List of U.S. state partition proposals

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Article Four of the United States Constitution provides for the creation of new states in the Union, requiring that any such creation be approved by the legislature of the affected state(s), and by the United States Congress.[1] Since the adoption of the U.S. Constitution, four states have been created from parts of an existing state: Maine (from Massachusetts), West Virginia (from Virginia), Kentucky (also from Virginia), and Vermont (from a disputed territory between New York and New Hampshire). Vermont had operated as a more-or-less independent republic for fourteen years prior to statehood at 1791. West Virginia seceded from Virginia during the American Civil War when the latter had joined the Confederacy. Since the creation of West Virginia in 1863, there have been no partitions of existing states into new states.[2]

There have been many proposals to partition existing states so that regions could secede from one state to join another state, or to create a new state. Partitions and secessions were also proposed during the American Civil War so that regions could declare loyalties to the Union or the Confederacy. Proposals to secede from the Union or to create states from territories are not listed.

Arizona Arizona[edit]

  • In February 2011, Tucson politicians and activists formed the group "Start our State," to advocate secession for Pima County and other southern counties to create a state called "Baja Arizona". The group wanted the Pima County Board of Supervisors to put the issue on the 2012 ballot, but it was rejected by the Board due to lack of authority, so the group circulated petitions.[3] Interest in secession grew when Republican Governor Jan Brewer and her allies enacted Arizona SB 1070, regarding illegal immigration.[4] Furthermore, the state had passed laws affecting Tucson elections and how the city bids for public works projects.[5] A historical justification was found in that the northern part of Arizona was ceded to the United States in 1848, but that the southern part of Arizona, south of the Gila River, was acquired by the United States in 1854 with the Gadsden Purchase.

California California[edit]

Colorado Colorado[edit]

  • In the mid-1930s, the Walsenburg World-Independent proposed that Huerfano County secede from the state.[6] This was a pet project of Sam T. Taylor, a sports editor, who went on to become a long-serving state senator,[7] continuing to pursue the idea unsuccessfully.[8]
  • In 1973, nearby Costilla County had expressed interest in seceding from Colorado and joining New Mexico.[9]
  • On June 6, 2013, commissioners in Weld County announced a proposal to secede and to form the state of North Colorado, citing concerns with state policy and recently enacted legislation relating to the region’s main economic drivers, including agriculture and energy. The commissioners stated that they would hold public meetings to gather input before crafting a ballot initiative by August 1, and that the proposal had aroused preliminary interest from fellow commissioners in Morgan, Logan, Sedgwick, Phillips, Washington, Yuma and Kit Carson counties.[10]

Florida Florida[edit]

  • Politicians in the South Florida metropolitan area have made proposals to split Florida into two states - North Florida and South Florida. One such proposal was made in 2008 by the North Lauderdale commissioners.[11] The idea occasionally pops up in later news articles.[2]

    "We'd have Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach and Miami. They'd have Orlando, Tampa and Jacksonville. We'd have Donald Trump. They'd have Donald Duck. We'd have the Keys. They'd have the Redneck Riviera. We'd have Big Sugar. They'd have Big Citrus. We'd have the Dolphins and the Hurricanes. They'd have the Gators and the 'Noles. We'd have the Everglades. They'd have Busch Gardens. We'd have casinos. They'd have school prayer. We'd have same-sex marriages. They'd have the defense-of-marriage act." - Michael Mayo, writer for the Sun-Sentinel[2]

Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia[edit]

  • In the late 1850s, a local politician threatened to have Dade County secede from the state of Georgia if the latter did not leave the Union. The result was that the area was termed "State of Dade". In 1939, when Georgia purchased land that would become Cloudland Canyon State Park, the State of Dade finally had a road connecting them to Georgia (prior to this, they only had roads to Tennessee and Alabama). In 1945, the State of Dade passed a resolution to officially rejoin Georgia.[12]

Illinois Illinois[edit]

