List of U.S. state partition proposals
Article IV of the United States Constitution provides for the creation of new states of the Union, requiring that any such creation be approved by the legislature of the affected state(s), as well as the United States Congress.
Since the adoption of the U.S. Constitution, four states have been created from parts of an existing state: Maine (from Massachusetts), West Virginia (from Virginia), Kentucky (also from Virginia), and Vermont (from the disputed territory between New York and New Hampshire; Vermont had operated as a more or less independent republic for fourteen years prior to statehood). In the case of West Virginia, it formed itself as the legitimate government of Virginia within the Union, then gave itself permission to leave Virginia to avoid annexation by the Confederacy. Many other state secession attempts resulted from internal divisions over the formation of the Confederate States of America.
Since the creation of West Virginia in 1863, no state has been successfully created from an existing one. However, some territories in the West were divided into smaller territories prior to statehood, even after the Civil War.
- 1 Alaska
- 2 Arizona
- 3 California
- 4 Colorado
- 5 Connecticut
- 6 Delaware
- 7 Florida
- 8 Georgia
- 9 Illinois
- 10 Kansas
- 11 Maine
- 12 Maryland
- 13 Massachusetts
- 14 Michigan
- 15 Minnesota
- 16 Missouri
- 17 Montana
- 18 Nebraska
- 19 Nevada
- 20 New Hampshire
- 21 New Jersey
- 22 New Mexico
- 23 New York
- 24 North Carolina
- 25 Ohio
- 26 Oklahoma
- 27 Oregon
- 28 Pennsylvania
- 29 Rhode Island
- 30 Texas
- 31 Utah
- 32 Vermont
- 33 Virginia
- 34 Washington
- 35 Wisconsin
- 36 Wyoming
- 37 Confederacy-related proposals
- 38 See also
- 39 References
- 40 External links
- In 1923, some people in the Southeastern Division of the Territory of Alaska, headquartered at Juneau, openly agitated for the complete separation from Alaska and statehood. This was in response to comments made by President Warren G. Harding on his visit to the region.
- Baja Arizona
In February 2011, Tucson politicians and activists formed the group "Start our State", seeking for Pima County and other southern counties to secede from Arizona. The idea was previously discussed for a long time but this was the first serious push. The group hoped to have the proposal on the ballot in 2012, but were rejected by the County Board of Supervisors due to lack of authority and would have to rely instead on the initiative method.
Long time political tension had existed between Pima and the Phoenix-based political conservative establishment. The division widened in the two years before the attempt to secede was made under Republican Governor Jan Brewer and her allies pushing what Democrats see as extreme illegal immigration crackdowns. Furthermore, the state has passed laws affecting Tucson elections and how the city bids for public works projects. A historical precedent exists in the fact that the southern portion, south of the Gila River, of Arizona was acquired in the Gadsden Purchase six years (1854) after the acquisition of the rest of the state in 1848 in the Mexican-American War settlement.
Pima County, by itself, is larger in area than seven states including Rhode Island, Connecticut and Delaware, and has a population greater than seven states including Montana, Vermont, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming.
- In the mid-1930s, the Walsenburg World-Independent proposed that Huerfano County secede from the state. This was a pet project of Sam T. Taylor, sports editor, who went on to become a long-serving state senator where he also unsuccessfully pushed the idea.
- On June 6, 2013 Commissioners in Weld County, Colorado announced a proposal to leave Colorado and form the state of North Colorado citing concerns with state policy and recently enacted legislation relating to the region’s main economic drivers, including agriculture and energy. Commissioners stated they would hold public meetings to gather input before crafting a ballot initiative by August 1, and that the proposal had preliminary interest from fellow commissioners in Morgan, Logan, Sedgwick, Phillips, Washington, Yuma and Kit Carson counties.
Up until 1786, Connecticut enforced a claim to land in Pennsylvania, extending into the Wyoming Valley, that had been granted to the state in its colonial charter. Connecticut formed one county in this territory called Westmoreland County, distinct from present-day Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, and encouraged settlement by inhabitants of the state. Between 1752 and 1782, there were a series of armed conflicts between Pennsylvanians and the Connecticut settlers, until Congress declared the area to be part of Pennsylvania. In response to the ruling in their favor, Pennsylvania annulled the voting and land rights of the Connecticut settlers and drove them out. In late 1784, the ousted settlers returned in force, overtook Fort Dickinson, and seceded the county from both states as the State of Westmoreland. To avoid civil war, Pennsylvania reversed itself in 1786 and granted Pennsylvania citizenship and property titles to the settlers, and Westmoreland agreed to be subsumed into Pennsylvania as Luzerne County.
