List of Turkic dynasties and countries
The following is an incomplete list of historical dynasties which had Turkic origins or the country they ruled were Turkic-speaking. The list also includes modern countries with significant Turkic populations or with an official Turkic language. The Turkic peoples have established at least 116 states, khaganates, beyliks, empires, atabegs, hordes, nomadic empires and sultanates in history up to today.
- 1 Current states
- 2 Historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties and dynasties with Turkic origin
- 3 Iranian dynasties that have Turkic origins
- 4 Former Republics
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 Further reading
Current independent states
- Azerbaijan (1991) – 91.6% Azerbaijani, 0.29% Tatar.
- Kazakhstan (1991) – 63.1% Kazakh, 2.9% Uzbek, 1.4% Uyghur, 1.3% Tatar, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijani, 0.1% Kyrgyz.
- Kyrgyzstan (1991) – 70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghur, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakh, 0.6% Tatar, 0.3% Azerbaijani.
- Turkey (1923) - 75.03% Turkish, 1.9% Azerbaijani, 1.1% Turkmen, 0.4% Uzbek, 0.13% Tatar
- Turkmenistan (1991) – 75.6% Turkmen, 9.2% Uzbek, 2.0% Kazakh, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatar
- Uzbekistan (1991) – 71.4% Uzbek, 4.1% Kazakh, 2.4% Tatar, 2.1% Karakalpak, 1% Crimean Tatar, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmen, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijani, 0.2% Uyghur, 0.2% Bashkir.
De facto state
- Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983) – 67.54% Turkish Cypriot, 32.45% Turkish
Federal subjects of Russia
- Turkic nations where Turkic people are a majority
- Bashkortostan (2010) – 29.5% Baskir, 25.4% Tatar, 2.7% Chuvash
- Chuvashia (2010) – 67.7% Chuvash, 2.8% Tatar
- Tatarstan (2010) – 53.2% Tatar, 3.1% Chuvash
- Tuva (2010) – 82% Tuvan, 0.4% Khakas
- Yakutiya (2010) – 49.9% Yakuts, 0.2% Dolgans, 0.9% Tatars
- Turkic nations where Turkic people are a minority
- Altai Republic (2010) – 34.5% Altay, 6.2% Kazakhs
- Karachay-Cherkessia (2010) – 41.0% Karachay, 3.3% Nogai
- Khakassia (2010) – 12.1% Khakas
- Kabardino-Balkaria (2010) – 11.5% Balkar
- Gagauzia in Moldova (2004) – 82.1% Gagauz.
- Crimea in Ukraine – 12% Crimean Tatar
- Xinjiang in China (2000) – 45.21% Uyghur, 6.74% Kazakh, 0.86% Kyrgyz, 0.066% Uzbek, 0.024% Chinese Tatar
- Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan – 36% Uzbek, 32% Karakalpak, 25% Kazakh
- Nakhchivan in Azerbaijan – 99% Azerbaijani
- Xunhua Salar Autonomous County in China (2000) – 61.14% Salar
Historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties and dynasties with Turkic origin
Historical confederation of tribes
- Dingling | Tiele (鐵勒)
- Onogurs | Toquz Oghuz (九姓乌护) -> Uyghur
- Karluks | Chigil | Yagma | Basmyl | Utigurs | Kutrigurs
- Oghuz | Sabirs | Bulgars | Shatuo | Kangly | Ashina (clan)
- Wei (Dingling) (388–392)
- Yenisei Kirghiz (539–1219) (Yensei Kirghiz Khagans claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry from Li Ling)
- Turkic Khaganate (552–744) (Göktürks)
- Xueyantuo (628–646)
- Kangar union (659–750)
- Türgesh (699–766)
- Uyghur Khaganate (744–848)
- Gansu Uyghur Kingdom (848–1036)
- Kingdom of Qocho (856-1335)
- Kimeks (743–1220)
- Oghuz Yabgu State (750–1055)
- Pechenegs (860–1091)
- Kara-Khanid Khanate (840–1212)
- Kipchaks/Cumans (900–1220)
- Anatolian Beyliks (10th–16th century)
- Eldiguzids (ca.1135–1225)
- Salghurids (1148–1282)
- Khanates of the Caucasus (13th–19th century)
- Golden Horde (1240s–1502) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Ottoman Empire (1299-1923)
- Sufids (1361–1379) (aka Kingdom of Khwarizm)