  • In 1861, the southern region of Illinois, known as Little Egypt, proposed secession due to cultural and political differences from Chicago and much of Central and Northern Illinois.[13][14]
  • In 1925, Cook County considered secession to create the state of Chicago.[15]
  • In the early 1970s, residents in western Illinois were upset over the allocation of state funds for transportation, prompting a student at Western Illinois University to declare 16 counties the Republic of Forgottonia. Although the declaration was meant to be a joke, the secession idea was picked up by the Western Illinois Regional Council, until State Representative Doug Kane showed that the counties had received funding that was more than what they paid in state taxes.[16]
  • In November 2011, State Representatives Bill Mitchell and Adam Brown introduced a proposal to make Cook County a state of its own. They felt that all of Illinois outside of Cook County should become a separate state, due to Chicago's "dictating its views" to the rest of the state.[17]

Kansas Kansas[edit]

  • In 1992, a group in southwestern Kansas advocated the secession of a number of counties in that region from the state. Nominally headed by Don O. Concannon, a lawyer and former gubernatorial candidate from Hugoton, the group called the new state name "West Kansas", a state bird (pheasant), and a state flower (yucca). The proposal was in reaction to laws raising real estate taxes, and shifting state education funding away from rural school districts and into more urban areas. Though organizers arranged for a series of straw polls that demonstrated widespread support for secession in nine counties,[18] the movement died out by the mid-1990s.[19]

Maine Maine[edit]

  • Maine was initially part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts before being admitted to the Union as a state in 1820. However, its boundary with British North America (now Canada) had been in dispute for several decades. In 1827, John Baker unilaterally declared the disputed territory (now part of Aroostook County) to be the "Republic of Madawaska". The declaration was rejected by Maine in 1831. Following the undeclared Aroostook War in 1838-39, the United States and United Kingdom signed the Webster-Ashburton Treaty on August 9, 1842 to settle the border issue.
  • In 1998 and in 2005, state representative Henry Joy proposed legislation to partition Maine into northern and southern states. He cited concern for the rural northern part being affected by "anti-business policies" and "overzealous environmental safeguards," and related the southern part to an extension of Massachusetts.[20]

Maryland Maryland[edit]

  • In 1998, state legislator Richard F. Colburn proposed to the Maryland General Assembly that a referendum should be held that would allow nine counties representing the Eastern Shore to secede from the state. They would invite counties from Delaware and Virginia to form the state of Delmarva.[21][22][23]
  • In September 2009, Frederick County Commissioner John L. Thompson Jr. proposed that the county should secede from Maryland, on the concern that the county gives more to state government in tax dollars than it receives in services and benefits. The proposal was rejected by the other commissioners in the county.[24]
  • In February 2014, it was reported that residents from Western Maryland have started petitions to form a new state, citing taxes and gun control as issues. Possible names for such a proposed state included Liberty, Antietam, and Augusta.[25]

Massachusetts Massachusetts[edit]

  • Maine, which was physically separate from the rest of Massachusetts, had proposed secession multiple times in the early 19th century, eventually winning approval by Massachusetts in 1819, and a vote by Maine in 1820. The formation of the state of Maine as the 23rd state occurred on March 15, 1820 as one of the provisions of the Missouri Compromise.[26][27][28]
  • During the abolitionist era some supporters of William Lloyd Garrison sought the secession of Essex County from the state.[29]
  • In 1977, the islands of Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and the Elizabeth Islands proposed to separate from Massachusetts because of a redistricting bill that would have deprived Dukes County, consisting of Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands, and Nantucket County of separate representation in the General Court. At local town meetings, culminating in the All-Island Selectmen’s Association Conference, residents and community leaders voted in favor of secession with an "overwhelming majority". When the Nantucket state representative filed a bill with the Massachusetts Legislature, the Governor of Connecticut suggested that the islands join his state, the New Hampshire House of Representatives and the Rhode Island Senate each passed resolutions inviting the islands to join their states, and the Governor of Vermont and the Vermont General Assembly both supported annexation to their state. Although the redistricting bill passed, the state representatives pledged to assign aides for the two counties that would report to their state representative, and the area received much positive publicity.[30][31]

Michigan Michigan[edit]

Minnesota Minnesota[edit]

  • There has been intermittent advocacy for the Arrowhead of Minnesota, the three northeast counties of the state adjacent to Lake Superior, to join with northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to form a new state to be named "North Country" or Superior, with Duluth as its capital.[33][34]

Missouri Missouri[edit]

Montana Montana[edit]

Nebraska Nebraska[edit]