Prior to the American Revolution, the three counties of Delaware were known as the Lower Counties on the Delaware River, part of the Province of Pennsylvania but with a separate tax structure and court system. In 1776, after being granted "independence" from control by Pennsylvania, Delaware declared independence from Great Britain as an outright state.
Politicians in the South Florida metropolitan area have made numerous proposals to split Florida into two states—North Florida and South Florida. They argue that southern Florida is politically and culturally distinct from northern Florida, and that not enough tax money goes to the Miami area. They also argue that politicians in Tallahassee ignore southern Florida. If South Florida became the 51st state, it would be made up of 4 counties: Palm Beach, Broward, Miami-Dade, and Monroe.
An attempt was made in 2008 to split Florida into North Florida and South Florida, but that proposal failed. However, as recently as 2011 proposals were still being made to split Florida in half,:
"We'd have Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach and Miami. They'd have Orlando, Tampa and Jacksonville. We'd have Donald Trump. They'd have Donald Duck. We'd have the Keys. They'd have the Redneck Riviera. We'd have Big Sugar. They'd have Big Citrus. We'd have the Dolphins and the Hurricanes. They'd have the Gators and the 'Noles. We'd have the Everglades. They'd have Busch Gardens. We'd have casinos. They'd have school prayer. We'd have same-sex marriages. They'd have the defense-of-marriage act."
- Dade County, in the northwest corner, had no roads connecting it to the rest of Georgia until 1939; the only way to access Dade County was through either Alabama or Tennessee. In the days leading to the Civil War a local politician decided to cause Dade County to secede from the state of Georgia, and thus the Union, rather than wait for Georgia itself to secede. This created the Independent State of Dade. In 1939, when the state of Georgia purchased land that would become Cloudland Canyon State Park, the State of Dade finally connected to Georgia. In 1945 the State of Dade passed a resolution "officially" rejoining Georgia and the Union over 80 years after the end of the Civil War. The area is still known today as the State of Dade.
- In January 2008, columnist Bill Shipp wrote an editorial urging the creation of two Georgian states. This proposal in the article was largely attributed to a severe drought and concerns over infringement of the water rights of citizens in southern Georgia by politicians and officials from the Metro Atlanta area and North Georgia.
- In 1861, the southern region of Illinois, known as Little Egypt, made a proposal to secede from the rest of Illinois due to cultural and political differences from Chicago and much of Central and Northern Illinois.
- In 1925, Cook County, which contains Chicago, considered seceding from Illinois as a new state named Chicago.
- In the early 1970s residents of Forgottonia in western Illinois protested what they felt was a lack of concern for its needs, sparking a secession proposal.
- A proposal was introduced in November 2011 by State Representatives Bill Mitchell and Adam Brown similar to that of the 1925 bill to make Cook County a state of its own. The representatives felt that all of Illinois outside of Cook County should become a separate state due to Chicago "dictating its views" to the rest of the state. This proposed policy put into words a decades-old political and cultural struggle between Chicago and near-in suburbs and the rest of Illinois. This animosity increased immediately following the 2010 election for Governor in Illinois, in which only four of Illinois' 102 counties voted for Democratic incumbent Pat Quinn. Quinn carried only these four counties, one of which was Cook, which is largely considered to be the main reason Quinn won the election.
- In 1992, a group in southwestern Kansas advocated the secession of a number of counties in that region from the state. The group was nominally headed by Don O. Concannon, a lawyer and former gubernatorial candidate from Hugoton. Various media reports indicated as few as five or as many as two dozen counties were involved in the movement. The state was to be called "West Kansas", and early meetings included proposals for official state bird (the pheasant) and state flower (the yucca). The proposal stemmed from state laws raising the state property tax and shifting state education funding away from rural school districts and into more urban areas. Though organizers arranged for a series of straw polls that demonstrated widespread support for secession in at least nine of the counties, the movement died out by the mid-1990s.
