List of U.S. states by incarceration rate
This is a list of U.S. states by incarceration rate according to the United States Department of Justice figures from 2008 and the data list represents imprisonment rates of sentenced prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities. It does not include prisoners in jails.
Incarceration rate by state
Comparison with other countries
The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world at 754 per 100,000 (as of 2009[update]). A report released 28 February 2008, indicates that more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States are in prison. The United States has less than 5% of the world's population and 23% of the world's prison population. In addition to overall incarceration rates, the United States is also leading in rates of female incarceration. In the United States, women make up more than one tenth of the whole prison population. In most countries, the proportion of female inmates to the larger population is closer to one in twenty. Australia is the exception where the rate of female imprisonment increased from 9.2 percent in 1991 to 15.3 percent in 1999.
Comparing other English-speaking developed countries, the incarceration rate of Canada is 117 per 100,000 (as of 2008[update]), England and Wales is 154 per 100,000 (as of 2011[update]), and Australia is 133 per 100,000 (as of 2010[update]). Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 159 per 100,000 (as of 2011[update]), Greece is 102 per 100,000 (as of 2009[update]),and Japan is 59 per 100,000 (as of 2009[update]). Comparing other countries with similar percentages of immigrants, Germany has a rate of 85 per 100,000 (as of 2010[update]), Italy has a rate of 113 per 100,000 (as of 2010[update]), and Saudi Arabia has a rate of 178 per 100,000 (as of 2009[update]).
The incarceration rate of the People's Republic of China varies depending on sources and measures. According to the ICPS, the rate for only sentenced prisoners is 120 per 100,000 (as of 2009[update]) and the rate for prisoners including those in administrative detention and pre-trial detainees is 186 per 100,000 (as of 2009[update]). Su Jiang assessed the incarceration rate for all forms of imprisonment in China at 218 prisoners per 100,000 population. Harry Wu, a U.S.-based human rights activist and ex-Chinese labor camp prisoner, estimates that "in the last 60 years, more than 40–50 million people" were in Chinese labor camps.
In addition, the United States has striking statistics when observing the racial dimension of mass incarceration. According to Michelle Alexander, the United States "imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did at the height of apartheid."
- United States incarceration rate
- Incarceration in the United States
- Racial and ethnic demographics of the United States
- List of countries by incarceration rate
- United States Bureau of Justice Statistics (December 2009). "Prisoners in 2008". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- United States Bureau of Justice Statistics (December 2009). "Prisoners in 2008". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- World Prison Population List. 8th edition. By Roy Walmsley. Published in 2009. International Centre for Prison Studies. School of Law, King's College London.
- Human Development Report 2007/2008 (HDR 2007/2008). For prison population per 100,000 people see Table 27 on page 322 of the full report. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), using data from the World Prison Population List, 7th edition. HDR 2009 does not contain a prison population table.
- International Centre for Prison Studies (18 Mar 2010). "Prison Brief - Highest to Lowest Rates". World Prison Brief. London: King's College London School of Law. Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- "One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008". The Pew Center on the States. 28 February 2008.
- "US & World Population Clock". U.S. Census Bureau.
- Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 43.
- Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 42.
- Jiang, Su. "Measuring Prison Population in China: A Preliminary Observation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Law and Society Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 27 May 2008
- Wu, Harry (1 March 2010). One on One (audio). Interview with Chris Johnstone. Radio Prague. Český rozhlas 7. Prague, Czech Republic. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. p. 7.
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