  • In the 1890s, residents of the Nebraska Panhandle threatened secession when the state refused to enact water laws that would encourage irrigation.[40]

New Hampshire New Hampshire[edit]

  • In 2001, the communities of Newington and Rye considered secession in response to the enactment of a uniform statewide property tax.[41][42][43]

New Jersey New Jersey[edit]

New York New York[edit]

Main article: Secession in New York
Proposed map of an independent New York City
  • In the New York City mayoral election of 1969, writer Norman Mailer ran in the Democratic Party primary on a ticket with columnist Jimmy Breslin, who ran for City Council President. Part of their joint platform was a proposal that New York City should secede from New York State and become the 51st state.[44][45] At around the same time, a public-affairs series on the local educational TV station, WNET-TV, channel 13, was called The Fifty-First State.[46]
  • In the 1990s, Randy Kuhl, from rural upstate Hammondsport, had advocated secession by regularly proposing bills to that effect while he was a state senator. His 1999 bill would have New York City, Long Island, Westchester and Rockland Counties become a separate state of New York, while the rest of the counties would be grouped as West New York.[47]
  • From 2007-2009, Long Island residents discussed secession on the grounds that their tax money is not used to fund programs in their counties.[48] Proposals were made for the entire island (Kings, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk counties) and for just the two counties (Nassau and Suffolk).[49][50][51][52][53]
  • State senators Joseph Robach, Dale Volker, and Michael Ranzenhofer, all Republicans from western New York, proposed a nonbinding referendum to gauge support for dividing the state in November 2009.[54]
  • 2010 gubernatorial candidate Carl Paladino's supporters, Rus Thompson and James Ostrowski in the Buffalo region, have supported secession of western New York from New York City and its nearby counties.[55] Fred Smerlas, in discussing a potential platform for a 2010 Congressional run from western New York, stated that he would make the separation of New York City and upstate a top priority: "My first act if I ever got elected would be to take a big saw and cut New York City off."[56]

North Carolina North Carolina[edit]

Ohio Ohio[edit]

Oregon Oregon[edit]

Rhode Island Rhode Island[edit]

  • In 1984, the township of New Shoreham, located on Block Island, threatened to secede because the state had denied them the ability to ban or to control the use of mopeds on the island. Both Massachusetts and Connecticut were reported as having interest in annexing the island. After the town voted to put the issue on the state ballot for June, the Rhode Island government eventually compromised by allowing the island to control the number of mopeds on the island.[59][60]

Texas Texas[edit]

Main article: Texas divisionism
  • Under the joint resolution of Congress, the Republic of Texas joined the Union with the right to partition itself into as many as five states. As a result, Texas "divisionists" would occasionally propose partitioning in its early decades.[61][62]

Utah Utah[edit]

  • In 2002, the United States House of Representatives voted to allow Wendover to leave the state and join Nevada, merging with the city of West Wendover.[63][64] However, Nevada Senator Harry Reid blocked the bill's consideration in the Senate, citing that it would affect the investments of the casinos in the border town.[65]
  • In 2008, state representative Neal Hendrickson proposed Joint Resolution 6 (HJR006): "the creation of a separate state, consisting of the southern portion of the present state of Utah with a northern boundary stretching east and west across the present state of Utah at the southern border of Utah County". [66] The bill did not pass.[67]

Vermont Vermont[edit]

  • In 2004 and 2005, the town of Killington voted to secede from Vermont to join New Hampshire, despite being situated in the center of the state.[68] A similar motion was attempted in Winhall, but was voted down.[69]

Washington (state) Washington[edit]

Wisconsin Wisconsin[edit]

  • On July 21, 1967, the Village of Winneconne seceded to become the Sovereign State of Winneconne in order to protest its omission from the state's highway map. After negotiations restored the village's location, Winneconne rejoined the state.[71] The village has since celebrated the secession with an annual Sovereign State Days event.[72]
  • Portions of the northern counties were included in proposals for the State of Superior.

Wyoming Wyoming[edit]

Confederacy-related proposals[edit]

The following proposals were made following the establishment of the Confederate States of America. Many of the proposals involved regions desiring to change loyalties in the American Civil War.