- Jagoldai (15th-16th century) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Shaybanids (1428–1599) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Kazan Khanate (1438–1552) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Crimean Khanate (1441–1783) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Nogai Horde (1440s–1634) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Qasim Khanate (1452–1681) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Kazakh Khanate (1456–1847)
- Astrakhan Khanate (1466–1556) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Siberia Khanate (1490–1598) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Khanate of Khiva (1511–1920) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Yarkent Khanate (1514–1677) (Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Budzhak Horde (17th century–18th century)
- Khanate of Kokand (1709–1876)
- Bukey Horde (1801-1845)
- Avar Khaganate (567–804)
- Khazar Empire (6th–11th century)
- Great Bulgaria (632–668)
- First Bulgarian Empire (Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization; Slavic post-Christianization) (681–1018)
- Volga Bulgaria (7th century–1240s)
- House of Arpad (in Hungaria around) (855–1301)
- House of Basarab (in Wallachia) (1310–1627)
- Later Tang in China (923–936) (founded by Shato) (Chinese speaking)
- Later Jin in China (936–947) (founded by Shato) Later Jin founder Shi Jingtang claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry (Chinese speaking)
- Later Han in China (947–951) (founded by Shato) Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors, some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. (Chinese speaking)
- Northern Han in China (951–979) (founded by Shato) See above note on the Later Han's origins, Northern Han was founded by the same family as Later Han. (Chinese speaking)
- Kumul Khanate (1696–1930)
- Tulunids (868–905) (Turkic-Arabic-speaking)
- Ikhshidid Dynasty (935–969) (Turkic-Arabic-speaking)
- Burid Dynasty (1104–1154) (Turkic-Arabic-Persian-speaking)
- Zengid Dynasty (1127–1250) (Turkic-Arabic-speaking)
- Rasulids (1228–1455) (Turkic-Arabic-speaking)
- Bahri dynasty (1250–1389) (Turkic-Arabic-speaking)
- Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) (1250–1517) (Turkic-Arabic-speaking)
- Mamluk Dynasty (1206–1290) (Persian-speaking)
- Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320) (Persian-speaking, Turkic-Afghan origin)
- Tughlaq Dynasty (1320–1414) (Persian-speaking)
- Bidar Sultanate (1489–1619)
- Adil Shahi dynasty(1490–1686)
- Qutb Shahi Dynasty (1518–1687) (Persian-speaking)
- Mughal Empire (1526–1857) (Built and ruled by the Baburid dynasty of Turkic origin, with the adoption of the Persian language in later periods).
- Asaf Jahi Dynasty(1724–1948)
Persianate or Turko-Persian states
Some Turko-Persian states were founded in Greater Iran.
- Ghaznavid Empire (962–1186) (ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin)
- Great Seljuk Empire (1037–1194) (ruled by a predominantly Persian-speaking clan of originally Oghuz Turkic descent. The majority of the population was Iranian)
- Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm (1077–1307)
- Khwarezmian Empire (1077–1231/1256) (ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.)
- Timurid Dynasty (1370–1506) (Persianized dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin)
- Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)
- Aq Qoyunlu (1378–1501)
Iranian dynasties that have Turkic origins
- Safavid Dynasty (1501–1736) (Iranian dynasty of Turkic origin)
- Afsharid Dynasty (1736–1796) (Iranian dynasty of Turkic origin)
- Qajar Dynasty (1785–1925) (A Persianized Iranian dynasty of originally Turkic Oghuz descent which ruled Persia).
