List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones

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States in the U.S. which have significant mineral deposits often create a state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone to promote interest in their natural resources, history, tourism, etc. Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone and/or gemstone, however.

In the chart below, a year which is listed within parentheses represents the year during which that mineral, rock, stone or gemstone was officially adopted as a State symbol or emblem.

Table of minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones[edit]

State Mineral Rock or Stone Gemstone
Alabama[1] hematite-alab
A sparkling, metallic gray chunk of hematite on a blue background.
Hematite (1967)
marble-alab
A chunk of pure white marble lies on a dark background.
Marble (1969)
quartz-alab
Alaska[2] gold-alas   neprhite-alas
Arizona[3] copper-ariz
An irregular piece of native copper on a green background.
Copper[4] (Arizona's nickname is "the Copper State")
  turquoise-ariz
Arkansas[5] quartz-ark bauxite-ark
A slab of bauxite displaying brown orbicular formations which are approximately the size of the one cent coin which lies on top of the slab.
Bauxite (1967)
diamond-ark
California[A][6] gold-cali
An irregularly shaped nugget of native gold ore.
Gold California's nickname is the Golden State
serpentine-cali
A rough chunk of dark green serpentine with lighter veining.
Serpentine (1965)
benitoite
A rough rock showing several intense, dark blue benitoite crystals emerging from white natrolite matrix.
Benitoite (1985)
Colorado[B][7] rhodochrosite-colo
Intense, transparent, strawberry red crystals of rhodochrosite from Colorado's Sweet Home mine.
marble-colo
Large blocks of partially worked white marble lie on the ground at Colorado's Marble Mill site with the National Historical marker in the background.
Yule marble (2004)
aquamarine-colo
A light blue piece of aquamarine cutting rough.
Aquamarine (1971)
Connecticut[8] garnet-conn
A cluster of orange to red almandine garnet crystals.
Almandine Garnet (1977)
brownstone
A 1911 postcard showing a quarrying operation in Portland Connecticut with cliffs of brownstone in the background, rail lines for loading and transporting stone, industrial buildings, rail carts, and other parts of the operation.
Connecticut's nickname is the Brownstone State
 
Delaware[9] sillimanite    
Florida[C][10]   coral-agatized-flor moonstone
A chunk of grayish yellow moonstone which shows fracture lines and a blue glow in some portions.
Moonstone (1970)
Georgia[11] staurolite
Intersecting twinned crystals of brown staurolite forming an abstract sculptural mass.
Staurolite (1976)
  quartz-rose-geor
An oval cabochon of pink quartz
Quartz (1976)
Hawaiʻi     coral-black-hawa
Idaho[13]     garnet-idah
A round cabochon of very dark red garnet which displays a six pointed star effect under intense lighting.
Star garnet (1967)
Illinois[14] fluorite-illi
A cluster of purple fluorite crystals with a few crystals of iron pyrite attached.
Fluorite (1965)
   
Indiana[15]   limestone-indi  
Iowa[16]   quartz-geode
Half of a sliced geode nodule showing the hollow center lined with white and grayish druzy crystals.
quartz Geode (1967)
 
Kansas      
Kentucky[17] coal-kent
A chunk of black coal.
Coal (1998)
agate-kent pearl-kent
Louisiana[18][19] agate-loui
A chunk of agate in grayish and golden colors with the split face showing internal fortification banding along with a black dendritic formation.
Agate (2011)
  oyster-loui
A pile of oyster shells in an oyster bed.
Crassostrea virginica Eastern oyster shell (2011)
Louisiana agate (1976 to 2011)
Maine[20]     tourmaline-main
Maryland[21]     agate-mary
Peach reds and yellows with threadlike mossy and cell-like formations in semi-smooth tumbled agate pebbles.
Patuxent River Stone agate (2004)
Massachusetts[D][22] babingtonite
Shiny black crystals of babingtonite on whitish matrix.
Babingtonite (1971)
puddingstone-roxbury rhodonite-massa
A rough chunk of rhodonite showing white and intense pink crystals.
Rhodonite (1979)
Michigan[23]   coral-petoskey
A polished brown pebble of petoskey stone showing the typically six-sided cellular structure from the fossilized coral.
Petoskey stone fossilized coral (1965)
chlorastrolite
Minnesota[24]     agate-minne
Mississippi[25]   petrified-wood-miss  
Missouri[26] galena
Gray crystals of galena clustered on a gray matrix.
Galena (1967) Missouri's nickname is the Lead State
mozarkite
A slice of mozarkite with the face showing a swirling pattern of cream, pinks and yellows.
Mozarkite (1967)
 