Alabama Alabama[edit]

  • Winston County considered seceding from the state in order to remain neutral during the Civil War. This led pro-confederate Richard Payne to call them the "Free State of Winston" or the Republic of Winston.[73]

Arkansas Arkansas[edit]

  • Five counties, including Madison County voted against secession from the Union at the second Arkansas Secession Convention. When called upon to renege, four counties did, but Madison, represented by Isaac Murphy, later the state's governor under Reconstruction, resisted. Men of his county fought for the North during the war.[citation needed]

Illinois Illinois[edit]

  • Counties in southern Illinois considered secession to join the Confederacy; a proposed name for the new state was Little Egypt after the region's local name. However, speeches by Union General John A. Logan, a native of the region, convinced many in the region to remain in the Union.

Kentucky Kentucky[edit]

  • On November 20, 1861, Confederate sympathizers, calling themselves the "Convention of the People of Kentucky", met at Russellville to pass an Ordinance of Secession for its regions. This established the Confederate government of Kentucky, which was recognized by the Confederacy. Its capital was Bowling Green.

Missouri Missouri[edit]

Main article: Missouri secession

Missouri was claimed by both the Union and the Confederacy, had two competing state governments, and sent representatives to both the United States Congress and the Confederate Congress.

  • Congressman Frank Blair urged St. Louis to secede from the state if Missouri decided to join the Confederacy.
  • In contrast, Callaway County declared itself the "Kingdom of Callaway", and attempted to secede from the state should it join the Union.[74]

New York New York[edit]

  • In 1861, the town of Town Line voted to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy. Although the town sent soldiers to support the Confederate Army over the course of the war, the Confederacy did not officially recognize Town Line as one of its own. During Reconstruction, the secession of Town Line was eventually forgotten, but in the 1920s, Town Line residents still considered themselves "outside the Union" and were not paying taxes. In 1946, after significant media attention, town residents voted to rejoin the Union.[75]

Tennessee Tennessee[edit]

  • Scott County passed a proclamation to secede from Tennessee and form the "Free and Independent State of Scott" in order to support the Union. When it was discovered in 1986 that this county law was still on the books, the proclamation was finally repealed. The county then petitioned the state of Tennessee for readmission, even though the original secession had not been recognized by the either the state or federal government.[76]

Virginia Virginia[edit]