Maine was initially part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Its boundary with British North America (now Canada) was in dispute for several decades; John Baker unilaterally declared the disputed territory (now part of Aroostook County) to be the "Republic of Madawaska" in 1827, an action that led to the Aroostook War and eventually being settled (and the unrecognized "Republic" dissolved) by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty in 1842.
Politicians of Aroostook County have proposed spinning off the county as a new state since the 1990s. As recently as 2005 the question has been brought up before the state legislature. Proposed names for this state include Aroostook, Acadia, and North Maine.
- Three times in the Maryland General Assembly legislators have submitted a bill for the 9 Eastern Shore counties of Maryland to secede from the state and combine with the three counties of the State of Delaware to the northeast and the two Virginia counties to the south to form the state of Delmarva. The most recent was in 1998.
- In September 2009, Frederick County Commissioner John L. Thompson Jr. proposed that the County should secede from Maryland. The proposal failed, with Thompson being the only Commissioner to vote in favor of secession.
- In 2014, it was reported that some residents want western Maryland to form a new state. Possible names for such a proposed state include Liberty, Antietam, and Augusta.
- Maine, which is not connected to Massachusetts by land, was separated from it as a new state in 1820, as one of the provisions of the Missouri Compromise.
- During the abolitionism era some supporters of William Lloyd Garrison sought the secession of Essex County from the state.
- In 1977, the islands of Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and the Elizabeth Islands proposed their official separation from Massachusetts, due to a redistricting bill that would have deprived Dukes County, consisting of Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands, and Nantucket of separate representation in the General Court. At local town meetings, large majorities of residents voted for secession; this culminated in the All-Island Selectmen’s Association Conference, which also voted for secession, possibly even from the United States. In addition, the Nantucket state representative filed a secession bill with the Massachusetts Legislature, to which the Governor of Connecticut suggested that the islands join his state, the New Hampshire House of Representatives and the Rhode Island Senate each passed resolutions welcoming the islands to join their states, and the Governor of Vermont and the Vermont General Assembly also supported annexation to their states. Following the resultant publicity, local state representatives promised to assign aides to the two counties, which seemed to placate the islands.
- As part of the most geographically divided of the contiguous states, Michigan's Upper Peninsula has a distinct regional identity. A few have called for the Upper Peninsula, possibly along with portions of Wisconsin, to become a new State, possibly named "Superior", after Lake Superior, or to secede from the United States.
- On several occasions after the Missouri Compromise of 1820 it was proposed that, if certain territories were to enter the Union as slave states (e.g. Kansas Territory), the Upper Peninsula of Michigan would enter the Union as a Free State in order to keep a balance in representatives in the Senate.
- On July 13, 1977, the town of Kinney in northern Minnesota announced its secession in hopes of receiving foreign aid from the U.S. government. The new nation was called the Republic of Kinney. The national news story broke on February 7, 1978. Many in the town still claim its independence.
- There has been intermittent advocacy for the Arrowhead of Minnesota, the three northeast counties of the state adjacent to Lake Superior, to join with northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to form a new state to be named "North Country" or Superior, with Duluth as its capital.
- Because of laws restricting fishing, some residents of the tiny Northwest Angle region of the state suggested leaving the United States and joining Canada in 1997. The following year, U.S. Representative Collin Peterson proposed a constitutional amendment that would allow the residents of the Northwest Angle, which is part of his district, to vote on seceding from the United States and joining Canada, angering the leaders of Red Lake Indian Reservation, which holds most of the Northwest Angle's land. The Northwest Angle is not connected by road to the rest of the state, and can only be accessed by land through Manitoba, Canada.
- McDonald County declared itself a territory, the McDonald Territory, for a brief period of time in July 1961.
- In 1939, a brief state secessionist movement proposed the State of Absaroka to be drawn in portions of Montana, with adjacent areas of Wyoming, Nebraska and parts of North and South Dakota. The craze was reflected in state automobile license plates bearing the name; the only "Miss Absaroka" contest, held in that year; and a minor league baseball team called the Absaroka (Rapid City) Eagles.
In the 1890s residents of the Nebraska Panhandle tired of the state government's refusal to enact water laws (like Wyoming had) to encourage irrigation into the area. Area leaders threatened to secede from Nebraska and join Wyoming, which finally prompted the state to enact the desired laws.
