List of Turner Prize winners and nominees

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Large building with porticoed entranceway and central dome
Tate Britain: the venue for the Turner Prize except in 2007, 2011 and 2013

The Turner Prize is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist, organised by the Tate Gallery. Named after the painter J. M. W. Turner, it was first presented in 1984, and is one of the United Kingdom's most prestigious,[1][2][3] but controversial, art awards.[4][5][6] Initially, the prize was awarded to the individual who had "made the greatest contribution to art in Britain in the previous twelve months", but it now celebrates "a British artist under fifty for an outstanding exhibition or other presentation of their work in the twelve months preceding".[7] The winner is chosen by a panel of four independent judges invited by the Tate and chaired by the director of Tate Britain. The prize is accompanied by a monetary award of £25,000,[8] although the amount has varied depending on the sponsor. For example, between 2004 and 2007, while sponsored by Gordon's, the total prize fund was £40,000; £25,000 was awarded to the winner and £5,000 to the losing nominees.[7]

A shortlist of finalists is drawn up and usually published about six months before the prize is awarded in November or December each year, although shortlists were not made public in 1988 and 1990; in 1989, a list of seven "commended" artists was published.[7] Controversy surrounded the presentation of the inaugural prize to Malcolm Morley as some critics "questioned his relevance" to art in Britain; he had lived and worked in the United States for the previous 20 years.[9] Since its inception, the prize itself has received considerable criticism.[10] In 2002, after Culture Minister Kim Howells described the Turner Prize as "conceptual bullshit", Prince Charles wrote a letter of support to him, stating "It has contaminated the art establishment for so long".[11] Since 2000, the Stuckists art group have protested against the prize;[12] in 2008, they gave out leaflets with the message "The Turner Prize is Crap", to protest at the lack of figurative paintings amongst the nominees' exhibitions.[13]

Considerable media pressure is applied to nominees and winners of the Turner Prize. The 2003 winner Grayson Perry stated that "Such media storms can be traumatising for someone who has laboured away for years in a studio, making art not news."[14] Some artists, including Sarah Lucas and Julian Opie, have decided not to participate in the event, regarding a nomination as "a poisoned chalice".[15] Stephen Deuchar, Director of Tate Britain suggested "We want the artists to be comfortable with media pressure. We have to shield them".[16]

Several winners of the prize have won other notable awards such as the Venice Biennale, and continue to present their works at various international exhibitions.[17] Winners' reactions to the award range from Damien Hirst's "A media circus to raise money for the Tate and Channel 4" to Jeremy Deller's "It blew me away, people's hunger to see what I'd done".[18] Auction prices for works by previous winners have generally increased.[19] The award has also seen some unexpected results: Tracey Emin's My Bed, was overlooked in 1999 despite drawing large crowds to the Tate.[10][20] The Chapman brothers and Willie Doherty lost out to Grayson Perry in 2003 – Perry accepted the award dressed as a girl while Jake Chapman described "losing the Turner prize to a grown man dressed as a small girl" as his "most embarrassing moment".[21]

Winners and shortlisted artists[edit]