  • After Virginia declared its secession from the U.S. in 1861, its mountainous western half formed the pro-Union Restored Government of Virginia; the Union Congress recognized this as Virginia's legitimate government, with authority to approve its own partition. In 1863, the area was admitted to the Union as the state of West Virginia.
  • The islands of Chincoteague and Assateague also sided with the Union.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CRS Annotated Constitution - Article IV - Section 3". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  2. ^ a b c Mayo, Michael (May 14, 2011). "Is it time for South Florida to break away from Tallahassee?". Sun-Sentinel. 
  3. ^ Bodfield, Rhonda; Kelly, Andrea (February 5, 2011). "Could Baja Arizona be 51st state in US?". Arizona Daily Star. 
  4. ^ Poole, Brad (May 10, 2011). "Liberals in southern Arizona seek to form new state". Reuters. 
  5. ^ Robbins, Ted (May 9, 2011). "A 51st State? Some In Arizona Want A Split". National Public Radio. Retrieved June 9, 2013. 
  6. ^ Huerfano County: Land of Legend & J. F. Coss at the Wayback Machine (archived May 29, 2005)
  7. ^ Colorado Joint Legislative Library. "Legislator Record for Taylor, Samuel Tesitore". Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  8. ^ Rabson, Diane. "NCAR and UCAR: History in short, Part II". NCAR/UCAR - University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  9. ^ Quillen, Ed (September 1999). "San Luis Valley, 2nd edition, by Virginia McConnell Simmons - Review". Colorado Central Magazine (67): 37. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. 
  10. ^ Romano, Analisa (June 6, 2013). "Weld County commissioners propose formation of new state, North Colorado". The Greeley Tribune. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  11. ^ Huriash, Lisa J. (May 6, 2008). "North Lauderdale wants to split Florida into two states". Sun-Sentinel. 
  12. ^ "Archives of Dade County". Roadside Georgia. Retrieved 2014-09-11. 
  13. ^ Lowry, Thomas Power (1997). "General Logan Can Kiss My Ass - Colonel Frank L. Rhodes". Tarnished eagles: The Court-Martial of Fifty Union Colonels and Lieutenant Colonels. Stackpole Books. p. 61. ISBN 9780811715973. 
  14. ^ "The History of Southern Illinois - The Civil War and Late 19th Century". Egyptian Area Agency on Aging. Archived from the original on 2012-02-23. 
  15. ^ Lupton, John. "June 23–29, 2003". Illinois Political Journal. 
  16. ^ Erwin 2007, p. 51
  17. ^ "2 GOP legislators propose separating Cook County from Illinois". The State Journal-Register. November 22, 2011. 
  18. ^ Overby, Peter (December 1992). "We're outta here!". Common Cause Magazine 18 (4): 23. 
  19. ^ Kauffman, Bill (March 1995). "Smaller Is Beautifuller". The American Enterprise 6 (2). p. 37. Archived from the original on 2007-02-14. 
  20. ^ Carrier, Paul (2005-03-02). "Bill calls for close look at secession". Maine Today. Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. 
  21. ^ Partlow, Joshua (April 18, 2005). "Academic Quest Puts Credibility on Line". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2010. 
  22. ^ Gosier, Chris (February 20, 1998). "Would-be Secessionists Dream Up the State of Delmarva". Capital News Service. 
  23. ^ Lincoln, Taylor (March 5, 1998). "Officials On Both Side Of D.C. Border Shun Retrocession". Capital News Service. 
  24. ^ Stern, Nicholas C. (March 17, 2010). "Commissioners reject proposal to secede from state". The Frederick News-Post. Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
  25. ^ Bubala, Mary. "Some Western Maryland Residents Want To Form Their Own State". CBS Local. Baltimore: CBS Radio. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  26. ^ Woodard, Colin (August 31, 2010). "Parallel 44: Origins of the Mass Effect". The Working Waterfront. 
  27. ^ Woodard, Colin (2004). The Lobster Coast: Rebels, Rusticators and the Forgotten Frontier. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03324-3. 
  28. ^ "Maine History (Statehood)". www.maine.gov. Retrieved April 13, 2008. 
  29. ^ Tuttleton, James W. (February 1994). "The many lives of Frederick Douglass". The New Criterion 12 (6). Archived from the original on 2005-12-17. 
  30. ^ Seccombe, Mike (September–October 2007). "Talkin' About a Revolution". Martha's Vineyard Magazine. 
  31. ^ Regan, Eulalie (ed.). "Statehood". Vineyard Gazette Online. 
  32. ^ "51st State". NBC. http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/program.pl?ID=484742.
  33. ^ "New state convention". Superior Chronicle. August 3, 1858. p. 3. 
  34. ^ "A new state: Ontonagon". The New York Times. April 6, 1858. p. 4. 
  35. ^ Forster, Louis. "MacDonald Territory". Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  36. ^ "Missouri County in "Secession" Move". Oshkosh Daily Northwestern. April 11, 1961. 
  37. ^ Johnson, Kirk (July 24, 2008). "A State That Never Was in Wyoming". The New York Times. 
  38. ^ Florence, Mason; Gierlich, Marisa; Nystrom, Andrew Dean, eds. (2001). Lonely Planet Rocky Mountains: Colorado, Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. p. 413. 