- Provisional Government of Western Thrace (1913)
- Crimean People's Republic (1917–1918)
- Idel-Ural State (1917–1918)
- Alash Orda (1917–1920)
- Republic of Aras (1918–1919)
- Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus(1918–1919)
- Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)
- Azadistan (1920)
- People's Republic of Tannu Tuva (1921–1944)
- First East Turkestan Republic (1933–1934)
- Hatay State (1938–1939)
- East Turkistan Republic (1944–1949)
- Azerbaijan People's Government (1945–1946)
- Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (1975–1983)
- Khorezm People's Soviet Republic (1920–1924)
- Bukhara People's Soviet Republic (1920–1924)
- Azerbaijan SSR (1920–1991)
- Uzbek SSR (1924–1991)
- Turkmen SSR (1924–1991)
- Kazakh SSR (1936–1991)
- Kyrgyz SSR (1936–1991)
Autonomous Soviet Republics
- Turkestan ASSR (1918–1924)
- Bashkir ASSR (1919–1990)
- Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (1920–1925)
- Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic(1920–1990)
- Yakut ASSR (1922–1991)
- Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1921-1924)
- Nakhchyvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1921–1990)
- Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic(1925–1936)
- Chuvash ASSR (1925–1992)
- Karakalpak ASSR (1932–1992)
- Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic(1936–1991)
- Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1944–1957)
- Crimean ASSR (1945–1991)
- Tuvan ASSR (1961–1992)
- Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1990-1992)
Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union
- Chuvash Autonomous Oblast (1920–1925)
- Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast (1921–1936)
- Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast (1922-1926)
- Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast (1922-1991)
- Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (1923-1991)
- Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (1924–1936)
- Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast(1925–1932)
- Karachay Autonomous Oblast (1926-1957)
- Khakassian Autonomous Oblast (1930-1992)
- Tuvan Autonomous Oblast (1944–1961)
- Turkic peoples
- Turkic languages
- List of Turkic monarchs
- Timeline of the Turks (500–1300)
- Flag of Turkey
- Emblems of Turkey
- Nomadic empire
- Historic states represented in Turkish presidential seal
- Turkic tribes
- Çeçen, Anıl. Tarihte Türk Devletleri (in Turkish). Milliyet Kültür Yayınevi. p. 5.
- Demographics of Azerbaijan.
- Demographics of Kazakhstan.
- Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
- KONDA Research and Consultancy, Social Structure Survey 2006
- Demographics of Turkmenistan
- Demographics of Uzbekistan
- Recognized only by Turkey and the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan, see Cyprus dispute.
- According to the constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as published in Russian by its Verkhovna Rada, Russian and Crimean Tatar languages enjoy a "protected" (Russian – обеспечивается ... защита) status; every citizen is entitled, at his request (Russian ходатайство), to receive government documents, such as "Passport, Birth certificate and others" in Crimean Tatar. Конституция Автономной Республики Крым
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xunhua_Salar_Autonomous_County Xunhua Salar Autonomous County
- ed. Veit 2007, p. 61.
- Drompp 2005, p 126.
- Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
- Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
- Grousset, p.127
- Paludan, pp.121
- Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 260.
- Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in early 3rd century.
- Grousset, p.130
- According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
- Thackston 1996
- Findley 2005
- Saunders 1970, p.177
- "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
- Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
- Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
- K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
- O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
- M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
- Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
- Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
- Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
- Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
- Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
- Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217
- Cotterell, A., The Imperial Capitals of China: A Dynastic History of the Celestial Empire, 2008, The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-59020-007-0
- Michael Robert Drompp (2005). Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire: a documentary history. Volume 13 of Brill's Inner Asian library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 126. ISBN 9004141294. Retrieved February 2012 8.
- Findley, C.V., The Turks in World History, 2005, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6
- Forbes Manz, B., The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane, 2002, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63384-2
- Grousset, R., The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, 1991, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
- Hupchick, D.P., The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism, 2002, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3
- Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- Nicole, D., PhD., Attila and the Huns, 1990, Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-034-X
- Paludan, A., Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China, 1998, Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 978-0-500-05090-3
- Saunders, J.J., The History of the Mongol Conquests, 2001, Routledge & Kegan Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8122-1766-7
- Thackston, W.M., The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, 2002, Modern Library. ISBN 978-0-375-76137-9
- Vásáry, I., Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, 2005, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83756-9
- Veronika Veit, ed. (2007). The role of women in the Altaic world: Permanent International Altaistic Conference, 44th meeting, Walberberg, 26-31 August 2001. Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3447055375. Retrieved February 2012 8.