The following is an incomplete list of historical dynasties which were at some time Turkic or the country they ruled were Turkic-speaking and of modern countries with significant Turkic populations or with an official Turkic language. The Turkic peoples have established at least 116 states, khaganates, beyliks, empires, nomadic empires and sultanates in history up to today.
Current states 
Independent states 
Map of the modern recognized independent Turkic countries.
- Azerbaijan (1991) – 91.6% Azerbaijani, 0.29% Tatar.
- Kazakhstan (1991) – 63.1% Kazakh, 2.9% Uzbek, 1.4% Uyghur, 1.3% Tatar, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijani, 0.1% Kyrgyz.
- Kyrgyzstan (1991) – 70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghur, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakh, 0.6% Tatar, 0.3% Azerbaijani.
- Turkey (1923) - 75.03% Turkish, 1.1% Turkmen, 0.4% Uzbek, 1.9% Azerbaijani, 0.13% Tatar
- Turkmenistan (1995) – 75.6% Turkmen, 9.2% Uzbek, 2.0% Kazakh, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatar
- Uzbekistan (1989) – 71.4% Uzbek, 4.1% Kazakh, 2.1% Karakalpak, 2.4% Tatar, 1% Crimean Tatar, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmen, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijani, 0.2% Uyghur, 0.2% Bashkir.
De facto state 
This republic is recognized only by Turkey.
Federal subjects of Russia 
Autonomous regions 
Historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties 
Arabian peninsula 
Indian subcontinent 
Direct Turkic dynasties 
Main article: Turco-Mongol
Persianate or Turko-Persian states 
Some Turko-Persian states were founded in Greater Iran.
Former and defunct Turkic governments 
See also 
- ^ Çeçen, Anıl. Tarihte Türk Devletleri (in Turkish). Milliyet Kültür Yayınevi. p. 5.
- ^ Demographics of Azerbaijan.
- ^ Demographics of Kazakhstan.
- ^ Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
- ^ KONDA Research and Consultancy, Social Structure Survey 2006
- ^ Demographics of Turkmenistan
- ^ Demographics of Uzbekistan
- ^ Recognized only by Turkey, see Cyprus dispute.
- ^ Gagauzia
- ^ According to the constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as published in Russian by its Verkhovna Rada, Russian and Crimean Tatar languages enjoy a "protected" (Russian – обеспечивается ... защита) status; every citizen is entitled, at his request (Russian ходатайство), to receive government documents, such as "Passport, Birth certificate and others" in Crimean Tatar. Конституция Автономной Республики Крым
- ^ Xinjiang
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xunhua_Salar_Autonomous_County Xunhua Salar Autonomous County
- ^ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
- ^ Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
- ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=I-RTt0Q6AcYC&pg=PA116&dq=avars+turkic&hl=en&ei=QOfGTpHnOYrCtAaH6835Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=avars%20turkic&f=false
- ^ a b Grousset, p.127
- ^ a b c Paludan, pp.121
- ^ Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 260.
- ^ Grousset, p.130
- ^ Thackston 1996
- ^ Findley 2005
- ^ Saunders 1970, p.177
- ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- ^ Saunders, p.211
- ^ Saunders, p.97
- ^ Saunders, p.52
- ^ Boris Grekov and Alexander Yakubovski, "The Golden Horde and its Downfall"
- ^ Golden Horde was also known as the Kipchak Khanate. It was established and initially ruled by the Chinggissid Mongols officering a predominantly Turkic army of Kipchak-Kumans, Bulgars, and Oghuz over a predominantly Turkic population. Grousset, R., The Empire of the Steppes, 1970, p.393, Rutgers University Press
- ^ Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- ^ a b M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
- ^ Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
- ^ Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
- ^ K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
- ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
- ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
- ^ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
- ^ Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
- ^ Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217
Further reading 
- Cotterell, A., The Imperial Capitals of China: A Dynastic History of the Celestial Empire, 2008, The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-59020-007-0
- Findley, C.V., The Turks in World History, 2005, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6
- Forbes Manz, B., The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane, 2002, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63384-2
- Grousset, R., The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, 1991, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
- Hupchick, D.P., The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism, 2002, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3
- Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- Nicole, D., PhD., Attila and the Huns, 1990, Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-034-X
- Paludan, A., Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China, 1998, Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 978-0-500-05090-3
- Saunders, J.J., The History of the Mongol Conquests, 2001, Routledge & Kegan Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8122-1766-7
- Thackston, W.M., The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, 2002, Modern Library. ISBN 978-0-375-76137-9
- Vásáry, I., Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, 2005, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83756-9