  39. ^ "Series III, Box 4: Artifacts, circa 1917-circa 1939.". Inventory of the H.H. Horton papers, 1897-1960. University of Wyoming. American Heritage Center. 
  40. ^ Manley, Robert, ed. (May 1999). "A Divided Nebraska - from Thinking About The Future". Buffalo Commons Storytelling. Archived from the original on 2006-07-20. 
  41. ^ Daniell, Jere (1976). "The American Republic: 1760-1870 - The Western Rebellion". New Hampshire Profile (Special Issue). The Flow of History. 
  42. ^ "Troublesome Grants" (PDF). New Hampshire Minute Man 16 (1). Derry, New Hampshire, publication-date=March 2004. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. 
  43. ^ "Newington Archives - News 2001 - Courts Divided on Shaheen Statewide Property Tax". Newington official website. Retrieved 2014-09-11. 
  44. ^ Roberts, Sam (November 14, 2007). "Podcast: Remembering Mailer for Mayor". 'City Room weblog. New York Times. 
  45. ^ Breslin, Jimmy (May 5, 1969). "I Run to Win" (PDF). New York. 
  46. ^ "James Day, 89". Current. May 12, 2008. 
  47. ^ Tierney, John (May 24, 1999). "The Big City; The Moochers From Upstate? Cut 'Em Loose". The New York Times. 
  48. ^ Brand, Rick (March 27, 2007). "Long Island: The 51st state?". Newsday. Archived from the original on March 31, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  49. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (September 22, 2007). "What Has the Hamptons, 4 Airports and a Hankering for Independence?". New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2008. 
  50. ^ Goldstein, David (September 22, 2007). "Staking a claim for the .ILI TLD". DomainPulse.com. Retrieved August 10, 2009. 
  51. ^ Haberman, Clyde (April 30, 2009). "Trying Again and Again to Secede". New York Times. Retrieved August 10, 2009. 
  52. ^ Tagliaferro, Linda (May 6, 2009). "Should Long Island Become A State?". About.com. Retrieved August 10, 2009. 
  53. ^ Yashlavsky, Andrey (May 6, 2009). "Разъединенные Штаты Америки (The Disunited States of America)" (in Russian). Московский Комсомолец (Moskovsky Komsomolets). Retrieved August 10, 2009. 
  54. ^ Terreri, Jill (November 28, 2009). "Split New York state? Robach wants to know what counties think". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  55. ^ Barrett, Wayne (October 14, 2010). "How Does Carl Paladino Get the 'Tea Party' Tag After Teabagging the Tea Partiers?". Village Voice. Retrieved January 23, 2012. 
  56. ^ George, Eli (March 30, 2010). "Will former Bill make a run for office?". WIVB-TV. Retrieved 2010-03-30. 
  57. ^ "Secession, anyone?". Brewed Fresh Daily. 2005-02-08. Archived from the original on 2007-11-20. 
  58. ^ Oblander, Terry (May 29, 2007). "Summit Co. executive to step down". Cleveland.com. Advance Digital. 
  59. ^ "Block Islanders ride Great Moped Battle to brink of secession". Providence Journal. 1999-10-31. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. 
  60. ^ Erwin 2007, p. 16-17
  61. ^ Erwin, James L. "Footnotes to History - U to Z - Van Zandt, Free State Of". Footnotes to History. 
  62. ^ "Home - History - American - The Great Divide". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  63. ^ Eddington, Mark (November 23, 2002), "Wendovers' Leaders Will Consider Next Move", Salt Lake Tribune 
  64. ^ Eddington, Mark (November 27, 2002), "Wendovers Press Ahead on Annexation", Salt Lake Tribune 
  65. ^ Burr, Thomas (April 2, 2005), "Reid: Yucca should be junked", Salt Lake Tribune 
  66. ^ "Utah Legislature HJR006". Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  67. ^ "Residents In More Than 30 States File Secession Petitions". The Huffington Post. 2012-11-13. 
  68. ^ "Vermont Town Wants to Secede". WND. January 10, 2004. 
  69. ^ Keese, Susan (March 1, 2005). "Winhall rejects secession, still unhappy with Vermont". Vermont Public Radio. 
  70. ^ John M. McClelland Jr. (Summer 1988). "Almost Columbia, Triumphantly Washington". Columbia Magazine 2 (2). Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. 
  71. ^ "The History of The Sovereign State of Winneconne - Map Makers Napping When They Should Have Been Mapping". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. 
  72. ^ "The History of The Sovereign State of Winneconne - Sue for Peace". Sovereign State of Winneconne website. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  73. ^ Rice, Charles S.,Hard Times: the Civil War in Huntsville and North Alabama, Old Huntsville Press, 1994, pp 142-3
  74. ^ Kinder, Peter; Ehlmann, Steve (December 12, 2004). "Kinder Column 12/12/04". Southeast Missourian. Archived from the original on 2005-01-15. 
  75. ^ Tucker, John (January 18, 2011). "New York town that belonged to the Confederate States of America". WGRZ. Archived from the original on 2011-05-02. 
  76. ^ "Scott County, TN - History - Historical Landmarks: Scott County Veterans Memorial". Scott County, TN. Southern Appalachian Economic Development Partnership. Archived from the original on 2005-02-05. 

External links[edit]