With so much disparity between Las Vegas and Nevada's state capital, Carson City, 450 miles (720 km) away, some have proposed splitting Nevada into two or more states. One proposal has northern Nevada linking with northern California, Southern Nevada splitting away with other regional areas, and eastern Nevada becoming part of Utah. There has also been talk of the city of Wendover, Utah merging with West Wendover, Nevada to become Wendover, Nevada, due to tax and economic divides.
New Hampshire's history is dotted with various movements of communities desiring to secede from the state.
- In the 1830s, a portion of New Hampshire called the Republic of Indian Stream declared its independence in protest at being claimed and taxed by both the United States and British Canada. It maintained its own organized, elected government for three years before being occupied by the New Hampshire Militia.
- In 2001, the communities of Newington and Rye considered seceding from the state in response to the enactment of a uniform statewide property tax.
- In 1980 a non-binding referendum proposing secession / splitting the state was passed by several counties in southern New Jersey.
- Between 1970 and 1990, local activists proposed that the southern half of the state become part of Trans-Pecos (West Texas).
- The eastern half of the state, known as Llano Estacado, wanted to join the proposed state of Jefferson/Lincoln (South Plains, Texas Panhandle).
- Long Island residents have discussed becoming a new state, on the grounds that their tax money gets sent to the state, yet the money is not used to fund programs in their counties. These proposals may include the entire island (Kings, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk counties) or the two counties (Nassau and Suffolk) that are outside the realm of New York City (with the possible formation of a third, Peconic, from the eastern portion of Suffolk).
- In the 1990s, former State Senator and U.S. Congressman Randy Kuhl, from rural upstate Hammondsport, advocated splitting the state into "New York" and "West New York" and introduced several bills to that effect during his time in the state senate. State senators Joseph Robach, Dale Volker, and Michael Ranzenhofer, all Republicans from Western New York, proposed a nonbinding referendum to gauge support for dividing the state in November 2009. Fred Smerlas, in discussing a potential platform for a Congressional run from Western New York, stated that he would make the separation of New York City and upstate a top priority: "My first act if I ever got elected would be to take a big saw and cut New York City off." Both factions of the Tea Party movement in the Buffalo region support some form of separation.
New York City
In the New York City mayoral election of 1969, writer Norman Mailer ran in the Democratic Party primary on a ticket with columnist Jimmy Breslin, who ran for City Council President. Part of their joint platform was a proposal that New York City should secede from New York State and become the 51st state. At around the same time, a public-affairs series on the local educational TV station, WNET-TV, channel 13, was called The Fifty-First State.
In 1784, the western counties of Greene, Washington, Sullivan, and part of Hawkins county, all of which were then part of the Washington District, North Carolina, voted to secede from the state. They formed the provisional State of Franklin, with Revolutionary War hero John Sevier elected as governor. By 1789, the provisional government had collapsed.
In 1790, the North Carolina state government, relinquished it to the federal government, creating the Territory South of the River Ohio. Six years later, the territory (including the former counties of Franklin) became the State of Tennessee, with Sevier as governor.
In 2005, James B. McCarthy, the county executive of Summit County, which contains Akron, publicly advocated that his county (and the rest of Northeast Ohio) secede as a new state. Northeastern Ohio has a history of being distinct from the remainder of the state. It was once known as "New Connecticut," and encompassed the Connecticut Western Reserve.
A proposed State of Sequoyah—separate from the Oklahoma Territory—would have consisted of the lands of five Native American tribes (the Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, Choctaw Nation, Creek Nation (or Muskogees), Seminole Nation and Osage County). The creation of the state was proposed to Congress, but rejected in favor of the state of Oklahoma in 1907.
- In 1941 some counties of southwestern Oregon joined counties of Northern California and ceremonially seceded as the State of Jefferson. See also California above.
- Some talk has been made of Eastern Oregon seceding (and perhaps merging) with Eastern Washington were it also to secede from its parent state (see Washington below). In both states distinct political, geographic, and cultural divides exist on either side of the Cascade Mountains. A more formal movement was proposed in 2008.
- In 1787 the residents of the Wyoming Valley attempted to secede from the state as the State of Westmoreland. Before the issue was decided, the state militia was mobilized to put down any attempt to make good on the threat.
