerbaijani, 0.29% Tatar.
- Kazakhstan (1991) – 63.1% Kazakh, 2.9% Uzbek, 1.4% Uyghur, 1.3% Tatar, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijani, 0.1% Kyrgyz.
- Kyrgyzstan (1991) – 70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghur, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakh, 0.6% Tatar, 0.3% Azerbaijani.
- Turkey (1923) - 75.03% Turkish, 1.9% Azerbaijani, 1.1% Turkmen, 0.4% Uzbek, 0.13% Tatar
- Turkmenistan (1991) – 75.6% Turkmen, 9.2% Uzbek, 2.0% Kazakh, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatar
- Uzbekistan (1991) – 71.4% Uzbek, 4.1% Kazakh, 2.4% Tatar, 2.1% Karakalpak, 1% Crimean Tatar, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmen, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijani, 0.2% Uyghur, 0.2% Bashkir.
De facto state
- Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983) – 67.54% Turkish Cypriot, 32.45% Turkish
Federal subjects of Russia
- Turkic nations where Turkic people are a majority
- Bashkortostan (2010) – 29.5% Baskir, 25.4% Tatar, 2.7% Chuvash
- Chuvashia (2010) – 67.7% Chuvash, 2.8% Tatar
- Tatarstan (2010) – 53.2% Tatar, 3.1% Chuvash
- Tuva (2010) – 82% Tuvan, 0.4% Khakas
- Yakutiya (2010) – 49.9% Yakuts, 0.2% Dolgans, 0.9% Tatars
- Turkic nations where Turkic people are a minority
- Altai Republic (2010) – 34.5% Altay, 6.2% Kazakhs
- Karachay-Cherkessia (2010) – 41.0% Karachay, 3.3% Nogai
- Khakassia (2010) – 12.1% Khakas
- Kabardino-Balkaria (2010) – 11.5% Balkar
- Gagauzia in Moldova (2004) – 82.1% Gagauz.
- Crimea in Russia – 12% Crimean Tatar
- Xinjiang in China (2000) – 45.21% Uyghur, 6.74% Kazakh, 0.86% Kyrgyz, 0.066% Uzbek, 0.024% Chinese Tatar.
- Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan – 36% Uzbek, 32% Karakalpak, 25% Kazakh.
- Nakhchivan in Azerbaijan – 99 % Azerbaijani.
- Xunhua Salar Autonomous County in China (2000) – 61.14% Salar.
Historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties and dynasties with Turkic origin
- Dingling | Tiele (鐵勒)
- Toquz Oghuz (九姓乌护) -> Uyghur
- Karluks | Chigil | Yagma
- Oghuz | Sabirs | Xueyantuo | Kangly
- Yenisei Kirghiz (539–1219)
- Turkic Khaganate (552–744) (Göktürks)
- Türgesh (699–766)
- Uyghur Khaganate (744–848)
- Gansu Uyghur Kingdom (848–1036)
- Kingdom of Qocho (856-1335)
- Kimeks (743–1220)
- Oghuz Yabgu State (750–1055)
- Pechenegs (860–1091)
- Kara-Khanid Khanate (840–1212)
- Kipchaks/Cumans (900–1220)
- Anatolian Beyliks (10th–16th century)
- Chagatai Khanate (1225–1687)
- Shaybanids (1428–1599)
- Golden Horde (1240s–1502)
- Yarkent Khanate (1514–1677)
- Khanates of the Caucasus (13th–19th century)
- Avar Khaganate (567–804)
- Khazar Empire (6th–11th century)
- Great Bulgaria (632–668)
- First Bulgarian Empire (Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization; Slavic post-Christianization) (681–1018)
- House of Arpad (in Hungaria around) (855–1301)
- House of Basarab (in Wallachia) (1310–1627)
- Later Tang in China (923–936) (founded by Shato)
- Later Jin in China (936–947) (founded by Shato)
- Later Han in China (947–951) (founded by Shato)
- Tulunids (868–905) (Turko-Arabic-speaking)
- Ikhshidid Dynasty (935–969) (Turko-Arabic-speaking)
- Burid Dynasty (1104–1154) (Turko-Arabic-Persian-speaking)
- Zengid Dynasty (1127–1250) (Turko-Arabic-speaking)
- Rasulids (1228–1455) (Turko-Arabic-speaking)
- Bahri dynasty (1250–1389) (Turko-Arabic-speaking)
- Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) (1250–1517) (Turko-Arabic-speaking)
- Mamluk Dynasty (1206–1290) (Persian-speaking)
- Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320) (Persian-speaking, Turko-Afghan)
- Tughlaq Dynasty (1320–1414) (Persian-speaking)
- Qutb Shahi Dynasty (1518–1687) (Persian-speaking)
- Mughal Empire (1526–1857) (Built and ruled by the Baburid dynasty of Turkicized Mongol origin, with the adoption of the Persian culture and language).