Montana[27]     sapphire-mont
A custom shield cut sapphire from Rock Creek, Montana in deep blue with a slight green undertone or zoning.
Montana Sapphire
and
A cloudy translucent white polished shield-shaped cabochon of Montana moss agate with puffy black dendrites arranged around a central area of golden fortifications.
Montana Agate
Nebraska[28]   agate-nebr
Tumble polished translucent agate pebbles showing gold, red and white colors.
Prairie agate (1967)
agate-nebr
A chunk of seam agate with the split face showing fortification banding in gray, blue and white colors.
Blue agate (1967)
Nevada[29] silver-neva
An irregularly shaped specimen of native silver ore.
Silver Nevada's nickname is the Silver State
sandstone-neva
A rough chunk of sandstone with the face showing layering in shades of brown, black and white.
Sandstone (1987)
opal-neva
A freeform cabochon of black Virgin Valley wood replacement opal with red, blue and green fire showing against the dark base opal.
Precious Gemstone: Black fire opal

Three rough chunks of raw turquoise in brown matrix are at the top of the picture, below which are a range of thirteen finished cabochons showing showing various colors ranging from green to light turquoise blue, and a range of spiderweb matrix ranging from none to light yellow to deep brown.
Semiprecious Gemstone: Turquoise
New Hampshire[30] beryl-newh
A yellowish white beryl crystal.
Beryl (1985)
granite-newh
The Old Man of the Mountain granite formation in New Hampshire's White Mountains.
Granite (1985) New Hampshire's nickname is the Granite State
quartz-newh
A cluster of transparent and light brown quartz crystals.
Smoky quartz (1985)
New Jersey[31]      
New Mexico[32]     turquoise-newm
A polished, freeform cabochon of turquoise blue with brown dots of matrix inclusions.
Turquoise (1967)
New York[33]     garnet-newy
A round, faceted garnet gemstone in deep red with orange undertones.
Garnet (1967)
North Carolina[34] gold-alas
An irregularly shaped nugget of native gold.
Gold (2011)
granite-northc
The polished face of a granite slab showing an even pattern of white, greenish and black crystals.
Granite (1979)
emerald-northc
Translucent green emerald crystals in a cream-colored matrix.
Emerald (1973)
North Dakota[35]      
Ohio[36]     flint
A freeform cabochon of Ohio flint with a pattern of cream and ochre bands and a bluish black pattern at one end.
Ohio flint (1965)
Oklahoma[37]   barite  
Oregon[E][38]   agate-oreg
A sliced thunderegg with the polished face showing a water level pattern in clear, blue and white chalcedony bands.
Thunderegg agate (1965)
labradorite
Four faceted gemstones in various cuts showing some of the Oregon labradorite colors, including dichroic red green, red and yellow bicolor, clear with copper shiller streaking, and teal blue-green.
Oregon sunstone labradorite (1987)
Pennsylvania[39]      
Rhode Island[40] serpentine-rhod
The face of a polished slab of bowenite serpentine with a wavy pattern in colors ranging from intense jade green to yellows.
Bowenite serpentine (1966)
cumberlandite
Two rough chunks of cumberlandite showing reddish brown coloring with a few whitish streaks.
 
South Carolina[41]   granite-southc
A closeup of the polished face of a slab of granite showing grains of white, bluish gray and black.
Blue granite (1969)
amethyst-southc
A cluster of light purple to violet amethyst crystals.
Amethyst (1969)
South Dakota[42] quartz-southd   agate-southd
A group of tumble polished agates showing banding in red, orange and white with crystal interiors.
Fairburn agate (1966)
Tennessee[43] agate-tenn
A round cabochon of Tennessee paint rock showing clear holding agate, white banding and a red mossy formation.
Agate (2009)
limestone-tenn
Closup view of an unpolished, gray limestone slab showing fossil shell and other inclusions.
Limestone (from 1979 to present)
and formerly
A round cabochon of Tennessee paint rock showing clear holding agate, white banding and a red mossy formation.
Tennessee Agate (from 1969 until 2009)
pearl-tenn
Texas[44] silver-texa
An irregularly shaped specimen of native silver ore.
Precious Metal: Silver (2007)
petrified-wood-texa topaz-texa
A light blue chunk of topaz cutting rough.
Gemstone: Texas blue topaz (1969)