- During the era following the American Revolution, there were proposals to split Western Pennsylvania from the rest of the state to form Westsylvania. Western Pennsylvania retains a distinct identity from the rest of the Commonwealth today, having more in common with Ohio, West Virginia, Western New York, and Western Maryland than the eastern side of the state.
- In 1984, angered over the state's refusal to enact noise pollution laws, the township of New Shoreham, located on Block Island, threatened to secede from the state. Reportedly, both Massachusetts and Connecticut expressed interest in annexing the island. The state compromised, giving the island ability to limit the sale of noisy mopeds.
- While it would not technically constitute secession, under the joint resolution of Congress by which the Republic of Texas was admitted to the Union, it had the right to divide itself into as many as five different states. It is not clear whether this provides any power beyond that already provided by the Constitution. What is clear is that the Texas Legislature would have to approve any proposal to divide the state using this prerogative. There was a significant number of Texans who supported dividing the state in its early decades. They were generally called divisionists.
- In 2002, the United States House of Representatives voted to allow Wendover to leave the state and join Nevada, merging with the city of West Wendover. The opposition of Nevada Senator Harry Reid blocked the bill's consideration in the Senate.
- In 2008, Joint Resolution 6 'Consenting to Creation of New State Within Utah' was proposed by Representative Neal Hendrickson. This resolution called for "the creation of a separate state, consisting of the southern portion of the present state of Utah with a northern boundary stretching east and west across the present state of Utah at the southern border of Utah County". The bill died in committee in March 2008.
The town of Killington has twice voted (March 2004 and March 2005) to secede from Vermont and become part of the state of New Hampshire. Because the town is not adjacent to the New Hampshire border, this would create an exclave. A similar motion was attempted in Winhall, but was voted down.
- For years, residents and businesses of Northern Virginia have complained that their region, which has about a third of the state's population, sends about half its tax revenues to the State and gets back only 25 cents on the dollar. Some residents argue that Northern Virginia is part of the state in name only, saying that the region is so different from the rest of Virginia, it’s as though the New Jersey suburbs were grafted onto South Carolina. This situation has led some to propose that it should split off into the separate state of Northern Virginia. During the 2008 Presidential Election, John McCain adviser Nancy Pfotenhauer created a minor controversy making a distinction between northern Virginia and “real Virginia,” which she said is the “part of the state that is more Southern in nature...”
- Present-day Washington is divided into Eastern and Western regions by the Cascade Mountains. The original request for the territory omitted much of the east. From as early as 1861, some eastern residents have proposed forming a new state, sometimes in combination with the Idaho Panhandle or other nearby states. Suggested names for such a state include East Washington, Lincoln, and Cascadia.
- When Washington Territory was established, the populated Puget Sound region in the west dominated public affairs. The discovery of gold in present-day northern Idaho enticed settlers eastward. This shift in fortunes was followed by a proposed "Territory of Walla Walla", which was defeated in the territorial legislature in 1861. The gold discovery however did contribute to the 1863 creation of Idaho Territory, establishing Washington's current eastern border.
- By 1864 some residents of northern Idaho called for a new "Territory of Columbia" including parts of Washington east of the Cascades or east of the Columbia River. (The name Columbia was originally proposed for Washington.)
- In 1967, the village of Winneconne seceded from Wisconsin for one day to protest its omission from the new state highway map.
- A culture common to the northern counties of Wisconsin, together with Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northeastern counties of Minnesota that is not shared as strongly with the southern portions of each state has resulted in considerations of forming a state known as Superior. These have not been taken very seriously, as most of the northern counties are dependent on the southern parts of their states for funding.
- In 1939, bits of northern Wyoming, eastern South Dakota, and southeastern Montana felt isolated from their states and the movement for Absaroka statehood. Absaroka was named after the Absaroka Range in the region. The movement went into a frenzy, including Absaroka licence plates and even a Miss Absaroka pagent in 1939. The movement eventually died out when World War II broke out.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2011)|
Upon the secession of Alabama from the United States during the American Civil War, Winston County debated seceding from the state, to become the Republic of Winston, and pledged its alliance with the Union. Today some citizens of the county still refer to it as the Free State of Winston, which drives the local tourist industry.
During the Civil War, five counties, including Madison County and possibly Marion County, voted against secession from the Union at the second Arkansas Secession Convention. When called upon to renege, four counties did, but Madison, represented by Isaac Murphy, later the state's governor under Reconstruction, resisted. Men of his county fought for the North during the war.