Year Winner Format Nominees Notes
1984 Morley, MalcolmMalcolm Morley[9] Painting Richard Deacon
Gilbert and George
Howard Hodgkin
Richard Long
Inaugural prize winner, awarded £10,000[22]
1985 Hodgkin, HowardHoward Hodgkin[23] Painting, printing Terry Atkinson
Tony Cragg
Ian Hamilton Finlay
Milena Kalinovska
John Walker
1986 Gilbert and George[24] Photomontage Art & Language
Victor Burgin
Derek Jarman
Stephen McKenna
Bill Woodrow
Nicholas Serota, a man wearing a white shirt and a solidly colored tie
Nicholas Serota (pictured), Matthew Collings and Robin Klassnik were all commended. Gilbert and George were nominees in 1984.[25]
1987 Deacon, RichardRichard Deacon[17] Sculpture Patrick Caulfield
Helen Chadwick
Richard Long
Declan McGonagle
Thérèse Oulton
Richard Long was also a nominee in 1984.
1988 Cragg, TonyTony Cragg[26] Sculpture Lucian Freud
Richard Hamilton
Richard Long
David Mach
Boyd Webb
Alison Wilding
Richard Wilson
Richard Long was also a nominee in 1984 and 1987.
1989 Long, RichardRichard Long[27] Sculpture Gillian Ayres
Lucian Freud
Giuseppe Penone
Paula Rego
Sean Scully
Richard Wilson
There was no shortlist, but the losing nominees were "commended". Lucian Freud and Richard Wilson were nominees in 1988.
1990 Prize suspended due to lack of sponsor following the bankruptcy of Drexel Burnham Lambert[27]
1991 Kapoor, AnishAnish Kapoor[28] Sculpture Ian Davenport
Fiona Rae
Rachel Whiteread
Prize was increased to £20,000 with sponsorship from Channel 4[29]
1992 Davey, GrenvilleGrenville Davey[30] Sculpture Damien Hirst
David Tremlett
Alison Wilding
1993 Whiteread, RachelRachel Whiteread[31] Sculpture Hannah Collins
Vong Phaophanit
Sean Scully
First female winner; also won the £40,000 K Foundation art award presented to the "worst artist of the year"[32]
1994 Gormley, AntonyAntony Gormley[33] Sculpture Willie Doherty
Peter Doig
Shirazeh Houshiary
1995 Hirst, DamienDamien Hirst[34] Installation, painting Mona Hatoum
Callum Innes
Mark Wallinger
Damien Hirst, a man wearing glasses with brown rims, and a white shirt with faint vertical stripes
Damien Hirst: his exhibit included a bisected cow and calf in formaldehyde in a vitrine – Mother and Child Divided.[35] He was a nominee in 1992.
1996 Gordon, DouglasDouglas Gordon[36] Video Craigie Horsfield
Gary Hume
Simon Patterson
1997 Wearing, GillianGillian Wearing[37] Video Christine Borland
Angela Bulloch
Cornelia Parker
The first all-female shortlist[38]
1998 Ofili, ChrisChris Ofili[39] Multi-layered painting Tacita Dean
Cathy de Monchaux
Sam Taylor-Wood
1999 McQueen, SteveSteve McQueen[40] Video Tracey Emin
Steven Pippin
Jane and Louise Wilson
Tracey Emin, holding a wine glass filled with a translucent, peach-colored liquid. She is wearing a black top, with a red ribbon attached.
Tracey Emin exhibited her bed, titled My Bed[41]
2000 Tillmans, WolfgangWolfgang Tillmans[42] Photography Glenn Brown
Michael Raedecker
Tomoko Takahashi
Wolfgang Tillmans, a man wearing a checkered shirt. He is looking up, and is holding a pen over a book as if he was going to sign it.
Wolfgang Tillmans is German, but is based in London.[43]
2001 Creed, MartinMartin Creed[44] Installation Richard Billingham
Isaac Julien
Mike Nelson
Award presented to Creed by Madonna[45]
2002 Tyson, KeithKeith Tyson[46] Installation, painting Fiona Banner
Liam Gillick
Catherine Yass
2003 Perry, GraysonGrayson Perry[47] Pottery Jake and Dinos Chapman
Willie Doherty
Anya Gallaccio
Grayson Perry, a man wearing a corduroy jacket who is looking to his right
Grayson Perry, a transvestite, accepted the prize wearing a dress.[48]
2004 Deller, JeremyJeremy Deller[19] Video, installation Kutluğ Ataman
Langlands and Bell
Yinka Shonibare
Prize increased to £25,000; losing nominees awarded £5,000 each
2005 Starling, SimonSimon Starling[49] Installation Darren Almond
Gillian Carnegie
Jim Lambie
2006 Abts, TommaTomma Abts[50] Painting Phil Collins
Mark Titchner
Rebecca Warren
Tomma Abts is German, but works in the UK. The prize was presented by Yoko Ono.[51]
2007 Wallinger, MarkMark Wallinger[52] Installation Nathan Coley
Zarina Bhimji
Mike Nelson
Mark Wallinger (a nominee in 1995) won for State Britain. The award show and ceremony were held in Tate Liverpool, and the prize was sponsored by Milligan.[53]
2008 Leckey, MarkMark Leckey[54][55] Sculpture, film, sound, performance Runa Islam
Goshka Macuga
Cathy Wilkes
No prize sponsor: funded by the Tate[56]
2009 Richard Wright[8] Site-specific painting Enrico David
Roger Hiorns
Lucy Skaer
2010 Susan Philipsz[57] Sound installation Dexter Dalwood
Angela de la Cruz
The Otolith Group (Anjalika Sagar and Kodwo Eshun)[58]
Susan Philipsz is the first sound artist to be nominated and the first to win.[57]
2011 Boyce, MartinMartin Boyce[59] Installation Karla Black
Martin Boyce
Hilary Lloyd
George Shaw[60]
Exhibition at the Baltic Gallery in Gateshead from 21 October 2011 to 8 January 2012[61]
2012 Price, ElizabethElizabeth Price[62] Video Spartacus Chetwynd
Luke Fowler
Paul Noble
2013 Laure Prouvost Installation, collage, film Lynette Yiadom-Boakye
David Shrigley
Laure Prouvost
Tino Sehgal[63]

References[edit]

General
Specific
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