A line drawing showing the five-pointed star feature in the pavilion of the Lone Star gemstone cut.
Gem Cut: "Lone Star Cut" (1977)
Utah[45] copper-utah
An irregular piece of native copper on a green background.
Copper (1994)
coal-utal
A chunk of black coal.
Coal (1991)
topaz-utah
A terminated raw, golden topaz crystal.
Topaz (1969)
Vermont[46] talc granite-verm
A buff-colored boulder of granite.
Granite (1992)
and
The white marble state capitol building in Montpelier.
Marble (1992)
and
An unpolished, irregular slab of gray slate.
Slate (1992)
garnet-verm
Virginia[47]      
Washington[48]     petrified-wood-wash
West Virginia[F][49]   coal-westv coral-westv
A polished slab showing the cellular structure from the fossilized coral.
Mississippian Lithostrotionella fossil coral (1990)
Wisconsin[51] galena
Gray crystals of galena clustered on a gray matrix.
Galena (1971)
granite-wisc
A rough chunk of granite showing grains of red, pink, white, gray and black.
Red granite (1971)
 
Wyoming[52]     neprite-wyom

See also[edit]

Endnotes[edit]

  1. ^ California in 1965 became the first state to name an official state rock. A 2010 effort led by State Senator Gloria J. Romero, a Democrat from Los Angeles, sought to remove serpentine from its perch as the state's official stone. Organizations such as the Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization have supported the move as the olive green rock is a source of chrysotile, a form of asbestos that can cause mesothelioma and other forms of cancer. Geologists have rallied to oppose the bill, arguing that there is no way to be harmed from casual exposure to serpentine.[53] The bill did not reach a final vote and died in committee at the end of August 2010. In 1986, California named benitoite as its state gemstone, a form of the mineral barium titanium silicate that is unique to the Golden State and only found in gem quality in San Benito County.[54]
  2. ^ Colorado is the only state whose geological symbols reflect the national flag's colors: red (rhodochrosite), white (yule marble), and blue (aquamarine).
  3. ^ Florida's State Gem, moonstone was adopted to highlight Florida's role in the United States' Lunar program which first landed astronauts on the Moon.[55]
  4. ^ Massachusetts has 3 official state rocks: State Historical Rock (Plymouth Rock), State Explorer Rock (Dighton Rock), and State Building and Monument Stone (Granite).
  5. ^ A measure passed the Oregon Senate in March 1965 naming the thunderegg as Oregon's state rock, in a move that was supported as a way to stimulate tourism in the state. The thunderegg, a nodule-like geological structure, similar to a geode, that is formed within a rhyolitic lava flow, were said by the Native Americans of Warm Springs to have been created by thunder spirits that lived in the craters of Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson.[56][57]
  6. ^ In 2009, West Virginia named bituminous coal as its official state rock, in a resolution that noted that the coal industry plays an "integral part of the economic and social fabric of the state". West Virginia joined Kentucky and Utah which also recognize coal as a state mineral or rock. The drive to name coal as an official state symbol was initiated by a high school student from Wharncliffe, West Virginia, who initiated her project at a school fair and collected 2,500 signatures on a petition that was submitted to legislators.[58]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alabama Emblems". Alabama Emblems, Symbols and Honors. Alabama Department of Archives & History. 2001-07-12. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  2. ^ "State of Alaska". Alaska Symbols. State of Alaska. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  3. ^ "State of Arizona Secretary of State". Arizona Symbols. State of Arizona. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  4. ^ Blair, Gerry. 2008. Rockhounding Arizona, A Guide to 75 of the State's Best Rockhounding Sites. Giulford, Connecticut: Morris Book Publishing, LLC, p. xii. ISBN 978-0-7627-4449-7
  5. ^ "State of Arkansas Secretary of State". Arkansas Symbols. State of Arkansas. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  6. ^ "State of California Symbols". California Symbols. State of California. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  7. ^ "State of Colorado Symbols". Colorado Symbols. State of Colorado. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  8. ^ "State of Connecticut – Sites, Seals and Symbols". State of Connecticut. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  9. ^ "Delaware Facts and Symbols". State of Delaware. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  10. ^ "State of Florida Symbols". Florida Symbols. State of Florida. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  11. ^ "Georgia State Symbols". Georgia Secretary of State Archives. State of Georgia. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  12. ^ Grigg, Richard W. (1993). "Precious Coral Fisheries of Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Islands". Marine Fisheries Review (Seattle, Washington: National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA) 55 (2): 54. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  13. ^ "Idaho Symbols". State of Idaho. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  14. ^ "Illinois Facts – Symbols". State of Illinois. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  15. ^ "IHB: Emblems and Symbols". State of Indiana. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  16. ^ "Iowa General Assembly – Iowa State Symbols". State of Iowa. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  17. ^ "Kentucky State Symbols". State of Kentucky. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  18. ^ "RS 49:163.1 State Mineral". State of Louisiana. Retrieved 2012-06-12. 
  19. ^ "RS 49:163 State Gem". State of Louisiana. Retrieved 2012-06-12. 
  20. ^ "Maine Symbols". State of Maine. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  21. ^ "Maryland Symbols". State of Maryland. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  22. ^ "Massachusetts Symbols". State of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  23. ^ "Michigan's State Symbols". State of Michigan. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  24. ^ "Minnesota Symbols". State of Minnesota. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  25. ^ "State of Mississippi Symbols". State of Mississippi. Retrieved 2010-11-01. 
  26. ^ "Office of the Secretary of State, Missouri – State Symbols". State of Missouri. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  27. ^ "State Gem, Montana Code Annotated section 1-1-501". Montana Legislature. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Nebraska Symbols". State of Nebraska. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  29. ^ "Nevada Symbols". State of Nevada. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  30. ^ "Fast New Hampshire Facts". State of New Hampshire. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  31. ^ "Official Symbols of the State of New Jersey". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  32. ^ "New Mexico Symbols". State of New Mexico. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  33. ^ "New York State Information". State of New York. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  34. ^ "The State Symbols". State of North Carolina. Retrieved 2011-07-11. 
  35. ^ "State Symbols". State of North Dakota. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  36. ^ "Ohio Symbols". State of Ohio. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  37. ^ "Oklahoma State Icons". State of Oklahoma. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  38. ^ "Oregon Symbols". State of Oregon. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  39. ^ "Rocks and Minerals". Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  40. ^ "Facts and History". State of Rhode Island. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  41. ^ "South Carolina Symbols". State of South Carolina. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  42. ^ "South Dakota Symbols". State of South Dakota. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  43. ^ "Tennessee Symbols". State of Tennessee. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  44. ^ "Texas Symbols". State of Texas. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  45. ^ "Utah Symbols". State of Utah. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  46. ^ "Vermont Emblems". State of Vermont. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  47. ^ "Virginia General Assembly Capitol Classroom". State of Virginia. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  48. ^ "Washington Symbols". State of Washington. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  49. ^ "State Facts". State of West Virginia. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  50. ^ "West Virginia House Concurrent Resolution No. 37, signed into law June 2009". State of West Virginia. Retrieved 2010-02-18. 
  51. ^ "Wisconsin State Symbols". State of Wisconsin. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  52. ^ "Wyoming Emblems". State of Wyoming. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  53. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer. "California May Drop Rock, and Geologists Feel the Pain", The New York Times, July 13, 2010. Accessed July 13, 2010.
  54. ^ Hartigan, Elizabeth. "CALIFORNIA FINDS ITSELF A REAL GEM", Chicago Tribune, March 12, 1986. Accessed July 13, 2010.
  55. ^ "State Symbols". Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources. 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  56. ^ via United Press International. "Senate Votes Thunderegg State Rock", Eugene Register-Guard, March 6, 1965. Accessed July 13, 2010.
  57. ^ via Associated Press. "House Approves State Rock", Eugene Register-Guard, March 26, 1965. Accessed July 13, 2010.
  58. ^ O'Caroll, Eoin. "West Virginia names coal as its official state rock", The Christian Science Monitor, June 12, 2009. Accessed July 13, 2010.

External links[edit]