Direct Turkic dynasties
- Ottoman Empire (1299-1923)
- Sufids (1361–1379) (aka Kingdom of Khwarizm)
- Kazan Khanate (1438–1552)
- Crimean Khanate (1441–1783)
- Nogai Horde (1440s–1634)
- Qasim Khanate (1452–1681)
- Kazakh Khanate (1456–1847)
- Astrakhan Khanate (1466–1556)
- Siberia Khanate (1490–1598)
- Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785)
- Khanate of Khiva (1511–1920)
- Khanate of Kokand (1709–1876)
- Emirate of Bukhara (1785–1920)
Persianate or Turko-Persian states
Some Turko-Persian states were founded in Greater Iran.
- Ghaznavid Empire (962–1186) (ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin)
- Great Seljuk Empire (1037–1194) (ruled by a predominantly Persian-speaking clan of originally Oghuz Turkic descent. The majority of the population was Iranian) )
- Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm (1077–1307)
- Khwarezmian Empire (1077–1231/1256) (ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.)
- Timurid Dynasty (1370–1506) (Persianized dynasty of Turko-Mongol origin)
- Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)
- Aq Qoyunlu (1378–1501)
Iranian dynasties that have Turkic origins
- Safavid Dynasty (1501–1736) (Iranian dynasty of Kurdish and Turkic origin)
- Afsharid Dynasty (1736–1796) (Iranian dynasty of Turkic origin)
- Qajar Dynasty (1785–1925) (A Persianized Iranian dynasty of originally Turkic Oghuz descent which ruled Persia).
Former and defunct Turkic governments
- Provisional Government of Western Thrace (1913)
- Crimean People's Republic (1917–1918)
- Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus(1918–1919)
- Republic of Aras (1918–1919)
- Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)
- Turkestan ASSR (1918–1924)
- Bashkir ASSR (1919–1990)
- Bukhara People's Soviet Republic (1920–1924)
- Khorezm People's Soviet Republic (1920–1924)
- Azerbaijan SSR (1920–1991)
- People's Republic of Tannu Tuva (1921–1944)
- Yakut ASSR (1922–1991)
- Uzbek SSR (1924–1991)
- Turkmen SSR (1924–1991)
- Chuvash ASSR (1925–1992)
- Karakalpak ASSR (1932–1992)
- First East Turkestan Republic (1933–1934)
- Kazakh SSR (1936–1991)
- Kyrgyz SSR (1936–1991)
- Hatay State (1938–1939)
- East Turkistan Republic (1944–1949)
- Crimean ASSR (1945–1991)
- Azerbaijan People's Government (1945–1946)
- Tuvan ASSR (1961–1992)
- Turkic peoples
- Turkic languages
- Timeline of the Turks (500–1300)
- Nomadic empire
- Historic states represented in Turkish presidential seal
- Çeçen, Anıl. Tarihte Türk Devletleri (in Turkish). Milliyet Kültür Yayınevi. p. 5.
- Demographics of Azerbaijan.
- Demographics of Kazakhstan.
- Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
- KONDA Research and Consultancy, Social Structure Survey 2006
- Demographics of Turkmenistan
- Demographics of Uzbekistan
- Recognized only by Turkey and the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan, see Cyprus dispute.
- According to the constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as published in Russian by its Verkhovna Rada, Russian and Crimean Tatar languages enjoy a "protected" (Russian – обеспечивается ... защита) status; every citizen is entitled, at his request (Russian ходатайство), to receive government documents, such as "Passport, Birth certificate and others" in Crimean Tatar. Конституция Автономной Республики Крым
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xunhua_Salar_Autonomous_County Xunhua Salar Autonomous County
- Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
- Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
- Grousset, p.127
- Paludan, pp.121
- Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 260.
- Grousset, p.130
- Thackston 1996
- Findley 2005
- Saunders 1970, p.177
- "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
- Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
- Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
- K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
- O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
- M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
- Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
- Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
- Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
- Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
- Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
- Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217
- Cotterell, A., The Imperial Capitals of China: A Dynastic History of the Celestial Empire, 2008, The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-59020-007-0
- Findley, C.V., The Turks in World History, 2005, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6
- Forbes Manz, B., The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane, 2002, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63384-2
- Grousset, R., The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, 1991, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
- Hupchick, D.P., The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism, 2002, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3
- Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- Nicole, D., PhD., Attila and the Huns, 1990, Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-034-X
- Paludan, A., Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China, 1998, Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 978-0-500-05090-3
- Saunders, J.J., The History of the Mongol Conquests, 2001, Routledge & Kegan Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8122-1766-7
- Thackston, W.M., The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, 2002, Modern Library. ISBN 978-0-375-76137-9
- Vásáry, I., Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, 2005, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83756-9