Shortly before the Civil War, southern Illinois considered seceding from Illinois and joining the Confederacy; a proposed name for the new state was Little Egypt after the region's local name. However, speeches by Union General John A. Logan, a native of the region, convinced many in the region to remain in the Union.
The Jackson Purchase region of Kentucky was the area of strongest support for the Confederate cause. On May 29, 1861, a group of Southern sympathizers from Kentucky and Tennessee met at the Graves County Courthouse to discuss the possibility of aligning the Purchase with West Tennessee. Some records of the actions taken at that meeting were later lost in a fire, and there remains some dispute over exactly what occurred at that meeting.
On November 20, 1861, representatives from several counties met at Russellville calling themselves "the Convention of the People of Kentucky" (later known as the Russellville Convention) and passed an Ordinance of Secession. It established a Confederate government of Kentucky with its capital in Bowling Green. Although it remained in the Union, Kentucky was represented by a star on the Confederate battle flag and national flag.
- During the Civil War, congressman Frank Blair urged St. Louis to secede from the state if it decided to join the Confederacy.
- Around the same time, Callaway County proposed seceding from Missouri, but with the opposite inclination. Callaway County is sometimes still called "Kingdom of Callaway" and hosts an annual "Kingdom Days" celebration. There is also a city named Kingdom City there.
- In 1861, the hamlet of Town Line voted to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy. The town contributed several troops to the Confederate Army over the course of the war, but there is no evidence that the Confederacy ever officially recognized Town Line as one of its own. During Reconstruction, the status of Town Line was eventually forgotten, but the area still claimed sovereignty. It was eventually discovered in the 1920s that Town Line residents were not paying taxes and still considered themselves "outside the Union." In 1946, after significant media attention, town residents voted to rejoin the union.
- In February 1861, in the early days of the Confederacy, the Southern-sympathetic county of Franklin petitioned the state to allow it to secede and join Alabama which had recently seceded from the Union. By June Tennessee had decided to secede as well, eliminating the reason for Franklin to secede.
- Conversely, the more pro-Union East Tennessee area disapproved of state secession and some proposed seceding from Tennessee to rejoin the Union. Some, however, have characterized this sentiment as mere contrarianism against the sentiment of the western half.
- Scott County in eastern Tennessee did pass a proclamation during the Civil War to secede from Tennessee and form the "Free and Independent State of Scott." In 1986 when it was discovered that this county law was still on the books the proclamation was finally repealed and Scott County actually petitioned the state of Tennessee for readmission even though the secession had never been recognized by either the state or federal governments.
- In the early days of the Confederacy, Lunenburg County grew impatient that the state had not yet seceded from the Union, and threatened to secede from Virginia itself, possibly to join North Carolina.
- After Virginia declared its secession from the U.S. in 1861, its mountainous western half formed the pro-Union Restored Government of Virginia; the Union Congress recognized this as Virginia's legitimate government, with authority to approve its own partition. In 1863, the area was admitted to the Union as the state of West Virginia.
- Two islands on the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula – Chincoteague and Assateague – also sided with the Union, and provided the Union with seafood and a Southern base of operations. Because of its loyalty, the U.S. Navy helped Chincoteague reconstruct its lighthouse after a devastating storm; the lighthouse still stands today.
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- List of active separatist movements in North America
- List of U.S. county secession proposals
- Urban secession
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- "Will Northern Virginia Become the 51st State?", Washingtonian, November 1, 2008, retrieved December 5, 2008
- "McCain aide defines 'real Virginia'", CNN, October 18, 2008, retrieved December 5, 2008
- John M. McClelland Jr. (Summer 1988). "Almost Columbia, Triumphantly Washington". Columbia Magazine 2 (2).
- Edmond S. Meany (1909). History of the State of Washington. Macmillan Company. p. 236.
- "Early Nez Perce County". Idaho State Historical Society. 1963.
- Dade County, Georgia, History, Resources, Links, and Events
- seMissourian.com: Story: Kinder column December 12, 2004
- Tucker, John (January 18, 2011). New York town that belonged to the Confederate States of America.. WGRZ. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- Upper South and Border States' secession
- Secession: The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, Thomas S. Ulen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- West Virginians covet new Ky. home, "Lexington Herald-Leader", Mar 4, 2002
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